5.5,7,11,14,22 etc.


   PHI – 0.618,2.618, 0.3819, 1.3819, etc.


   3.14159 – π.

   FSC/ ?- 1.37035999 206.



   Precession & 864.


√3 – 1.732.



   6/5 – 1.2 and 15.552/4 and 162.


   345.6789 etc.



   51.84 / 5184.

   108 /109.2.




         x  1.112    =  400

         x  1.2 (6/5)=  432 (144 x 3)

       (440/360        = 1.2 – See  Octave& Giza/GP 7/11/14/22/28/44).

         x  1.2345   = 444.44 = 4x √123.4          

         x  1.44     =  518.4  = 72²/10.

         x  1.4      =  504   

         x  14       =  5040-see Earth:Moon radius total.

         x  1.5      =  540

         x  1.6      =  576(144 x 4)

         x  2.0=  720(144 x 5)

         x  2.4      =  864   (144 x 6)

         x  3        = 1080

         x  4         = 1440

         x  4.444   = 1600

         x  4.5       =  1620

         x  5.555      = 2000

         360 /200    = 1.8  = 10/5.55

         360 /216          =1.6666 = 10/6

360 x  6    = 2160

360 x  6.66= 2400 (RC)

    [  ie 360 x 2/3 = 360 / 3/2 = 240(0)]

360 x  360          =  129,600                                     

 360  x 517.45    =  186,282 = C.

       (see angle of Great Pyramid= 51.7-51.8°)

* as the King Lists  of Sumer& Babylon stated, as reported by Berossus and Abydenus, the first 10 kings reigned 120 ‘sars’ of 3,600 years each, making 432,000 in total. The Kings  were said to be deities or their hybrid god/human offspring, which accounted for the longevities involved. A Sar was one ‘year’ of the planet Niburu in it’s ellipticalorbit of the Solar system.Hence the Sexagesimal system of 6 x10 x6 x10 and so on.

 Interestingly, the radius of the Sun = 432,000/360= 1200

radius of the earth = 3960 / 360 = 11

radius of the moon  = 1080/ 360 = 3

  So the Sun  : Moon =          400 :1

    Earth: Moon =    11:3 = 3.66:1

Making the sexagesimal system ideal for planetary and celestial measures, ie as a connecting ‘gear-wheel’.

    400 / 1.111                  = 360.0 3600 3600         

    360 x 1.1121121121 = 400.360360360

    360 x 1.23456              = 444.416 (400 x √1.234)

    360:400  =   9:10  =   1 : 1.111   as seen in Square and Circle.

   360  / 1.618  = 222.4 = 2 √123.4 

        / 1.112 (√123.4)= 2(161.8)  = 2(φ)

    / 1.272 (√φ)  = 2(141.5)  = 2√2 

/ 1.414 (√2)   = 254.59   = 2√φ

/ 144           = 2.5 

/ 1.8           = 200

       1.414 / 1.234 = 1.1459

   360/π  = 114.6  /3 = 38.19     

      120/π  = 38.19

    360 x 1.2733 (√φ) /4   =   114.59 7  (= 360/3.14159)

[360 x 1.3703599/4=   123.33 23991]

 360 x 1.54321 = 555.5556  ( 5.555 = 11.111/ 2)

 x 1.543210987654321 = 555.55595555 !

  x 3.456789     = 155.555505   !

      5.555 = ¹⁄₃ of¹⁄₆ (16.66), or ¹/₁₈ of 1(00)

   so 360 x 1.54321 = 100/18.

&   200/ 11 = 18.18 = 100/ 5.5

      100 / 1.54321 = 64.8   (360/5.555 ie 32.4 = 360/11.11)

360  x 1.8 = 648    (ie./2 of 1296 etc)

1.414  x 1.234 / π  = 0.554    =  ¹/₆ / ₃

(√5)  2.236 /4     = 0.5554     

5.236 / 1.618 = 3.236 = 1.618 x 2.  (Egyptian Royal Cubit = 0.5236 metres)

  3600 /8.1 /1.23456790123 = 360.000

 3960 – 360 = 3600

ie 11x 360 = 3960m   Earth’s radius

or 3600 + 360 (10 x 360 + 1 x 360)

      360.11/π x 1.370359= 157.0796 (314.1592 /2)

Resonances; 360 x 360/3 (120) = 43,200  = Sun radius 432,000/ 10

 and height of Gt Pyramid :Earth polar radius (481.4ft : 3947miles = 1:43,290)

            360 x 360/5 (72 ) = 25,920 = Precession cycle

   360 x 360/9 (40 ) = 14,400(see Bible/ City of Heaven re. 144 and 144,000)

               360 x 360/86.4   (4.166 or ¹/₆ /₄)  = 1500

 /81     (4.444)  = 1600

/43.200 (8.33)  = 3000

   /.432,300 (832.7) = 299,792

See Giza 29.979°N& C (299,792km per/second)

And in fact –   432,500 = actual diameter of the Sun


5.5 / 7 / 11 / 14 / 22 / 28 / 44 etc,and

harmonics of these found in squared circle.


The Great Pyramid is based geometrically on theseinner ratios which derive from

harmonics of 22 and 7, ie  π– also√2, √φ, √123.456…  and to the frequencies of the

 A^ octaves in the piano440/220/110/55/27.5 Hz etc.

             14 / 11 x 2.468  =   3.1416

        or 7 /11 x 1.234 = π

100/90 =   160/ 144 = 80/ 72 = 1.111111

            400 / 111.1 = 3.6000360003

             4  / 1.273  = 3.14159

         172.8 / 3.1416 = 55.004172.8 : 144   = 6:5

         144   / 2.618  = 55.003819   3.1416: 2.618 = 6:5  

          1.414 x 1.234 /3.1416  = 0.5554 (x2 = 1.1181)

          3.1416 /1.414 = 2.221777 / 1.234    = 1.800

π/ ₂/    ”       = 1.110888

          360 / 1.6181 = 222.516

                   ” / 4  = 55.63

√π x π = 5.568

          11 x 1.414 = 15.552  / 360 = .0432      !

       [15.552 / 2 = 7.76

   / 3 = 5.184

        5.555 x 7.777 = 43.2 01235

        100/6 (16.665) / 3 = 5.555 (100/18)

        100/ 18 x 7.77*rec = 432.098765432055555

          11 / 14 = 0.7853

          100/39.3 = 2.544529 (100/ 78.6 =1.272 264 = √φ)

           100/ 18= 5.55

100/ 81= 1.2345679 012 (10²/9²)

           100/ 90= 1.11111       (10 /9)

           22.222 : 16.666: 11.111 : 5.5555 = 4:3:2:1 see TREE OF LIFE.

           15.5555 / 11 = 1.4141 = √2

           15.5555 / 1.1111 = 14

            “   / 0.5555 = 28 (see 5.5/11/14/22/28 GP) *

     SEE – kilos:pounds   1:2.2

  stones:pounds  1:14

      11 stone = 70 kilo = 154 pounds

   => imperial weights(& measurements)- the yard/ furlong/

      pint/ gallon / etc.

 28/1.8 = 15.55/ 3 = 5.184                          

πx 11   = 34.56

π /1.818 = 1.728

           864 / 1.111 = 777.6776777




          x 1.11    = 100    (90 x /1.234 = 100)

          x 1.2    = 108   

          x 1.234  = 111.1 = √123.4

          x 1.2733 = 114.59

          x 1.414   = 1.2727  (90 x √2  = √phi)

          x 1.57    = 141.4 = √2

          x 1.6(8/5)= 144

          x 1.7     = 153

          x 1.8     = 162

          x 57.6    = 5184

          x 144     =12,960

          x 0.618   = 55.6 (111.21 /2)

          x 1.618   = 144

          /1.273    = 70.7

     360  /    π     = 114.59

     90  x 1.2733  = 114.59

     90   / 78.53   = 1.146 0588

/ 54     = 1.666 666 [10/6]

      1.414 / 1.234 = 1.1459

   360/π  = 114.6  /3 = 38.19     

  120/π  = 38.19

    369 / 1.609 / 2 = 114.6  674

90  / 32.4 x2   = 5.555

360 / 32.4     = 11.111

360 / 32.4 x4  = 44.44     


Phi – φ

0.618,1.618,2.618 /

0.3819,1.3819 etc.    


  222.4 km = 138.19 295 m

 2.236 – 1.6181 = 0.6179

 2.236 / 1.618  = 1.3819

  1.618/ 2.618  = 0.618

0.618 x 1.618 = 1

  1.618 x 1.618 = 2.618

0.618 x 0.618 = 0.3819

  2.618x 0.3819 = 1

  161.8/ 5.618  = 28.8

  161.8/ 144    = 1.1236 111111

  161.8/ 57.6   = 2.8   -see 7/14 22 28 etc                 

 Sin-¹0.3819 = 22.45

 Tan-¹0.618  = 38.19

 Sin-¹  0.707  = 45°

 Sin-¹0.777  = 51.8°

 Tan-¹ 127.5  = 51.8

 Sin 51.84    = 0.999

  2.618² /     5.554 = 1.234

     ”   / 1.3703599 = 5.00 19

  360/3.14159 = 114.59

               ”    /3    = 38.19

   120 / 3.1416 = 38.19

               38.19 x 1.414 = 54

               38.19 x 3.142 = 120

               38.19/ 1.414  = 27

               141.4/ 5.236  = 27. 0053

   2 / 5.236  = 0.3819

           360/ 3.14159   = 114.59

     90   x 1.2733 = 114.59

   90   / 78.53   = 1.146 0588 

      1.414 / 1.234 = 1.1459

            3.14159/ 6 = 0.5236

            2.6181 / 5 = 0.5236

 ie    π/6 = ERC ; x 5 = 2.618 (φ²)

 so    π is 6/5 (1.2) proportion to φ²

0.38199 x 137.03599 (?)= 52.35 !

 with ERC being common denominator/ basis;

            114.6 x 0.5236  =  60. 00 456

&   6 x 0.5236  =  3.14159

√5 (2.236) + 3 = 5.236 = ERC : 52.36 cm

√5/φ = 2.236/ 1.618 = 1.3819 (!)

114.59 x 2.6181    = 300

          1.1459 x 5.618 / 4 = 1.609 …

             1.728 /3.3 (11 x3) = 0.5236

              57.6  / 11                 =  5.236 (see Vesica units 14.4/ 28.8/43.2/ 57.6 etc)

             1.618 / 5.618           =   0.288

12√2 x2 (ie, 1.059 x2) = 2.118  = [√5 /2 + 1]

π x 365 / 10 = 114.6 68

 114.6 x 1.234  = 1.4141

  114.6 x 1.4141 = 162.0 444

114.6 xπ = 360

141.4 / 5.236 = 27.0053

√0.3819 = 0.618

√123.456   = 111.111

0.618 / 1.618 = 0.3819

2 x 111.8 = 223.6 – √5 (2.236)

(√5/φ) 2.236/ 1.618 = 1.3819 !

61.8 / 0.5555 = 111.2 511

138.19/ 3.618 = 38.19 

       38.19 / 3.618 = 10.555

       10.555/ 3.618 = 3.819

       10.555/ 3.819 = 2(1.3819)

√38.19    = 6.18

        3.618/ 2.618 = 1.3819        

   [138.19/ 4 = 34.5 475]

  [10.555 x 2.22 = 23.456 78 777]

π  / 1.414 = 222.1441

  ie;π  / √2    = 2(√1.23456)

    127.3 /  3    = 38.19

    38.19 x  π    = 120

    144/π / 120= 0.3819 = 6/5 /π

    38.19  x 3.66 = 140

π / 6 = 0.52359 x 5 = 2.618 (φ²)

π / 6/5 =  φ²

    141.4/1.111 = 127.3 = √φ

    141.4/1.234 = 114.59

    127.3 x 3   = 381.9

    ” / 90 = 1.414

” / 1.11 = 114.6

 400/π/1.11 = 114.6

    38.19   x 3    =  114.59 [3 x 1.00]

    38.19   x 3.33 =  127.29 [3 x 1.11]

π x38.19 = 120

    114.59/ 3  =  38.19

    138.19/ 4  =  34.5 475

    138.19/ 8  =  8.637 [~864]

Dihedral angle (angle between two intersecting planes ie in Platonic Solids) is

 138.19 in the Icosahedron, the 20 sided polyhedron. Plato identified it as being

thePlatonic solid which created water…

    1.618 / 5.618 = 0.288 (!)

    1.618 / 3.236 = 0.5 (ie,1.181 + 0.5, x2= 2.236+1)

φ progression;


                4.236  (√5 + 2)

                2.6181 (φ + 1)

               1.6181 φ= (√5 + 1)  (1.1181 + 0.5)




0.6181 (φ – 1)

0.3819 (2 – φ)

0.236  (√5 – 2)


(so in fact any two values add up to the one above; ie  0.3819+ 0.236 = 0.618)

   2.236 / 1.618 = 1.3819

   2.236 / 3.618 = 0.618

√5 (2.236) + 3 = 5.236 = ERC (x10)  .5236 m

φ  x 2   = 3.236

φ² x 2   = 5.236 0615

   1.728/ 3.3(3×1.1) = 0.5236

      or 5.184/9.9     = 0.5236


          3.14159  – π


π² = 9.87 (9.8696044)

π  / 1.6181 x 4 = 7.76 

    4 /  π  = 1.273

    7 /   π  = 2.228

    9 /     π  = 2.864

   123.45/  π =  39.29 = 78.6 /2

   1.111 /  π   = 0.3536 [x2= 0.707] ie.1.414/ 4

  so, 400 x 1.111/  π = √2 (141.41)ie.4.444/π=√2

√2  x 1.11 072 x2 (2.22 144) = π

   or √2  x √1.234    = π/2

   1.62 x2 x1.2345 = 4

  (ie 3.24 x 1.2345    = 4)

π x  1.273= 4                                                       

       1.4141/ 1.1118 = 1.272 00356                  

π    x 365 /10 = 114.6 681

   114.6 x 1.234    = 1.4141

   114.6 x 1.4141  = 162.0 444

   114.6 xπ       = 360

    90x√φ       = 114.6                                        

    360/1.618   = 222.4 = 2(111.2)                                   

√123.4  x  1.414   =  1.5708                   

(or π  /    1.111  =  2(√2)  )                 

π / 1.272  = 2(1.2345)    (π&φ)

π / 1.272  = 2.469                      

π / 1.414  = 2.22  ie.2(√1.234)          

π x 1.414  = 4.44     4(√1.234)       

π x 1.272 /1.618 = 2.46978 = 2(1.2345)

    ie  π x √φ    /  φ = 2(1.2345)                

π/ 1.818 (20/11)= 1.728 = 2x .864                                            


  28/ 1.8 = 15.55

  28/ 22  = 1.272 (√1.618)                                              

14/ 11  =   “

π x φ= 4(√φ)                          

π x π/2 = 4(1.234)                         

π x √φ= 4  [π x 1.273 =4]  

π x √2 = 4.44 288 = 4(√1.234)

  2 x √1.234  x 1.618   =   360                 

       ie.      2.224   x 1.618  =   359.8

(111.2 km = 1° of the earth’s equatorial circumference ie 1/360,

making the total 40,032km. The Sun, Moon and Earth have 4/400/10,000

harmonic ratios occur repeatedly).

π x 22   = 69.11   = 1° of Earth’s Equatorial circumference in miles

π x 11   = 34.56   (1/720 Earth circumference)

π x 38.19= 360/3 = 120

          127.3 x 3   = 381.9  …

π x 51.51= 161.8 2                                                            

                864 / 11 =78.54 (864 / 22 = 39.27)

π /  4  = .7853 98

π/ 0.1370359(α)/ 0.1666 (1/6) = 0.382 088 =0.3819 (to within 0.0001)

π/ 6 = 0.52359 877  ; x5      = 2.61799 = φ²

π/ 6 = ERC x 5 =  φ²

π x 9²⁄₂  = 127.2 345




       369 / 3  = 123

              /3.3 = 111.81 8181 = √5/₂  ie. 2.236/₂

√123.3³ = 1,369. 1297

         123 x 3 = 369

  123.456789 x 3 = 369 + 1.37035999 = 370.370359

 => 3 x .456789  = 1.370359

      369 / 1.609 / 2 = 114.6  674


  Fine Structure Constant (?) Alpha

αˉ¹   = 1/137.035999206 = 0.007 297 352 56


                                  = 0.00 729 735 256 93

                                  = 7.297 352 5693 x 10ˉ³

        123.456789 x3 = 370.370367 = 369 (!) + 1.37036 (!)

         ie.  123 x3 = 369

0.456789 x3 = 1.370367

 3x 123        = 369

     +  3x .4567866 666 = 1.370359998


 Genesis  1.14 – ” let (the stars) be for signs and for seasons and for days and for years”…

 3.14159/2 / 1.370359 = 114.6 26

        360 / 3.14159 = 114.6

        365 x π/10 = 114.6 68

        127.3 /1.111  = 114.6

         (√φ / √1.234= 360/π)

         90x 1.273 = 114.6

        114.6 x 0.54  = 61.81

        114.6 x0.33  = 38.19

        314.159/ 38.19 x 16.6584 = 137.035999

(  100/ 16.6584 = 6. 00 297747)

π / 2 / α = 114.6

        2 / 1.62 = 1.23456789

        2 x 1.62 x 1.234567 = 4

        2 x 1.62 x 1.370359 = 4(√1.234) = 4.44

        1.37035999 / 2.618033  = 0.523431

 ERC  = 0.52359 m   ~0.0001677755 diffce

        1.618033²  x 2    = 5.236 046

        ie   2.618 x 2 = 5.236 0615 [√5 = 2.236]

        1.728/ 3.3(3×1.1) = 0.5236

      or 5.184/9.9        = 0.5236

       365.24 / 1.370359 = 4 x 66.6

     137.0359 / 1.2345 = 111.005

√1.234 x  1.234= 1.370359

     137.0359 x 8 = 1096.2872

“x 9 = 1,234.55

     1.111 x1.111 x1.11021 = 1.37035999

   137.0359 x 1.1181 = 153.219 

(√123.4³ = 1370.795719)

     137.035999/ 1.11= 123.45 58

√1.233738489³ = 1.37035999

     ie  11.1 073781³ = α

  The two  values 10/9(100/90) and 10²/9²(100/81) = 1.111 & 1.23456789.

      – 111.111 / 81. 081695 = 1.37035999 44 (√ ” =9.0045)

    [& 111.111 / 81. 1539   = 1.369 00383     ”  =9.0085]

   [√123.3³ = 1,369. 1297]

    314.159 2653 / 1.370359992 /2 = 114.6  2654  !!

  10090/ 400 x 1.37035999 =  34.56 7

(10090 = Earth diam +Moon Diameter+10m

ie.  2ms per radius/ See -Knight & Butler re significance of 400& Moon and Sun).


   864   and 432.



      x 4 [/2.5] = 3456       

      x 5 [2]    = 4320

      x 6 [1/6]= 5184  

      x 9 [/1.11]= 7777

         /3.3 = 261.81

         /345.6= 2.5

         /360 = 2.4 0

         /5    = 172.8                

         /6    = 144          

         /7    = 123.4

         /8    = 108

         /12   = 72

         /π= 11

         7/8.1= .8642

         /11   = 78.6  / 2 = 39.27[ 78.6 x π =  2(123.4)]

         /14  = 61.7

    864  /16.66=  51.84                

         /111.1=  7.776

         /123.4=  7.00 162 0

         /55.55=  15.55

     8.64/5.5  =  1.5709 (3.1418/2)

        24 883.2 /432 = 57.6

 “        /864 = 28.8  –  See Vesica units.

          7920/55     = 144

/22  =360

/110 = 72 

  864,000/ 7920 = 109. 091 

     ”   /25920 = 33.3333   !!!

   Mass of Sun : Earth = 333,000:1(

   55.55 x 7.777= 432.01235 !!!

 (See Gt Pyramid section for significance of  5.5/7/11/14 etc)

√186 282

               = 431.6039

               + 0.396 (radius of Earth)/10,000

               = 432

               x 1000

               = 432,000 = radius of Sun

     So -1000th the radius of the sun (from ctr to edge)

           minus 10,000th the radius of the earth (from ctr to edge)

           = the Square Root of the Speed of Light !

   55.55 x 7.77 = 431.6235 (!)

     11/4 x π      = 8.639 379

     100/ 115.4  = 86.6%


 Precession and 864


    360   / 12 = 30  = ° per 12th

    25 920/30= 864 = 1/30th of P.= 1/1000 of Sun diameter.

    25920/360= 72  = 1° of P.

    864/ 72  = 12     

    864,000 / 33.33 = 25,920

    864     / 2.4   = 360

    8.64    / 3.3   = 2.6181 

    8.64    / 11    = 0.7854

√25 920 = 160.9 9689

     P / 9 = 2880

     P / 8 = 3240 (=3600/ 1.1111)

     P / 7 = 3702.857

                 ” – 369 = 3 333.8571

        /7.776 = 3333.333

     P / 6 = 4320

     P / 5 = 5184

     P / 4 = 6480

      (Px2 = 51 840)

     P / 3 = 864 0

     P / 2 = 12 960

     P /360 = 72 yrs/

     P / 36 = 720

     720/ π/ 1.4141= 162.0569 369 0

      162 / 5 = 32.4 x  1.370359 = 44.4 (11.1 x4)

 [ 25 920 /99 = 261.81

   25 920 /16 = 1620  ]

   25 920/12   = 2160 (years per house, zodiac)

  864,000/2160= 400  Sun:Moon ratio/size

      ”  /2400 = 360 – SEE GIZA




x 2 = 345.6  

    x 3 = 518.4

                      /1.2 = 144     

                      /2    =   86.4

                      /3    =   57.6

                      /4    =   43.2

                      /5    =   34.56

                      /6  =   28.8

                      /7   =   24.68 = 2(12.34)

                      /8  =   21.6

                      /3.60 =   48

                      17.28  / 5.5004 =   3.14159

                      /1.1121= 155.3817 102

                        /1.2 = 144

                        /1.4 = 123.4

                        /1.5 = 115.2


                    /1.57O8  =110.007

                       /1.6  = 108

                       /2.2  = 78.5

                       /2.222= 77.6777 677

                       /2.4  = 72

                       /2.5  = 69.12

                       /2.7  = 64

                       /3.2  = 54

                       /3.3  = 52.36 (ERC = 0.5235-6″)

                       /4.4  = 39.27                                       


√3      1.732


                 /2   =   0.866

                 /1.2 =   1.44

                 /3   =   57.6 (0.576)

                 /4   =   43.3

                 /6   =   28.86 (0.288)

                 /12  =   14.43




√2.9999 = 1.732

        C =  √2.9979 = 1.731     /4 =0.432

        C =   299,792.458 km/s. =  1 080,000,000 km/h

     /1.6O9 = 186,282 m/s. (1.6093)

√186,624 = 432.

    186 282 x 86.4% = 160,947. 648

   Giza great pyramid  is at – 29.9792°N 31.134°E

    29.9792 – 29.6548°N,91.1406°E(Lhasa) =

0.324 4°N,    91.1406 – 31.1342 =60.0064°E of Giza

              173 Astronomical Units per/day

          C = 670 616 629 m/ph

   = 16 094 079 909 m/ per day

          Milky Way is 100,000 light years across…

         5.8692 trillion miles per light year x 100,000 =  600 million billion miles.

         186 282 m/s /518.4 = 359.34

√5 / 1.2 00365 = 1.86 282 3772


         186 282/ 2 587(5174/2)= 72

                / 2 592 5184/2 = 71.8 68055

         186 282/ 111.81 = 1 666. 0585 (= 10⁴/6)

         186 282/ 120.02 = 1 552

   ”   ”  / 864    = 215.6 (Moon= 2160m)

√186 282 = 431. 20833      (Ht of Gt Pyramid= 431. 4″)

         186 282/ 5235.9(ERC) x Pi = 111.77 (+.04=111.81)

√186 282

               = 431.6039

               + 0.396 (radius of Earth/10,000)

               = 432

               x 1000

               = 432,000 = radius of sun.

      186 282 / 12,000 = 15. 5235 – see E/RC.

          ”  / 12     = 15 52 3.5

      186 282 / 1.37035999 / π = 43,270.

                                See GT PYRAMID 1:43,200of Earth Equator-Pole.

 SEE ALSO SUN radius/diameter actual size – 432,0-600m / 865,000miles& 86.6% in Vesica geometry.


       6/5 (1.2) etc.


            3.14159/ 1.2 = 2.618 (φ+1)= 1.618² (φ²)

            36O /3 = 120  x  1.2  = 144

                     144  x  1.2  = 172.8

                          x 2(1.2)= 345.6 

                  [ 34.56/Pi x*/2 = 15.55 7 ]

                      144 x 3(1.2)= 518.4

 x 4(1.2)= 691.2

x 5(1.2)= 864

x 9(1.2)= 1555.2       

                       “  /550 = 2(√2) =  2.828

               and  7.77 /5.50 = √2  =  1.414

√2 (1.414) x 11 = 15.556

15 552 / 360 = 432

              240 x 1.2   = 288

              360 x 1.2   = 432

              432 x 1.2   = 518.4

              7777x 2     = 15554

         137.0359992 *1.2 = 366.6 077  !!

              3.14159 / 1.2= 1.618²= 2.618

√0.618     = 0.786 12 (see– Squared Circle; π/4)

              Yards : ft = 3.937:1 = 7.874:2

              Inches: cm = 2.54:1= 1.272 x2

              Miles : km = 1: 1.609 ~ 1.61 phi 1.618

       Re Earth/ moon. 3960 + 2160 = 6120m x 2 = 12,240

x π gives circle of Circumference = 38,453 m x1.609 = 61 871 km   





√123.456   =  111.111

           x 1.109992 = 137.03599934 (ie 1.11)

           x  3     =  370.37067

           x  3.60 =  444.444  =  4(√123.4)

           x  1.80=  222.2

           x  3³=  3333.33

           x  3 =  9999.99  = 10

           x  3=  30,000 etc…

           x  3.5   =  432.09

           x  44    =  5432.09

           x  18=  12,960,000

           x  18³    =     720,000

           x  18²=    400 x 360 = 144,000

           x  14    =  1,728

           x  7     =   864

           x  3.5  =   432. 09

           x  51.84 =  6,400.123  ! ! !

           x  7.2   =    888.888

           x  7.777 =    960.1234

           x  8     =  987.654321

           x  8.1   =  999.9936

11/ 0.52359 = 21.00 880 459

     2 / 0.52359 = 3.819 782

x  9     =  1,111.111

√123.456789 = 11.111111 060

  x  19    =  234.56789

           / 0.555  =  222.2 = 2(√123.4)

           / 2      =  61.728

           / 3.14159=  39.29 ( x2 = 78.6)

      123.456789 x3 = 370.370367 

        ie.  123 x3 = 369

0.456789 x3 = 1.370367

 3x 123    = 369

     +  3x .456786666 = 1.370359998 

√1.123 = 1.059 7169

     2x √1.234⁹= 5.151 672118

or2x √1.234³^² = “

       1.23456789⁹  = 6.66 246

   123.456789/ π  = 39.29 75164  (x2 = 78.58) – see squared circle

           circle of 50 diam. = square of 39.27 diameter -> so diameter x Pi gives;

         inside  c. of diameter 39.2975164 has circumference of 123.456789)

 (369)  1111.111/3 = 370.370

370.370– 369= 1.3703 33

                           -36.9= 333.47

                           -3.69= 366.6   …


345.6 789


          /1.2   =  288

          /1.234 =  280

          /2     =  172.8

          /2.4   =  144

          /3     =  115.2

          /4     =  86.4

          /6     =  57.6

 3456.789 /7.777 =  444.4 88

 3456.789/ 7.777 / π= 1.414 8 = √2

 440 / 3.456 = 127.3 14 ie. √φ

 34.56  /11  =  3.1418

   34.56 /22/7 = 0.2244668181

          x 1.5        = 518.4

          x 5/4 (1.25) = 432

      34.56/pi x √2/360= 0.04321 5183 1 !

       34.56   x 2  = 69.12 = 1°

->     34.56 x 2 = 69.12 = 1° of Earth circumference exactly!

      ie 1/720 cmf = 34.56 miles. Also, if divide   69.11 / 1.1181 = 61.81 !

       showingharmonic relationships that existbetween the Circle/Pi, 360°

of sexagesimal system,34.56, √5/2 (1.1181), the Earth, ancient metrology

of the mile and Phi. . .

       From Great Pyramid/squared circle  we know 11 x pi = 34.56 further indicating the

harmonic relationships which underlie many of the values within this subject…

       440/ 3.4567    = 127.2 890

       34.56789 / 28= 1.234567  See Giza/Great Pyramid ratios of 5.5/7/11/14/22/28/44 etc

            ”   /28.8= 1.2= 6/5 – special harmonic inBible/ cosmic #; ie 288 singers and musicians in Temple.

                /14.4= 2.4 (see GIZA/Great Pyramid ERC 2400 etc etc). 

       34.56 /pi        =  11.000 789 666 5

       34.56 /1.1181 x2 = 61.8191

       34.56/π / √2 = 7.779

       34.56/π x √2 /3= 5.185 821

          ” / π x  ”  /2= 7.778 733

       34.56 / 1.370359 x 200 = 5 045.08 (m)Ea/Moon = 5 040m.(3960+1080)

x 400 = 10,090m.  ” diam = 10,080m.

       366 / 345.6 = 1.0594  =  ¹²√2

(ie. difference in frequencybetween each note in standard Octave !)

 69.12 (1° of longitude on the Earth’s Eq/ Circumference)

 /8.64 = 8

        /4.32 = 16

        /28.8 = 2.4

        /28   = 2.468

        /2    = 34.56

        /1.272= 54.321003812 !

      69.1x 2 = 138.2 =  2 – 0.618 (φ)

      69.1/0.618 = 111.81

√5 /1.6181 =6.91 (6.90997)

√5³ = 11.180339887/ 1.6181 x 3600 = 24 874.37 (Equatorial cmf Earth = 24 881 = +6.62ms)

        24 874.37 = 180,000,000 /16181 x √5

=> 18,000 / 1.618 x √5 = 24 876 

      EARTH radius 3960 x 2x Pi = 24 881.41m /360 = 69.11m/degree  

      24 883 /1.37035999 /Pi /4 = 1444. 96792 – see 144.3 Ad Triangulum

      5045 / 3456.789 / 2 = 0.7297 234514 (= FSC 0.729 7352)

        123.45/ 16.666 x 7.777 = 57.6 0 6543261 (14.4 x 4 -‘base’units Ad Tr/ Vesica)

           200 / 162         = 1.2345679012

           222 / 162         = 1.37037 (0.000 0011 difference !)

           360 /π x 2/1.4141   =    162.006 536

           720 /π      /1.4141    =         ”   x    α    =   444.219

√186,282 = 431.60398


        15.55 and GT.PYRAMID


  11 x √2 = 15.556

  11 x π= 34.56 

                   / 15.52 = 2.22

   ie π / √2 = 2.22

      155,520 /360 = 432

/3   = 51,840

     (5184 x 30 = 155 520 /3600 = 432)

     or 51.84 x 3 / 3.60 = 43.2 

       /1.2 = 129,600

         1555.2  /2   = 777.60 (7.776)

         15.552 / 1.414 = 11

         11 x π         = 34.56    / 4 = 8.64

 / 8 = 4.32 x 3.60 = 15.552

       777.7/ 16 x  1.2345 = 60

      15.554 / 1.414 = 11

      1555.2/144 = 10.8

34.56 / 1.234 = 28. 0064

       ” x 1.25  = 43.2

       ” /3     = 115.2


        51.84/ 5184


√5184  = 72.

      /1.2   =  432

      /3     = 1,728

      /3.6  = 1,440

      /1.414 = 366.5

      /1.5706= 3,300

      /1.8   = 2,880

      /2.4   = 2,160

    51.84   x 1.111     = 57.60

 x 1.234…9 = 64

    1/ 1.272 =  0.7861

  60 x 60 x 12 x 1.2 = 51 840

3x4x5 x  4x3x2 x 6² = 51 840. 

        518.4 / √2 = 366.6

√1.234³ ^² x2 = 5.1 51 -62

    777.6 / 518.4 = 1.5 (ie. 3/2)




36O / 108 = 3.333 = 10/3


          157.08 / 1.44 = 109.08333

          137.0359 x 8  = 109.6 (x10)

10 920.8 (km)/ 1.609/ pi = 2160.4 (m)

  ie/ moon diameter x Pi x 1.609 = 10 920 km circmf.ce




 153.22 / 137.035999206 = 1.1181 00359 (!)

 153″ x 12 = 1836′

 153/ 4.006= 38.19 2710933

 153 x 4 = 6120 = 3960+ 2160

 153.6/ 4.444 = 34.56  (see GIZA)

 1697″ / 12 = 141.41 ft


     PYRAMID measurements


135.73″ x 12 = 1628.76′

1628.76 / TT = 518.4 50410=0

135.73  / TT = 43.2 042 00851

153 x π /4 = 120.1

153 x 12 + 6 = 1,842

153.6 /4.444 = 34.56

153 / 4.0057 = 38.19 557

152.78/ 4    = “

 1692 / 12 = 141

 1692 / 137.052 = 12.3456789012

 1696.92 x 12 = 141.4 “ft

 2160 x π /4 = 1696.46

 2160 x π/ 1.414 /4 = 1200

 216O/ 1200 x π /1.414 = 4

 216O/ 2400 x π= 2√2 (2.827)

  431.75 x 12     =5 181

  431.2 x 360= 155 235

  186 282  /1.2 = 155 235

5184      /12= 432

√186 282 = 431.6

That some of these cos# values are in discrete proportions to the measures of the world is a basic tenet, established in antiquity; thus the Equatorial circumference of the world is = 1000 x 360 x 365.24 feet ie 24,902m or 40,068.5km (compared to accepted values of 24,901.4m/40,065.7 km).

One degree of the earth’s circumference  ie 1/360 = 111.2 km, or 69.12 miles,

(which also equals π x 22; so π x 11 = 34.56). Likewise therefore 1/720 of the circumference = 34.56 miles; and 720 = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 (!). This x 7 = the Earth’s + the Moon’s radii added together, ie 3960 + 1080 = 5040; which also equals 7 x 8 x 9 x 10 (!)

Moreover, both miles and feet units are a discrete fraction of the measures of the Earth, something which gives them this added significance in all sacred sites ratios, measurements and distances; but also to time as measured as the number of seconds and hours it takes for the Earth’s full circumference to turn 360 degrees.

And as Michell and Richard Heath explore in their books, the main fractions of the Earth can be expressed by using the first five prime numbers, namely, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 11. All five of which are key numbers within sacred geometry and cosmic#; the first three with their square roots, and 7 and 11 as we have seen prevalent in the Great Pyramid due to being fractions of Pi (22/7), as well as giving us the Law of Seven, and what might be called the ‘eleventh harmonic’.

So the mile is;               = 2⁵ x 3 x 5 x 11 = 5280 feet.

The Earth’s Eq. radius is = 2³ x 3²x 5 x 11 = 3960 miles.

And the Great Pyramid   = 2⁵ x 3  x 5        = 480 feet…

That the length of a mile = 5280 feet, shows that both measures may have been derived originally in Egypt, with regard to the Great Pyramid, and the Pyramid with regard to the proportions of the Earth, as the height of the edifice measured at 480 feet, makes it exactly 1/11 of a mile in height. Likewise the radius of the earth, 3,960 miles / 11 = 360.

The height of the pyramid is also almost exactly 1/43,200 of the polar radius of the earth, which = 3,950m/6,356km. In fact, the closest height obtained of the pyramid is 481.4 feet, which makes it 1/43,323 of the polar radius, very close to the 43.3 % ratio of the height of each half of the vertical axis of the Vesica Piscis, (ie 0.866/2),and the 432,500 mile radius (865,000mile diameter) of the sun. If the number of feet in a mile is divided by 481.4, the result is not actually thus 1/11, but 1/10.9 6.

This, however, is almost as significant a value within astronomic terms as the harmonic of 11 – for the number of earth diameters across the diameter of the sun is 1: 109.25; the number of solar diameter’s across the Earth’s orbit at aphelion is 109.26; the number of sidereal days in 1 lunar orbit is 27.322, which x 4 = 109.2; while the nominally unrelated (to orbital period) ratio of the moon’s diameter to the earth’s is 27.322%, (the orbital period of moon in days) or conversely that of the earth to the moon is 366% ; (the sidereal orbital period of the earth around the sun!); and the size of the Moon circumference in kilometres is 10,920… (all figures re 109.2 from Knight and Butler, op.cit). 

Another example is that the Earth’s polar circumference = 24,883.2 miles – which is exactly 12⁵/10, ie 248,832/ 10…

Similarly reflective of the harmonies of both the planet and the form of measurement, the mean Earth radius (mean distance from centre to surface) can be expressed as 12⁶ x 7 feet (ie. 3,958.7 miles, compared to NASA measurement of 3,959miles…)













 12.5 AB ZU/ SU








  – sino /  sinuous /  sine-wave /SION / SINEW – relates to connecting tissue midpoint between energy & matter.

    sine; serbian = son.

– Old English ‘seonuwe‘, oblique form of ‘sionu‘; from Proto-Germanic/

   Saxon ‘sinewa‘; Old Norse ‘sina‘; Old Frisian ‘sine‘; Middle Dutch’senuwe‘,etc-

   from PIE root  ‘sai-”to tie, bind (source also of Sanskrit ‘snavah‘ 

  ‘sinew‘,’syati‘,’sinati‘ “to bind”; Irish ‘sin‘ “chain”; Hittite ‘ishai‘-“to bind”.  And so on…

           Ligate – lizard/ ligature – tie, bind

           Sphinx – tie, bind, asphyxiate.

”   – ‘lion of the ground’,ie. serpent/lizard.

           ligament – bind,tie,connective tissue.

           sinuous – serpent like, coiling

           sinew   -connective tissue, grasping/coiling energy

           sine wave- coiling line of energy around axis.

 ZION/SION – line from sphinx (sinuous ‘lion of the ground’ and solar symbol) passes solar energies along serpent line through’Sion’ on 30th parallel- along ‘sinew’,in a sine wave,to Sino=China, (land of the dragon, and the sun)

a line which binds the energy fields around the world,in a CHAIN/channel/ significant line of energy… see bible for Pi and therefore spherical geometry related references to ‘serpent’ such as genesis 3.14-15, etc.

Sin / sinai / sinim / sino – connected to Far East and China.. . Isaiah 49.

plus the Babylonian (Moon) god SIN, one of tribe of Anunnaki. . .

Sinai a sacred mountain and region to Hebrew religion, from earliest times onwards…

Probably not – though may be – related to modern word sin, which observers state probably comes from Latin ‘sons’/’sontis’guilty.

[levi/ to join or connect – priesthood/elite – a circular coiled or twisted band (of leaves)(NOBSE*)

-a force of adhesion cf as priests / only tribe of Israel having no land, serve to unite the tribes.

cf. LEVIATHAN/potential link to Ouroboros (?)

Nehushtan (Nahash) – brass/bronze serpent affixed to a pole by Moses. Healing properties/ life-force.


 2.  CAIN  – line of/ –


chain / channel / canal / CHINA

 CHEN / CHAN-SIU / CHANG / ZEN comes from related words meaning chain or ‘line of force’.

Sen in European languages, meaning intelligence, ‘sentience’; related?

cane / cannon / canon /meanings of line or channel.

 CHUNG bell – CHUN stringed instrument –

Gu-Qin/guchin also stringed instrument, where the length of the string or position where note  

is struck determines the tone/ frequency of the note, and it’s harmonics, undertones, timbre etc.

Chun standard length/measure in China.

chain length used in Egypt to measure distances, even miles etc – related?

Chance/ change related?ie as – lines/ chains of events.

Cain means ‘acquire, possess’ which why Eve said ‘I have gotten (qayin) me a man from the Lord’.

Likewise Cain says ‘Am I my brother’s keeper?’… forming as such a ‘pun’ on the meaning of his name.

CHINA from chin (length of chord/channel/ chain of energy/sine wave,sinuous).

– silk reeling = chan siu

  silk = twining (from China)     [sir  = snake, from India]




 connective tissue / energy

Qin,cane,channel etc = lines of energy -channels.

KIN / kind /kine / kinetics /cinema / similar.

In Hebrew – the word for spear is qyn (related to Tubal-Cain/metalworking,and line of Cain.

-these two related etymological groups are actually joined with the use of the word  the

syn-optic gospels – meaning the grouped/related/’like’ gospels, ; as any readerof the Bible

will know, the form and structure and contents of the four gospels areobviously intentionally

very alike…             

This may be connected to the division of the circle into 4 quarters of 90° each.

the ratio of 9:10 (of ‘material reality’) for some reason being important…

As such it is a common practice in religious art to make images/symbols of the circle with

the representative animal; rising eagle; winged lion; winged ox; divine man;  each occupying one quarter /

the four corners of thecircle it might be said.

Gen / genetics –line of hereditary /Gun; channel; –gon angle generated

Gin  / djinn/jinn/ (‘lines of the devil’) genie(ditto = Cain) (cf.Gu-qin/ Gu-chin string inst.). See also the Egyptian word forsnake, dj ie ‘genetic line/chain’. Even engine –means ‘producing’ etcetera.

(Cainites linked to;Kenites– smiths – metalworkers…see copper/technology etymologies.

Chin nah = Chinese‘grasping energy’ in martial arts and Taiji – similar to sinew/sine meanings of coiling energy /lines or channels.’ application of linear energy’.

Qinnah = Syrian for reed/ Hebrew qaneh =   stalk, reed.

King / Queen (line of?) = qa-yin letter (Hebrew)

ZEN – derives from Chinese chan

Sino – prefix meaning ‘chinese’ from 1879 late Latin SinAi.The Chinese, from Ptolemaic Greek Sinai, from Arabic ‘Sin’, is possiblyrelated to Chinese ; Ch’in (4th dynasty of – ).

     ( does the god Sin share any characteristics with Chinese deities?)

links exist between the Sumerian and Chinese people / nations; such as Sumerians are called ‘the black haired people’ in myths, epics etc; both nations have guardian celestial dragons – see mushussu in artworks of Sumer/ Babylon, such as with Ningiszida the fertility deity/ divine gatekeeper (image below, from the Akkadian Seal of Gudea, c.2300Bce). Perhaps also Babylonian mythical creature the sirrush (shown below right, from the Ishtar Gate at Babylon, in tile-work); (also linked to the sea-serpent Tiamatwhich stole the Tablet of Destiny and was pursued and killed by the Babylonian deity Marduk; (image above right, from 1500 Bce)

 -see ‘spire’  – (geometry)–“the part of a spiral generated in one revolution of the straight line about the pole. A spiral. (from 17th c). One of the sinuous foldings of a serpent or other reptile… a coil ”.  (from; etymology.geek)

See – Moses and Nehushtan – serpent fixed upon a pole! – on it’s side resembles asine-wave on axis! Also; Moses introduced the Nehash was revered 2-3centuries,then pulled down by Zedekiah (?) as idolatry. After the Old Testament experiences of Moses, circa 1400 Bce, Christianity started to worship the symbol of the cross in the first century Ad after the crucifixion of Jesus. Jesus talked of his own destiny as the same as Nehash, to be raised up on a pole…  JOHN 3.14/15 (the geometric value of Pi, the transcendent mathematics value).

(left; sine-wave on x and y axis turned vertically! ; the rod of Asclepius denoting medical matters, asshown on ambulance; Moses and the Nahash in the desert; Numbers 21.9)

* The Gu-Qin has been part of Chinese culture/philosophy for at least 3000 years. Depending on the harmonicsof strings touched rather than pressed against a fret, they contain harmonic under/overtones of a sublime level of artistic expression. The craftsmanship by which they have been made through these eras has been of a similar high standard; so much so that a Gu-Qin auctioned  at Sotheby’s New York in 2010 for $22 million, making it the most expensive musical instrument ever.

 In 1975 NASA included an example of Gu Qin playing on its  Golden Voyager Record, a record of mankind’s highest achievements for the discovery of any extra-terrestrial races who might encounter the Voyager spacecraft…

 As Wikipedia succinctly puts it, “The reason to select (this work) is because the tonal structure of this instrument, its musical scale, is derived from fundamental physical laws related to vibration and overtones, representing the intellectual capacity of humans on this subject.”

In like manner the music of the Gu Qin was declared by UNESCO in 2003 to be one of the ‘Masterpieces  of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity”.

Incidentally, the Voyager Golden Record contained a section of pictures detailing pregnancy and foetus growth; in the picture they show the size of the embryo at 30 and 40 days – but define the time in seconds; namely 3,456,000 and 5,184,000 seconds. Acurious appearance of two of the most significant cosmic-# (geometric) values. . .

Sen – sentience etc. Hebrew – asam gather store storehouse close cognate asna – thorn bush (as burning bush; which could be symbolic of  ~ the mind/nervous system, if view the firing / constant activities of the energetic synapses as ‘fire’…

Is cognate with sinewin Swedish/Old German/Scots/Frisian/Dutch/Icelandic senuw etc.

see –sensefrom frankish sinn – Eng/Fr/German/ Latin; sensus to perceive, feel, sense, reason etc.

so sin(e/w), sion,sense etc all have some possible etymological links…   see Sennen Bay at start/end of Michael and Mary line(s) in Cornwall…and Sinodun Fort at phi point of 366 mile line.

Could be link between Su-en version of Sumerian/ Babylonian deity Sin, and also Mount Sinai etc. Linking

the su of Ab-su (the abyss/depths) with the instinctive centres of the brain and body.


4.  LIZARD –


 ligates – ligature  – alligator (1560’s Americas)

              legation – legion – legend (?) –

LACERTES (from Anglo/French,Old French ‘lusard’/’laisarde’

from LT ‘lacert-a/us’ ; lizard

 – lacerate – delegate – allegation -virtually all related to connections and parallels

lacertal; ligature; hunter,muscle,strength,sinew are the language of energy.

– ligament- from LT,a band,bandage,tie,ligature,from ‘ligare‘ ‘to bind, tie’. From PIE *leig to tie,bind,unite…!

see SPHINX/same.

Latin – ligo/ligatus /  Eng ligate – same meanings. connects to sinew also/ connected words – Alley – league – liaison. Etymology.geek

Latin – lego – collect,gather,bring together – related words English/French – legion/ allegiance /religion

Latin – logarithmus –Logos – the ‘word’, meaning can be called the ‘unified blueprint of God’s will’ / or the template from which reality is formed.

muscle – late 14th c,from LT ‘musculus‘ a little mouse !

from Greek also ‘mys‘ both mouse, and muscle.(due to shape of muscles)…

In Middle English ‘lacerte’/’lacertous’,from LT for lizard,was also used as a word for muscle..! ( –

curiously, the instinctive centre, source of vitality and strength,is governed by the reptilian centre of the brain.

Figurative sense of ‘muscle,strength,brawn’ is by 1850; that of ‘forceviolence,threat’,to ‘muscle’, is 1930,American English. Muscle car -‘hot rod’ -is from 1969.

  ENERGY; en + ergon ancient Greek,  in work ; ie activity

                 ”   =   “ ;  organise (Fr/Lt etc)from ancient Greek; ergon – from PIE; wergom – work.


5. NERVE –


‘sinew,tendon,core of the body’.also defined as ‘fiber, bundle of fibers that convey the capacity to feel or move, from the brain or spinal cord to the body’..! from Latin‘nervus’/Greek‘neuron‘ – ‘sinew,tendon,cord,bowstring,string of a musical instrument’.

From PIE *(s)neu – tendon,sinew source of Sanskrit‘snavan’ ; band,sinew.

proto-italic / greek – (s)neuros – a sinew tendon nerve musclevigour force power energy strength… a cord string bow or wire.

Could snake, and it’s PIE root*s(nego) be related,as nerves/sinews are snake-like..? very probably– Nagas – and Zion / sion / sinew, all come from PIE *(s)neu.

 SINEW  proto-Ger senawo – cord tendon sinew nerve

            Old Eng seonu Mid Eng sinue Eng sinew – a cord or tendon of the body;         

            muscle nerve nervous energy vigour strength ; that which gives

            strength, or in which strength consists…a string or cord of a

            musical instrument. To knit together or make strong with. ETY.GEEK.

          – in a real sense we are musical instruments with seven ‘strings’/(energy centres/ chakras; ‘wheels’).

(per-son; ‘sound through’) – see – chordata also!




  – material –Latin mater ‘mother’;matrix of reality. Meta = mother, as well as ‘other’, ie ‘metaphor ’; ‘carry across’.

 following on from this,the inner metabolism of the Earth can be related to the lines/fields of energy indicated by the Sphinx at Giza (in its role as Ouroboros of the planet).

Ligament n. tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilagesor supporting muscles or organs…

liga-ment n, any connection or unifying bond !

Alligator – one who ties or binds (Latin – English) (from EtymologyGeek).

Legate – ambassador,envoy (old French mid-12th c.) from Latin‘legatus ‘ envoy,

provided with a commission,charge,bequeath’.

from PIE *leg– ‘to collect,gather’ general sense of delegate.

Again,primary focus is on connecting/bonding/enabling purpose.




Indian – nagas nagas = royal cobra. PIE s*nego; snake.

Egypt  – Egyptian cobra – naje haje – naje from Sanskrit ‘naga’, haje from Arabic ‘snake’.  We have seen the etymological links between genetics, gin, djinn for line, or to produce. Also that the Egyptian hieroglyph for dj was a small cobra or serpent. Thus linking to the Arabic word djinnfor (the lines of) the devil, concomitant with the word for genes, and Genesis, which first raises the subject of the bloodlines of the ‘sons of the gods’ in Genesis 6.1 – something which in this way was associating the serpent with the devil, and the created lines. This is in contrast to the Sumerian (and Egyptian) representations of (cosmic) serpents, and  the lineages of hybrid beings with both Anunnaki and human heritage. The major deity Enki/ Ea, junior only to Enlil, was portrayed from around 3200 Bce frequently as a serpent-hybrid being, as shown. The role of Enki was far more positive, in helping create mankind, and establish civilization and give mankind ‘understanding’ about the practices which enabled progress, such as metallurgy, agricultural and irrigation systems, writing, art and so on. Nevertheless Enki was associated in principle with the Ap-su, the subterranean ‘abyss’ where the waters of life come from; thus with the underworld, the instinctive / reptilian centre, and all the later biblical negative connotations. As we see in the section on the Bible though, the serpent in Eden, (who walked around on two feet, and knew of the inner matters of Eden) was never actually called Satan; this assumption resulted in later centuries due to the words of St John the Evangelist in the last book of the Bible, Revelations, when Jesus talks of ‘that old serpent, Satan’, linking the two concepts strongly.

The Uraeus was a cobra head-dress worn on the forehead in Egyptian paintings and hieroglyphs, with links to the Greek Ouraeus. It also has cognates related to Sumer – the word Urcontaining meanings of both the ‘heavens’, and ‘light’, as we see in the Or- section shortly.

Ethiopia – the Kebra Nagast – the‘Glory of Kings’ religious textis believed to date from around the10-12nd century Ad. The composite text describes the marriage of king Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba, of Ethiopia, drawing largely on the main narrative from the Old Testament of the visit to meet king Solomon of the Queen of Sheba, believed to represent the Sabeans, from South Arabia, or Yemen and Ethiopia. But additionally, as in the Old Testament, ‘sheba’ means ‘seven’ – and considering the extensive use of number symbolism in both this story, the life of Solomon, and the Bible, this meaning may well be as important as any other.

The first section of chapters 1-20 concerns ‘of what does the Glory of Kings consist?’, and quotes an Archbishop Demateyos reading from a book he says comes from the church of ‘Sophia’ – thus linking the Kebra Nagast with strands of Gnostic belief which were widespread and influential in the early era of Christianity; as well more obviously to Hebrew religion which considered the ‘outward wisdom of God’ to be femalein nature. The main body of the book (chapters 21-65) describe the events of Sheba’s visit from her homeland to Israel, to see the revered king Solomon. They become lovers or ‘marry’ during her visit to Jerusalem, giving birth to her son Menelik when she returns home. He visits Jerusalem when he is 22, to see his father; Solomon offers him the kingship after him, but Menelik prefers to return to his mother; Solomon gives him a company of ‘the first-born sons of the elders of Israel’ to accompany him home, who unbeknownst to Menelik bring the Ark of the Covenant with them. When Solomon discovers the artefact is missing he pursues the company, but through the Ark’s powers the youths are miraculously flown home. . . after this,King Solomon turns for solace to his wife, the daughter of the Pharaoh of Egypt, thus instituting the worship of pagan gods and idols in Israel in his reign.

 In keeping with the themes of the ‘celestial bloodlines’ of kings begun in Sumer, and following civilizations, and likewise in the lineages described in the Old Testament such as the line of Cain, the nephilim, and other bloodlines of various characteristics (such as that symbolized by the lineage of the Egyptian Pharaoh), the Kebra Negast then studies in chapters 66-83 the central issue of the lines of kings, and the intermixing of various royal families, including a study of the two separate lines of the ‘seed of Shem’, meaning Sumer,in chapters 72-73. In chapters 96-117 the book praises the king of Ethiopia, the king of Egypt, and establishes the ownership by Ethiopia of the true Ark of the Covenant, and the lineage of the kings of Ethiopiaas coming from Solomon himself. The following seventeen chapters are a collection of prophecies, some in support of the messianic nature of Jesus, and the superiority of Ethiopia over Israel.The Kebra Nagast has a final prophecy that the power of Rome will be eclipsed by that of Ethiopia, so presumably the two are used as symbols of deeper issues in a moral, or Manichean sense, as Egypt, Babylon and Rome are all portrayed in the Bible.

Academics have interpreted much of these latter parts of the book as anti-Jewish polemic in it’s language, and it’sargument that the Hebrews  were ‘unworthy custodians of the Ark’. The composite and eclectic nature of the book points to several different authors over time however. Overall the book links many of the subjects contained within cosmic number, such as ‘divine power’ and it’s workings within the world; the marriage of male and female (energies) in ‘alchemy’, and as always, the presence of the ‘hybrid’ celestial /human lineages raised at various times in the Bible, as well as the non-canonical ‘apocrypha’ – texts such as the Books of Enoch, Jubilees, and Noah, the (amazing) Dead Sea Scrolls  discovered at Qumran in 1947, and so on. (Indeed academics such as D.A.Hubbard in 1956 traced much of the language used in the Kebra Nagast to these books, particularly Jubilees and Enoch, and the Syriac Book of Adam and Eve – unlike the main religions these textswere given canonical status in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church). Works which like many of the (often complex and confusing) Gnostic texts of the period contained depictions of the ‘sons of the gods’ – or ‘fallen angels’ – descending to earth to couple with the daughters of men and create lineages of ‘kings’, or rulers, a strand of Near Eastern mythology and religion from the Sumerian civilization on; this subject may well have contributed to such texts being rejected by the mainstream religions as canonical, whether Hebrew, Christian or Gnostic in character. Academics have also traced some Arabic influences in the Kebra Nagast, considering it to overall be a “pastiche of legends . . that blended local and regional traditions and style and substance derived from the Old and New Testaments, various apocryphal texts, Jewish and Islamic commentaries, and Patristic writings” (H.G.Marcus, A History of Ethiopia).

What perhaps points to the human rather than cosmic influence at work in the book’s creation, is that the writers of the Kebra Nagast don’t seem to have been aware of the irony in their assertion that all the kings of Ethiopia were descended directly from king Solomon. For he, like his father David, are indicated in the Bible to be of the bloodlines of ‘kings’, meaning the lines of Cain, Nimrod the king of Babylon, and the ‘mighty men of old’ – possibly the Nephilim, or a parallel lineage, but definitely of a hybrid celestial-human character. The amount of references to demons, djinn and suchlike connected to the life of Solomon contained within the Bible as well as numerous other texts of Middle Eastern mythology point to this inner-reality of his nature; the number 666 first mention in the Bible is in the narrative of Solomon’s life, when he receives that amount of ‘talents of gold’ in a shipment from Ophir to use in the building of the temple. Gold is symbolic throughout history of the Sun, as is the name Solomon, and as Sheba herself is called by the Bible in a dream Solomon has of her; these are all symbolic of the celestial bloodlines, which incorporate the powers of the sun within their genes. Hence the father of Noah, Lamech believes his newborn son (in the Tales of the Patriarchs, from the Dead Sea Scrolls) to be a ‘child of the Watchers’ when he is born;

“I thought in my heart, that the conception was the work of the Watchers, the pregnancy of the Holy Ones, and that it belonged to the giants (Nephilim) . . .and my heart was upset by this. . .”

Likewise in the Dead Sea Scrolls Book of Noah, 6.1-6, the appearance of the newborn Noah arises concern in Lamech;

“And after some days my son Methuselah took a wife for his son Lamech, and she became pregnant by him and bore a son. And his body was white as snow, and red as the blooming of a rose, and the hair of his head and his long locks were white as wool, and his eyes beautiful. And when he opened his eyes, he lighted up the whole house like the sun, and the whole house was very bright. . . and his father Lamech was afraid of him and fled, and came to his father Methuselah, and said; I have begotten a strange son, diverse from and unlike man, and resembling the sons of the gods of heaven; and his nature is different and he is not like us, and his eyes are as the rays of the sun, and his countenance is glorious. And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me but from the angels, and I fear that in his day a wonder may be wrought upon the earth.”

There is similar description of Moseswhen he came down from Mt Sinai…from the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible it was read as ‘his face was horned with light from conversation with the Lord’, something which led at the time of the 4th century when the Latin Vulgate Bible was produced to the convention of depicting him with horns on his forehead. (ie. as depicted left, in Michelangelo’s statue of Moses at St-Peter-in-chains’ church in Rome). Nevertheless, it has been an accepted artistic convention to represent holy figures as having a halo of light around their head and face, since the earliest eras, so can be seen as not necessarily related to questions of bloodline and so on.

 This is a hidden reality encoded into the names, details and narratives of both rulers, and their extended families, in ways which leave virtually no room for doubt on the matter, as the Bible section shows. What this inner-narrative points to is a deeper, and more nuanced (lifelong)testing circumstance, for many of both the Hebrew and Christian patriarchs andfounding figures. One which has rarely if ever been raised in literary studies. Simon Peter is one of the clearest figures under the influence of the duality of both celestial and base influences within his being, or hereditary circumstances; as the Bible section on him examines.

Nevertheless, the confluence of relevant subjects within the Kebra Nagast, as well as legends of the presence of the Ark of the Covenant being located – within recesses of various obscure churches in Ethiopia – make the text certainly worth studying. And as seen, the subjects raised by the Book give indication the authors had possibly some links to sources of higher dimensional consciousness.

Whether these bloodlines, mentioned in so many (if not all) cultures and texts of antiquity, contained thegenetics of the Nagas as depicted in India and the East is a matter of debate; but as representatives of the highest dimensions they are depicted to be much like the Seraphim (angelic ‘flying serpents’) of Exodus, and Isaiah, who tormented the Israelites in their wanderings in the desert before entering the Promised Land. As such theyappear to be fulfilling a cosmic purpose. In similarly intriguing manner they are linked with the serpent of the Garden of Eden (who is himself associated with serpent deities of Sumer, and Babylon) who gave ‘understanding’ or wisdom to mankind, as well as ‘angels of the Lord’ in various parts of the Bible who are called ‘satans’, (meaning ‘opponent’) while doing the Lord’s bidding (1Samuel 16.14, 2 Samuel24.16, Job1.6-12, 2.1-7, Zecharia 3.1-7 etcetera); this seems to be one of the least understood areas of the Bible in modern study, as perspectives are thoroughly entrenched in Manichean dualities, now as much as then. And yet the words of the Bible would indicate otherwise.

The seraphim’s bite was healed by the brazen serpent Nehushtan, made by Moses c.1400Bce;(as the serpent-deity Enki/ Ea had the epithet ‘lord of the waters’, so the name of Moses means ‘from the waters he was drawn’…) The number of serpent-related events in the life of Moses, plus the incredible scenes on Mt Sinai and other times indicate that Moses was blessed by God, as well perhaps as beinginvolved with higher dimensional forces as represented by the concept of the Nagas; furthermore, he was born with some proportion of the blood of the celestial lineages of Sumer and the Anunnaki within his genetics, to both his detriment and his benefit. The reasons why the Lord might wish for such a widely spread circumstance to prevail within the Bible is almost too abstruse to understand; theories can only offered with uncertainty; yet it appears likelier than not that divine will is served best by such a complicated reality…

 Interestingly, there are further Old Testament links concerning the Nagas; the Anakim (the Rephaim/Nephilim) are the people of the tribe of Anak (the forebear).He divides his lands between his three sons, recalling thethree-fold division of the world by the founder-father of the Anunnaki; (the tribe of Anu, ‘father of the heavens’)  dividing world intoequal 1/3rdsbetween Enlil, Anu and Enki (sky, earth, and seas/abzu); or N.Pole-30°N/ 30°N-30°S /30°S – S.Pole.

(ie. northern, equatorial, and southern lands, or hemispheres).This division is mirrored by Noah and his 3 sons, who become the ‘fathers’ of the peoples of Asia,Africa and Europe. (or east, south and north.) And in similar but smaller scale by the 3 sons of Anak who receive each a third of his lands.

From the Hebrew root/stem Naq, or Nq, which means ‘neck-ornamentation’, in possible reference to the link betweenthe head and the body,and heavens and earth – much as the Anunnaki represented the heavens come to earth; as seen, the neck point is the occipital bone,or ‘gate’ (in Tai Chi) ie. a key part of the spine/head axis. 

  An additional etymological link of Naq/nq is between Anu/Anak, ; and Nagas/ NaKua /etc – so this may well be a genuine link encoded unobtrusively into the minutae of the Bible, (something which is found repeatedly to hold great depths of meaning within the smallest of details…)

Coincidentally, the NOBSE interprets anakim/naq as meaning ‘ long-necked’ – a referenceto the pride of Satan, and the line of Cain/ the Nephilim..? (or the ‘sons of Belial’, as Shimeicalls king David and his relatives, likewise a source of shame to David for their heedless violence… so that the term ‘ye sons of Zeruiah’ is used often by David as a reproach. Zeruiah the sister of David is the daughter of; Nehash !)

It is of interest that the two references to people called Nehash in the Old Testament serve to link King David to the bloodlines of the Nagas;Nehash–as mentioned, the father of the sisters of David, Abigail and Zeruiah (2Samuel 17.25).(Some rabbis maintain Nahash is another name for David’s father , Jesse; others that she was a prior wife to Jesse, before David’s mother… but either way, we are forced to confront the connection between Nahash and David in close genetic terms. Further emphasis is brought to bear in several passages where David reprimands excessive violence/bloodthirstiness in his captains (and three cousins,Joab,Abishaiand Asahel)by calling them ‘ye sons of Zeruiah’,inwhat becomes a refrain or trope for ‘men of violence’…

2Samuel 3.39;

And I am this day weak,though anointed king;andthese men the sons of Zeruiah be too hard for me;

The Lord shall reward the doer of evil according to his wickedness.

This entire narrative serves as a focus upon the contradictory aspects of the ‘kingly’ bloodline. The genetic ‘kingliness’ flows through the veins of David and his relatives – he is naturally strong; but inherently weak too, as the strength is inherited rather than the result of positive work and growth… and being genetic this essential contradiction has itseffects upon the actions and thoughts of them all.  They are related to,or equated with, the ‘mighty men of old’; the Nephilim.

–  Men of renown, of valour, of incredible vigour, yet cruel and violent, incomplete human beings…

SEE – the other Nehash – king of Ammon at start of Saul’s reign attacked Jabesh-Gilead!;the inhabitants sued for peace – he gave them one week to consider his terms, which included – every occupant give up one of their eyes..! strong implication of the nature of the bloodline at worst. 1.Samuel1.11 !

Or perhaps evidence that Nahash, like the Nagas is more subtle than is traditionally believed possible. Who could make such a demand except a tyrant?

– the nature of ‘imbalanced’ bloodlines,like that of Cain and Lamech,or Gilgamesh and Enki.

Possibly all this helps to indicate the nature of the influence of the Nagas – serpents of wisdom, and the Seraphim – holy angels for the Lord of Hosts – ie for those who are blameless, and on the other hand, those who are sinners? People such as David, Moses and many others show the ongoing battle within such individuals between the varying aspects of their natures… all of which lends some support to the antique civilizations ‘contradictory’,or duality based perspectiveon the energies granted to some of mankind from above.

Links to other religions or groups include;


–  originators of I-CHING; Fu Hsi& Na Kua (male and female intelligence)  snake – PIEs-nego ie nagas…central to conclusions – also possibly ‘ANUNNAKI’ –(ie Anu-nagas…celestial serpents !)

Negus – Abyssinian – title of ruler of,159O’s – from Semitic negush, ‘king’ -from stem of nagasha, he commanded,ruled.





CADUCEUS/    – symbols of the intersection of cosmic energy/spirit, (symbolised by the snake),

with matter/material reality (the pole/axis/spine/cosmic tree).

If viewed side on, looks like a sine wave turning around the axis).

    P/I/E          – (s)neh    – to spin

       “/Proto-Germanic   – (s)neh, – cord,tendon,sinew,nerve

    P/I/E         – (s)nego -‘snake’ –  to coil / ‘nerve’ etymology also.

Snake- sinew – sinuous, tendon,ligament (lizard-like),cord etc all linked.

Further to this – links of serpent to intelligence (see myths of genetic infusion ‘gods’)

 – sapient – PIE root- *sep – intelligence;  from which Hebrew / Greeksafia/(sophia) (feminine spirit of) wisdom.

 Old English, sefa – mind,understanding,insight. see sephiroth(centres of intelligence/energy in Hebrew Qabalah)

          – seven (law of) septa. Greek Hepta/Avestan Hapta/Sanskrit–sapta

          – serpent-   to creep, Greek herpein,to creep.   Latin – serpere

                                  Greek herpeton,snake. PIE   – serpe, to creep,crawl/reptile.

          – sapient Latin sapere,to taste/be wise. PIE *Sep – taste,percieve

God says to the serpent in Genesis 3.14;“And the Lord God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly thou shalt go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life”.

In fact Latin root of ‘perception’ is ‘per-cipere’ to ‘receive,understand’, from per-through,and ‘capere’to seize,take’ – but links to cephas/cephal,linksserpent, and intelligence again. Per-cival (from the 12th century Grail cycles –the knight fails to use his mind or seize the opportunity and thus loses the Grail, condemning the land to sickness).

‘cipere’ etymological links to cipher/safia/sapient/serpere/PIE sep– taste,perceive…!

 so intelligence and perception are linked very strongly to serpent,and to seven..! (raising the connection to the Law of Seven, and the octave).

                SIMON PETER – Samun al SAFA (Greek; cephas = stone) – satan/serpent/ etc.          

 ”  cephal = head/ mind/ wisdom…

Again we are brought to the connections between Enki, the serpent deity of Sumer, who gave mankind the skills and the wisdom of the arts of civilization, to the serpent of Eden, and to Simon Peter, the ‘foundation’ of the church after the crucifixion of Jesus.

– seven/sapient / serpent(ine) / meanings& associations / shape /sound  are all linked, as well as to ‘S’ – sine – sinuous,  etc.


8.  SPIRAL –


spire – sphere – respiration

              inspire – espere (hope) – prosper(?)

              pyramid (?) – spirit – aspire –

(even)  perspire(create energy/grow through work…man is a dynamo – to each day the strength thereof…

ie.the energy that was earnt/created by work the day before – the diurnal cycle). Hence YHVH decreeto

Adamand Eve in the garden of Eden, ‘by the sweat of thy brow shall thouearn thy bread’ ie consciousness,

and energy,as a dynamo dependent upon individual effort.

   So; hope – aspiration – work – breath – worship – the heavens – the spirit.

              SPHINX  – sphere /spiral/ phi / sphinx (constrict/bind)

                        encircling line of energy ‘tied around the earth’ …

                        binding point,in circle around earth…

PYRAMID – contains;Pi   – central geometric concept of circle/spiral

                                 Pyre – (fire)energy

                                 Ram  – biblical term POWER

                                 RA   – Egyptian SUN god…

                                 Mid  – centre of geometry of AD/TR lines of force.  #




  Babylonian/  Ur-anna = light of the heavens/ Anunnaki – related etymology.

  therefore ur/our/or(e) = SUN / star(light)/the motive power of life and meaning within the Universe.

   – this does indicate the nature of the energy of the Ouroboros.

  Or –  French for gold – symbolic of the refined power of the Sun– innerlink to ‘copperserpent/ Nehash/ ‘knower of secrets’/alchemy/ metals/ Sun and Orion…

When solar energy is refined/balanced,it becomes gold,the energy of life.

organ – organise – orb(ital) /horizon /aurora ?

Origin from Latin – orire – to arise,originate-  arising -is key aspect of the etymology of Or(e) related words, pointing as it does to both essential origins, and the rising of the Sun; creation of sunlight, bringing its life-giving energies each day.

The Latinora– “cord”  refers to the rope or bond of the cosmic boundary, or the edge of the bounds. This Egyptian hieroglyphic of a cord in a circle was used to represent the circle of the heavens, the limit and bounds of the heavenly enclosure of the Creator, within which all was protected. In Sumerian culture this was represented by the ‘rod and ring’ symbol held by the gods, in countless instances; Inanna here for example. This likewise explains the Egyptian ceremonies of the “stretching of the cord” – and each ruler of Egypt’s name/symbol was placed in hieroglyphics within the Shen coil. Over time this stretched out into a lozenge shape, the Royal cartouche, linking the terrestrial ruler with the Universal Ruler, protecting the encircled sacred region of the kingdom….

(left) Egyptian depiction of shen-coil also as ‘omphalos’ marker-stones of higher dimensional points on Earth’s surface. From the entrance to Ramesses II temple, Abydos.

Likewise as G.Strachan notes in ‘Chartres,Sacred Geometry, Sacred Space’, the Latin word for gold- ‘aura’ was linked to sunlight by the word for dawn; ‘aurora’. Additionally, the Vesica Piscis was also known as the ‘aureole’ according to Strachan, and thus in depicting Jesus framed within the Vesica this was;

“symbolic of  the light body of Jesus. . .and also of the human aura . . . which surrounds and protects our physical bodies in the same way the layers of atmosphere surround and protect our planet”. (p.85)

Not just the straightforward aspects of the Sun are indicated, either;

For example, through the process called nuclear fusion occurring inside suns allelements are createdin the nuclear furnace, in a cycle of creation/ explosion/ dust clouds/ accretion/ stars.Thus all oreson Earth for example are the result and expression of this cosmic process or cycle.

Light’s power can be measured by it’s ability to create systems of life,and of meaning, against the flow of entropy. ..So we find this potential of the light of the Sun,and all suns,is reflected in the varied etymologies of theterminology of OR,which as we have seen gives rise to words such as orient, orientation, order, orbit, and so on.

Following the further meaning of creative potential,we can see the relation to the words originate, organise, orchestrate…and organ,a word central to life in its metabolism related meanings – the essence of complex living beings/bodies/systems is the functioning of the inner organs – breathing,feeding, drawing sustenance,cleansing and creating/ renewing inner substances,perceiving,thinking,reproduction, waste disposal, etc have associated organs to perform the necessary functions in tune with Life and each other – in wellorchestrated order,etc.

These functions transcend the physical body too – all can be applied to such things as companies,associations,governments,nations,planets, galaxies and so on,with understandable clarity.Any composite entity containing individuality,structure and purpose, which lives, grows, and dies or changes.

 – does word contain this root etymology also, as a ‘plan for creation’ as it means; see orate / oracle also.

The Hebrew word for light is ‘Or’ ; from which the place name Ur stems – the original name for Sumer birthplaceof Abraham, the ‘father of nations’. . . Biblical confirmation of the Ur-annu; the ‘light of the heavens’ source for Orion.

The term ‘urban’ is still used today also, meaning ‘place of light’ presumably. In the sense of people gathering togetherin mutual dependencyand support the original meaning has become turned around, perhaps inevitably?

NB – ‘omphalos’ (Greek) led to ‘umbilicus’ (Latin)




–  all related to the terms for (world) TREE,  the ‘spine’ connecting the heavens and the Earth.

 Eight as a # does exactly that as midpoint between 4 (the material,earth plane) and 12 (the heavens)…

OCTAVE – from PIE *okto/u – eight

See – ray of creation – doubling of energies – periodic table – groups of eight atomic elements.

the spine serves as an instrument along which (seven) energy centres transform/distribute energies,as part of octavefrom base of spine (earth) to crown of head (heavens). Oc-cipital‘gate‘ at base of back of head, where the spine meets the brain.

See – mi fa point Great Pyramid (Gt Gallery) / Giza / Egypt etc

Spine links Heaven& Earth,like World Tree axis,with energies travelling downwards/ upwards, in sine-waves/spirals.

Sumerian AKK = bone (root ety for back (bone ?)  re Octave /oak /axis – 8 sided octagon used in Sacred Geometry/Architecture tomediate between the square of the world and the circle of the heavens. Thisunderstanding of the octagon is central to much Chinese TCMA/philosophy.

Sacred Geometry based design  St Pauls cathedral in London has an octagonal structure connecting therectangular body of the building with the spherical dome. This feature was a central workin the building of St Paul’s, and Wren

took great pains to ensure it was built correctly.

The revered Muslim site the Dome on the Rock, located over the exact point of the world-navel within Jerusalem is likewise constructed of a cube, surmounted by an octagon, with a spherical dome for the roof., in section on Uz,(‘strength’, or ‘contemplation’) the home land of Job, states that Osemis the Hebrew word for ‘might’ or ‘skeleton’. Osma – strength;Esma –bone;Aseh– backbone of animal.

The axial/framework nature of the bones/skeleton is one of their basicmetaphorical meanings,(similar to the World Tree/oak, enabling connection/growth) – it certainly seems possible toconnect this stem osemto the later Latin root for bone, oss, and onwards.

Likewise in Ancient Greek – osteon ; bone. (wiktionary)

              may be equated with the upper spine/backbone, ie the neck as sensitive

              meeting /crossover point of the physical and the ‘mental’/’spiritual’…

              will see in Egypt section similarities in the geometry of Giza, and the Gt Pyramid,

              from an identical conceptual framework…

The Prophet Mohammed – ‘each man’s fate have we tied around his neck’; Sura from the Qu’ran.

Chinese 8 side figure of Universe –Pakua; same stem within word?

Akk,Ox,axis etc maybe helped the Roman word forbone – oss– evolve.  Ak- ox – oss; bone/ox/ foundation/

axis/ backbone…

              En Ki  = Lord of the earth

              En Och = Lord of the axis of heaven/earth             

 In fact, this is supported by Sitchin, who in Divine Encounters (p.66) notes the similarities to Enoch, as 7th of the 10 pre-Deluge Patriarchs, and Enmeduranki in the Sumerian kings list of pre-Diluvialrulers is likewise 7th of 10;

Enmeduranki means Lord-of (en) the (divine) tablets (me)-of the heaven-earth-bond (dur-an-ki) ! A perfect match to the proposed theory. And as in the Book of Enoch, Enmeduranki was taken heavenward by two divine beings (as ‘guardiansof the gate’) to be taught a variety of higher sciences for the guidance of mankind…

In the myth of Adapa, he was taken into the LORD’s presence by the two deities Ningishzida and Dumuzi, the’gate-keepers’ of the ‘palace of heaven’… see right for representation of Ningiszida as an intertwined serpent between two Mushussu, celestial ‘dragons’/ serpents – who hold staffs, or door-way frames for him;

See Bible section for examples of Cosmic ladder /Tree (Oak,axis etc ) – Bethel, Beersheba, etc.

           ” also death of Absalom in the boughs of an oak tree , caught between the heavens and

the Earth, as the text states;  2SAMUEL 18.9


 12.  AB ZU –


Abyss of heavens/ from the depths zu (of earth,or space)

         SU = wisdom ie from deepest sources/reaches.

         ZU LU = People of the Stars – from where their mythology says their race was created…

         ZU – zodiac – zoology (the heavenly menagerie…)

Related to Leviathan and Levi, the priest elite of Moses and Aaron – both of whom conspicuously associated with

serpents–awwim/tanniym  the serpent nehash of healing/ the rods with Pharaoh, etc – alsoNagas as ‘celestial

serpents’ / bringers of knowledge/ nahash…

– see Enki/Ea ; lord of the Ab-zu/ Ap-su – the deeps (waters,space).

Original meaning was of the underground waters,whether as aquifers/ reservoirs

from which the rivers of Sumer and the world ensured the yearly survival of life and mankind, or cosmic energies.

Strongly suggestive of the reptilian – fish/tail/  scales,etc- in fact Eameans ‘he of the water’. The (temple of) Apollo at Delphi an example of deep (subconscious) instinctive wisdom levels, represented by female seers at the Delphic Oracle called the ‘pythonesses’. Is arguedApollo etymology is as ‘destroyer’; or alternatively as Plato argued, it meant ‘redeemer’ (apolysis) or ‘ purification’ (apolousis). Can mean ‘breaking thingsdown’ rather than destruction, perhaps of conscious mind constructions/ defences…(?)Both meanings may connect with the Sumerian Ap of the Apsu, the limitless depths and ‘waters’ of the (cosmic) abyss that fertilise the land and the world. Same concept in Hebrew religion; foundation-stone of Temple of Jerusalem placed over where the waters of the Deluge receded into the earth, and which still give life to the earth at such ‘navel-points’ of the higher dimensions. That the waters of the Deluge may symbolize energies is clearly a possibility.

symbolism for –  instinctive/ reptilian centre of the stomach/brain.

Lord of the South/the Deep/the waters (Su) his title therefore is apt on several levels;

– the personal – the lowest centre,stomach  – instinctive,(deep) subconscious.

– geographic – marshes/deltas/possibly the southern hemisphere;oceans.

– mining the depths [of the land], possibly in S.Africa (theory)for gold, minerals –

and thus giving mankind technology in various ways – giver of wisdom*; which neatly

connects the various aspects of the epithet concerned with subconscious wisdom. Represented

in the Bible by various ‘wise women’, such as Maacah, portrayed with positive and negative connotations.

[*Same role as the ‘god’ Thoth in Egypt].

– and lastly, space – as mentioned, from the depths of, ie.from further than this solar system as Sumerian mythology stated.

Also – Lordofthe South–for various reasons the Southern hemisphere was considered

the ‘underworld’… the three great axes of the Gods;SeeHamlet’sMill p258/9.

the god Sinetymology of name from Su-en apparently.(ie.’lord of the Su’) Sinai also therefore.

In Gemini Age the milky way intersected the ecliptic with the celestial equator,connecting N. and S.

Of connected interest, is the long-term continuity of this most elementary term – SUD ; South…

it is still prevalent in languages today across the globe, in French,German/Norse, Spanishand English languages…so this title with its manifold meaningshas been currentthroughout the entire history of human civilization; at least from the Sumerian point in history,somewhere around the 4th millennium BC.

– From (old german sunnen the sun) & PIE ‘sawel’ the sun – which is at the centre of this book’s

examination of antiquity’s consciousness – of the inner,  and multi-dimensional powers of the sun,

in the creation of life, and human consciousness.

 – submarine / subterranean ? connects to Enki/ the ap-su ‘the abyss’ – within the terms

or symbolism of the human body Enki represents stomach/ instinctive/ subconscious. Linked also

to water/ serpents / fish etc. In Bible have Tiamat, Rahab etc as ‘serpents of the deep’ / abyss,




Date palm; aka tamarisk – (dark leaf tree) was a symbol of unseeable heavens/deep space –

dark – hidden from view,unknown,invisible.

DA ATH is the hidden, invisible sephiroth of the Qabalah,and has no number as such.

Its position is after the first (divine) three  sephiroth,and before the next ‘middle’/astral level.

– is seen as a gateway to the highest and deepest heavens, and it connects these levels/dimensions,

and acts as a balance.  As such is a hidden gateway/ and has a guardian… 

–  does data stem from these related meanings – the origins of meaning,at the level

wherethe structured cosmos and the chaotic abyss meet..?

 –  see also SID-DARTHA  GAUTAMA enlightened under a fig tree/actually bodra tree

symbol of the World Tree, axis linking the heavens and the earth…

This basic root of darkness could be the source of Greek use of DA/ DE used to denote evil,

negativity – destroy,death,diabolos/devil,etc; whereas THETA ( used to denote positive,God,

love etc.Greek Dactylosused to mean finger,or toe – thus counting,and from this,digital / decimal?.




(Fromthe same root stem as Cord/Chord) – all relate to runline ofconsequence of;

correre -run (Roman), PIE *kers; run.Corridor – course – cause – current –  carry – CAR –

career – courier – curry – curate – (cross ? 2 intersecting lines) – crossroads – crusade –

curse… cursor  – crucial? –  cairn?(line of highpoints/mountain-top structures)curtain –

curtail  – curb  & kerb – curl – kernel. Quarter/ cross-roads.

curve; (from Latin curvus;from PIE s(ker);bend,curve,turn)

Correction possibly  –cord/ record ety; french/latin. – cors – accord (see below); possible connection to – car/

carne / carnival – ‘of the body’.

 see – CERN large hadron collider, particle accelerator in Switzerland/and similar to this; Kurchatovthe long-established major nuclear fusion research centre in Moscow. 

(also link ‘kernel‘/core   -cognate with old English/ proto-Germanic/Hebrew ‘kerndl‘ seed/corn)

‘the core,centreor essence of a body, or system’  –  kernel as edible substance in a nut/ seed, stone of a fruit,

raises several questions related to Gilgamesh/the gods Enki/Shamash/Ninkursag,etc; and book of Genesis.

the Cerne Abbasgiant is an obvious fertility figure, with his seed/reproductive organs to the fore…

[See Genesis1.11 (!)Zera – seed of things (Strong’s Concordance) – possibly linked to seed/cor.e/corn/kernel?

Hebrew,Aramaic, Phoenician,Arabic,Assyrian; Zeru; seed. root of zero (?) ie centre point of circle, like atom/

or sun in solar system?]

 In fact, core may relate as to this section’s words.. the seed or source of the line!

Kernel may refer to the seed/centre/point of arising; of atoms/ (or with regard to people;reproductive sense/ organs as sources of new life  and energy…) Core etymology includes; middle English ‘corn’/grain; old french ‘cour‘ heart; from Latin cor ‘heart’; also links to Latin corpus, body…

When Moses came down from the mount with the 10 Commandments, his face was ‘qaran’ – ‘horned’(shining)  with brightness from the ‘glory of God’ – this led to Latin Vulgate by Jerome saying he was ‘cornuta’;his face was horned with glory etc – images of him with horns.

This actually links to the phrase ‘the four corners of the world’; thus with Four Corners, USA, where Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah meet; the symbol at the monument is of a circle divided into four quarters (see right).The word ‘crossroads’ comes from the French carrefoursimilarly.

Corner also links to Quatuor Coronati – the world’s ‘premier Masonic research lodge’, which means ‘the Four Crowned Ones’ formed 1886, at Gt Queen St, London. This shows the link between the ‘crown’ of the head and the sense of Moses’ face being ‘crowned’ with light; possibly a better interpretation than ‘horned’ with light as St Jerome translated it. This is not an erroneous perspective though,forcorner comes from Old English/Anglo-French cornere, Old French corne, Latin cornua, plural of cornu ‘horn, hard growth of head on animals’ (according to etymology dictionaries). From PIE *ker – horn, head… thus we see ‘quartered’ (from French quartiere/ Latin quartuarius /PIE *kwetwr, all meaning four), corner, and qaran (horned ) are all related. In other words ‘horned’ can mean ‘quartered’ equally, somehow; perhaps in one way because it places the being firmly within the four-square world of material reality as sacred geometry and cos# maintain; as the compass divides into four, the clock into the same basic of quarters, the quadrants of heaven (from late 14thc), and so on… thus the PIE root for ‘horn’(*ker)stems as much from ‘four’ as from ‘horn’ or ‘head’ – as well as to the numerous meanings connected to ‘cor’ and ‘cors’, ‘carne’ and ‘corpus’…

We have seen many symbols throughout history bear the design of the quartered circle; in following order (l-r) from Sumer/Assyria (Shamsi-Adad V, c.850-811Bce) –the Templar Cross of the 14th century–NATO symbol – the squared circle – Cross of Knights of St John/Maltese Cross ––United Nations symbol – and so on, each relating closely to symbolism of the sphere of the world in some way or other…

MYCORRHIZA ; fungus/mushroom/mycelium networks beneath ground; long filaments, like nerves/ganglia,

essential for nutrient transfer to trees/plants, and chemical processes of breaking down/transforming

decaying matter in the soil/earth. Systems can form up to 5 miles of networks, at present knowledge…

A number of times the seedof things is used as a phrase with deeper meanings attached to it than might be assumed on cursory inspection; in Genesis 1 and 2 for instance, when granting stewardship of the Earth to Adam and Eve, thus explaining their role in the world, as they are sent out of Eden.

The ‘sons of Zeruiah’, as representatives of thenature of theseed ofthe bloodline king David belongs to, may have connections with this etymology, with various meanings related to essence or related characteristics.. In Jude 1.10-11 his name is used to describe all men who “speak evil of those things which they know not. . . for they have gone in the way of Cain… and perished in the gainsaying of Core”)- linking him and his descendants clearly with the ‘lines of Cain’. See Bible section for more).

(The Book of Judah in the New Testament mentions (Judah 1.11) the ‘heresies’ of Core, the cousin of Moses who rebelled against Moses and his brother Aaron’s leadership of the Israelites in the wilderness, and was swallowed up into the ground, into ‘Sheol’, ie. ‘hell’. (at Numbers 16.1). Korah is of further relevance as the ancestor of the Korahites, a part of the Levite grouping of religious functionaries in ancient Israel who are the city’s gatekeepers, keepers of the temple’s religious objects such as bowls, basins etc, as well as musicians (psalms 42-88); moreover, they are connected to the celestial bloodlines of Sumer as they enter the Hebrew tribes in part during the Babylonian Capture (as seen in the Bible section on David)– so questions related to seed and essence abound within the various narratives encoded into the Bible around Korah.

(Also possibly signifying the ‘core’ of the heresy, ie. a seed or essence of the error-filled path or lineage). Hebrew dictionaries state Korah means ‘baldness’ (qarah) or ‘frost’ (qerah) – in either sense indictaing something reduced down to it’s bare features or minimum.

Zeru,zera in the sense of seed/ kernel/ core may relate to chord/ cord /etc. ie the human body’sseven chakras.

As noted in chord -also, we are chordatas (uniting the two words, chord + data/da’ath) ; in like sense, arrayed along the axis of the spine; as has virtually all developed life-forms since the period of history called the Pre-Cambrian explosion 574million years ago; spine, head,(with brain/organs of perception)tail (with organs of digestion/excretion/and reproduction situated nearby); two arms, and two legs, withshoulders,elbows,wrists,hands,fingers;hips,thighs,knees,ankles, feet,toes;etc. All this in mostly all animals being based upon the framework of the skeletal system, with muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves, arteries, veins and so on all arrayed around the foundational framework of the bones; which also create blood cells within, to replenish the body’s system.

Likewise the first land animals have been found to have all appeared at the same point in time, around 320 million years ago;

 “the stage by which a fish gave rise to an amphibian are unknown…the earliest land animals appear with four good limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdles, ribs and distinct heads… In a few million years, over 320 million years ago, a dozen orders of amphibians suddenly appear in the records, none apparently ancestral to any other”

 Dr Robert Wesson, Beyond Natural Selection quoted by Michael Baigent in Ancient Mysteries.

Whether dinosaurs,birds,fish,reptiles,mammals,primates or humans, this body-form has predominated as

the besttemplate for survival of living forms of matter which are capable of reproducing, evolving, and developing consciousness of it’s surroundings, and the wider universe.

Core – cord – chord –CHORDATA;

(SEE gods/angels/prophets with measuring cords–  (records) – related to greek-roman cors – for corridor/ course etc.Likewise possibly as contain the archetypal root ‘-ORS’ within their (essential) meanings…as can be seen by their basic definitions of structure, design, measurement, function, metabolism within the Octave of the transformation of energies.

–  chordata is very accurate as to what we are! – instruments which process, and transform the data (thedeep information) of life,in the process of existence and growth.

Core /Cord /Chord-data are all deep expressions of the essence of the spine therefore; in virtually all living beings, since Pre-Cambrian Era; emphasizing the importance of the World-Tree axial nature of symbolism in Sumerian tableaux of the Tree of Life, and of similar metaphors in the Bible, such as Jacob’s Ladder; which takes place at Bethel (the House of God), but the previous name for the site was Luz (Genesis 28.19) meaning (a sacred) part of the shoulder, or back….

The Caduceus shown in the next section has been interpreted to represent among other things the human spine, with interweaving lines of energy crossing it at several points – some theories say these are representative of the

chakra points. The two wings at top are the two hemispheres of the brain, and the ball at the top of the axis is perhaps the ‘third eye’, or the pineal gland as it is referred to in physiology.


  15. KI / QI;  Sumerian Ki = Earth  


ANU NNA KI   = Those born of Anu (Heaven Father) & (Nin) Ki  (Earth Mother.     

Earth’s ruler   (Lord of Ki)  = EN KI

Heaven-Earth ruler (Lord of Heaven/ Earthaxis) = En och*

Chinese  Ki (Qi)  = Life/energy

Sumerian; Du -ran – ki

             * Sitchin – ‘enoshut’ is the Hebrew for ‘that which is human’, the line of Adam, his grand-son is Enosh.

               ties in with us being chordata/ axis along which the seven chakras are arranged vertically/

            –  or the limbs /organs/head are arranged around the central axis of the spine.

              ‘the heaven-earth line of the octave’ / axis/oss (bone/spine/etc.

Many links between SUMER and CHINA – the ‘black-haired people’.

Gods of intertwined serpent tails such as Enki /Fu Xi +Na Kua, (upper right) and Ningiszida (below right)

China emblem the dragon; from antiquity thissymbolizes divine spirit.

Sumer– Korea language connections;

Anna/Anu =heavens,sky/ God in Sumer         Hana / Hanue = God, sky in Korea

Dingir the most great spirit        Dangor the most great spirit PIE dang =sky.heaven

Korean for cow-head = so (cow) meori (head) Ur-du also in Korean means same.

It is a term for the utmost respect / sacred-   see depictions of Anunnaki with cow-horn headwear, p.28…




Is it the densest level of energy/matter continuum…?

in periodic table this is radioactivemetals, uranium etc.

Salt is etymologically related to the root word of the Sun – Sol – (as seen

in the name Sol-om-on; 3 different names for the Sun / cosmic energies.(The etymology

of his name in Hebrew is from the tri-consonantal root S-L-M meaning ‘peace’ ie ‘divine order’,

sunlight etc…)

Salt is the end result of the action of the Sun,ie drying out of

waters. So salt possibly represents excessive exposure to the sun,

or animbalance of solar energies inimical to the biochemistry of life…

-from the nuclear furnace of the Sun onwards…

thus was Lot’s wife turned into a pillar of salt as she faced thesolar power of the destruction

of Sodom and Gomorrah.

Theories re nuclear bomb…Sodom/Gomorrah – Could be artistic caution to mankind of these

energies,(atomic blast/radiation/power),as much as a historical relating of events… or could be

accurate recounting.

  SAVE – PIE etymological root is solo – whole, unity, health.

  evolved to Latinsalve, and English, save.

– the original stem is very possibly the root for the name in Hebrew – Solomon /(Suleiman),

including sense of ‘divinely ordained’. As we see, there is a connection to the Sun – via solar .

See Lot and his wife– who is turned into a pillar of salt – meaning..? 

  – she became ‘mechanical’ in life – backward looking!

  – jesus -what use is salt loses its saltiness?

(seraphim – fieriness/  dryness / parched / ie the powers of the Sun to extremes – also linked to

serpents /Nagas – which condemned to always have ‘dust in their mouths’)..!

Strong meaning of SALT as preservative. Compare to Salvation the process of being saved from hell.

Jesus ‘ words are a play on these levels of related meanings..! what good is virtue that

becomes unbalanced/ mechanical – can no longer save.

=> we have the following chains of metaphors/concepts;

– salt – the sun – Solomon – solar energies; first mention inBible of 666 (talents of Gold) is in detailing

Solomon’s actions in building the Temple of Jerusalem.This number symbolic of the products of the Sun–

the # 666 is said to be the# of the (male)solar energies of the Sun (and the # 1080 to represent in Sacred Geometry of the (female) lunar energies.(Represented by the Queen of Sheba ; ‘Seven’)

-conceptual relation nuclear fusion/detonation to salt –Lot’s wifereduced to a pillar of salt,

on facing the ‘flash’of the explosion.

also – the Red Sea has highest salt content of nearly all seas.

Sitchin says Sinai vicinity of sodom/gomorrah hasremnants of nuclear contamination/chemicals.

In India, Mohendro Daro likewise appears to have sufferedsome terrible explosive energy around

2500-3OOO years ago.

EgyptHeliopolis was called ei – n – re ; On(u)/ An-(u?)- the Abode of the Sun. From which

Hebrew On or Aon (changed into Aven in Ezekiel 30.17) was taken, and which translated

into Beth-Shemesh – the House of the Sun.* the History of Herodotus by G.Rawlinson.(from ws.Abarim.)

Pharoah gave Joseph a wife after released him from jail ;daughter of the priest of ON.

The verb ‘wn/ awnin Hebrew means to experience alot, to go through alot, to toil,

be tired – not in bible, but in cognate langs. Positive version- On means prosperity,achieve

 positive sense is to enjoy plenty, of rest, wealth, pleasure, And esp powers of  fertility

– back to pillar as symbol of Sun / male fertility…

Noun awen means toil etc. On means surplus wealth/ reproductive powers.

[Trouble – sorrow-idolatry / vigour – wealth – fertility]  Also the name of Cain’s relative,

believed to be the female source of the line of Cain; name relating to the ‘powers of the sun’.

Seems to be a complex of related ideas/areas, including further links of;

nuclear – solar energies – Nagas – sunlight – salt -(NaCl) wealth? gold?

Pillars, potency, male energy and serpents (which survive in harsh sun,in

salty deserts,without water-


(the durability of reptilian forms/centre in body, in terms of surviving extremes of heat,

and solar energies.

– See figures of drought cracked earth–close up of the sun -and serpent scales…

follow the same pattern of distribution of matter / energies, or effects of heat.

       JESUS – ‘he will regret it who turns back to look’…

          ”     to Peter –‘what good is salt that loses its saltiness?’

     GIZA complex  – 29.974 N, 31.13 E – so Oak Ridge is 115.4° west of 0°Giza meridian.

         1/86.6% = 1.154 7

                                            1.732 /2 = 86.6 = √3 /2as see in Vesica.

                                    and size of Sun = 864/5,000 m/diam.

         Additionally, e / pi = O.865 2559 where e is euler’s constant.

So refinement of first ever  nuclear bomb (?) was at a significant pointon the earth both N-S , and E-W axis, in relation to Giza – serpent lines… Not necessarily ‘essential’ to the work, but is a striking coincidence, somehow –  relating the production of solar/ ‘higher’ energies/fuel sources (see Ley-lines of England for more on science research centres at key points on Earth’s surface in terms of energy fields and node points). – in other words making success more likely.

– and as mention re era of lamentations in Sumer/Akkadian eras, salinisationled to the ground/agricultural areas,from irrigation, being crusted with a rime of saltfor centuries,due to build up salts in the watertable which then evaporated in the sun.

Thus the negative connotations of salt ‘metaphor’,contain the aspect of it as destroyer of life/ and/or the remnant of lifeat its most ‘devolved’ state – radioactive matter… the end product of the Sun; pointing to the cosmic necessity of balance, ie by lunar energies, male/ female, and so on, in the nature of the Tao.

    – Sol – Latin, sun. French Soleil.

    -Norwegian – Solt = hunger.

   – Sage (n). Latin – salvia, from salvus ‘healthy’

               from PIE root – *sol – whole,well kept.

The Epic of GILGAMESH – summary of the poem.


I.    Introduction to Uruk-Haven, and the hero/king, Gilgamesh.

II.   Enkidu’s creation, civilization by Shamhat; Gilgamesh & Enkidu meet; fight; become best friends.

III.  Preparations for the quest – to the sacred mountain in Lebanon.

IV.  The journey to the forest/mountain of the Gods.

V.   The Cedar forest – Humbaba the terrifying robot/the battle.

VI.  The goddess Ishtar proposes to Gilgamesh.

VII. The  Great Gods conference/the death of Enkidu.

VIII.Gilgamesh mourns Enkidu… 

IX.  Gilgamesh roams the mountains/wilderness, ponders man’s mortality.

X.   The inn-keeper (The Replenisher) Siduri questions the appearance of Gilgamesh.

      His journey to ‘confluence of the rivers’/ ‘the Faraway’ with the  pilot Urshanabi.

      There he meets Utnapishtim, survivor of the Deluge.

XI.  THE STORY OF THE FLOOD. Gilgamesh seeks eternal life. His return home, to Uruk-Haven.


            He who has seen everything I will make known to the lands.

         …Anu granted him the totality of knowledge of all.

            He saw the Secret, discovered the Hidden,

            he brought information of (the time) before the Flood.

            He went on a distant journey, pushing himself to exhaustion,

            but then was brought to peace.

            He carved on a stone stelae all of his toils;

            and built the wall of Uruk-Haven.

            the wall of the sacred Eanna Temple, the holy sanctuary.

            Go up on the wall of Uruk, and walk around,

            Examine it’s foundation, inspect it’s brickwork thoroughly,

         …did not the Seven Sages themselves lay out it’s plans?

           Supreme over other kings, lordly in appearance

           he is the hero, born of Uruk, the goring wild bull.

        …Mighty net, protector of his people

           raging flood-wave who destroys even walls of stone!

           It was he who opened the mountain passes,

           who dug wells on the flank of the mountain.

           It was he who crossed the ocean, the vast seas, to the rising sun,

           who explored the world regions, seeking life.

           It was he who reached by his own sheer strength Utnapishtim, the Far-Away,

           who restored the sanctuaries (cities)that the Flood had destroyed!

           Two-thirds of him is god, one-third of him is human. . .  

           The great Goddess (Aruru) designed the model for his body.

           She prepared his form. . .

       . . .beautiful, most handsome of men,

       . . .perfect.

          He walks around the enclosure of Uruk,

          Like a wild bull he makes himself mighty, head raised

          There is no rival who can raise his weapon against him.

          His fellows stand alert, attentive to him,

          And the men of Uruk become anxious. . .

          Gilgamesh does not leave a son to his father,

          Day and night he arrogantly (?)

          Is Gilgamesh the shepherd of Uruk-haven,

          Is he the shepherd. . .

          bold, eminent, knowing and wise!

          Gilgamesh does not leave a daughter to her mother.

          The daughter of the warrior, the bride of the young man

          The gods kept hearing their complaints, so

          The gods of the heavens implored the Lord of Uruk (Anu)

       …”bold, eminent, knowing and wise,

           Gilgamesh does not leave a girl to her mother!

           The daughter of the warrior, the bride of the young man”,

           Anu listened to their complaints,

           And the gods called out to Ninhursag (Anu’s wife);

           It was you. . . who created mankind,

           now create a zikru to it/ him.

           Let him be equal to his (Gilgamesh’s) stormy heart,

           let them be a match for each other so that Uruk may find peace!”

           When Ninhursag heard this she created within herself the zikru of Anu

           She washed her hands, she pinched off some clay, and threw it into the wilderness

           In the wilderness she created valiant Enkidu,

           born of silence, endowed with strength by Ninurta (early Sumer god of agriculture/healing/hunting)

           He knew neither people nor settled living,

           He ate grasses with gazelles,

           And jostled at the watering hole with the animals,

           as with animals his thirst was slaked with mere water.

            A trapper addressed his father, saying

            Father, a certain fellow has come from the mountains.

            He is the mightiest in the land,

            His strength is as mighty as the meteorite of Anu!

       . . .he filled in the pits that I had dug

            wrenched out my traps that I had spread,

            released from my grasp the wild animals.

            The trappers father spoke to him saying;

            My son, there lives in Uruk a certain Gilgamesh.

            There is no one stronger than he,

            Go, set off to Uruk,

            Tell Gilgamesh of this Man of Might

            He will give you the harlot Shamhat, take her with you.

            The woman will overcome the fellow (?) as if she were strong

            When the animals are drinking at the watering place

            have her take off her robe and expose her sex

            When he sees her he will draw near to her,

            and his animals, who grew up in his wilderness, will be alien to him.

This all goes according to plan; after a week with her he no longer associates or identifies with

the wild animals, but thinks and talks like a human – he is civilized. (Initially in his new state, he

goes to get water, but the animals sense the change in him, and run away;

            for six days and nights Enkidu stayed aroused,

            and had intercourse with the harlot

            until he was sated with her charms.

            But when he turned his attentions to his animals

            the gazelles saw Enkidu and darted off.

            Enkidu. . .his utterly depleted body

            his knees that wanted to go off with his animals went rigid;

            Enkidu was diminished, his running was not as before.

            But then he drew himself up, for his understanding had broadened.

            Turning around, he sat down at the harlot’s feet,

            The harlot said to Enkidu,

            ‘You are beautiful’, Enkidu, you are become like a god.

             Why do you gallop around the wilderness with the wild beasts?

             Come, let me bring you into Uruk-Haven,

             to the Holy Temple, the residence of Anu and Ishtar,

             the place of Gilgamesh, who is wise to perfection. 

            Enkidu, you who do not know how to live,

            I will show you Gilgamesh, a man of extreme feelings,

            he has strength mightier than you

            without sleeping day or night

            Enkidu, it is your wrong thoughts you must change!

            It is Gilgamesh Shamhat loves,       

            And Anu, Enlil (etc) have enlarged his mind,

            Even before you came from the mountain

            Gilgamesh in Uruk had dreams about you”.

Gilgamesh meanwhile tells his mother of a dream of a heavenly comet landing by him;(fear of change?);

she tells him this is the creation of herself and Anu;

           ‘As for the stars of the sky that appeared

            and the meteorite of Anu, which fell next to you,

            you tried to lift but it was too mighty for you,

            I made it compete with you,

            and you loved and embraced it, as a wife,

            It is he who will repeatedly save you.

            Your dream is good and propitious!’

Which Gilgamesh accepts; ‘may I have a friend and advisor; a friend and advisor may I have!’

Tablet II.  Enkidu’s  ‘civilization’/ THE FIRST MEETING OF GILGAMESH AND ENKIDU

Shamhat’s ‘taming’ of Enkidu  continues. She again declares her love  for Gilgamesh… Enkidu wishes to

meet him. They repair to a shepherd’s hut where Shamhat clothes him, (and repairs her own clothing)*

*the use of washing the self, and donning clean clothing as a metaphor, or ‘indicator’ of metaphysical

questions is frequent throughout the narratives of the numerous characters and events of the epic…

Shamhat then introduces him to eating and drinking prepared meals like a human;

‘The harlot spoke to Enkidu, saying;

          Eat the food Enkidu, it is the way one lives;

          Drink the beer, as is the custom of the land…

      . . .and he drank the beer; seven jugs! and became expansive

           and sang with joy! / He was elated and his face glowed’.

Following this he washes, and puts on clean clothes;

           ‘He splashed his shaggy body with water,

            And rubbed himself with oil, and turned into a human.

            He put on some clothing, and became like a warrior…’

–  then he and Shamhat journey towards the city.

They meet a man who is hurrying to a wedding. He tells them he is hurrying, because;

      ‘. . .the selection of brides. . .

            I have heaped up tasty delights for the wedding on the ceremonial platter.

            For the King of Broad-Marted Uruk (G.),

            Open is the veil of the people for the choosing of a girl’. . .

In other words,  Gilgamesh will have first intercourse with the bride, the husband second,

and more ‘match-making’ opportunities will be present thereafter, perhaps. Of Gilgamesh’s

‘kingly privilege’ the poem says, ‘This is ordered by Anu, from the severing of the umbilical

cord it has been destined for him’. Enkidu is angry at this news, and they hurry to the streets

of the city. Enkidu blocks the entry of Gilgamesh to the marital chamber – they grapple and fight.

After some time Gilgamesh stops, and embraces Enkidu, and they become best

friends. Here the mother of Gilgamesh speaks plaintively to him; She went up to

Shamash’s gateway (leader of the Igigi who circled above earth according to Sitchin –

‘those who turned’, or ‘those who observe and see’ – and the Middle/Eastern deity of

the Sun. 

      – plaintively she implored – ‘Enkidu has no father or mother…

        he was born in the wilderness, no-one raised him’…

Enkidu hears these words, and begins to weep. Gilgamesh takes his hand, and Enkidu declares to Gilgamesh (presumably an oath of friendship or fealty).(42 lines missing-) presumably Gilgamesh suggesting they journey to the Cedar Forest, which circles the holy mountain, the ‘landing place of the gods’, in Lebanon –

    Enkidu replies to Gilgamesh;

      ” To protect the Cedar Forest (around the sacred mountain/ landing place 

        of the gods) Enlil (Lord of the Earth/ author of the destruction of the flood)

        assigned Humbaba  (the robot) as a terror to mankind.”

   Gilgamesh replies-   

     ‘ Who my friend can ascend  to the heavens? Only the gods

       can dwell forever with Shamash

       As for human beings, their days are numbered, and

       whatever they keep trying to achieve is but wind’…

    (See Ecclesiastes for same. Many correlations between these two texts…)

‘Now you are afraid of death- what has become of your bold strength?

         I will go in front of you (to cut down the Cedar, and battle Humbaba)

         Should I fail, I will have established my fame…it is I who will

         establish fame for eternity…’

       They go to the forge, to fashion an axe and weapons for the battle ahead.

       Enkidu asks the townspeople to dissuade Gilgamesh from his plans;

      ‘Humbaba’s roar is a flood/ his mouth is fire, his breath Death!…

     – who among even the Igigi can confront him?


   Gilgamesh listens to the counsel of the town elders, who say;

            ‘Gilgamesh, do not put your trust in just your vast strength

             but keep a sharp eye out, make each blow strike it’s mark…

             The one who goes ahead saves the comrade

             Let Enkidu go ahead of you

             He has seen fighting, he has experienced battle’…

Gilgamesh says to Enkidu for them to visit the temple of his mother, Ninsun, to ask which path

   to follow;

  ‘Ninsun, I must go to kill Humbaba the terrible,

   to eradicate from the land

   something baneful that Shamash hates,

   intercede with Shamash on my behalf.’

(right) Shamash seated on throne, from The Tablet of Shamash,

c.900 Bce, Sippar, Mesopotamia/Sumer under rule of the Assyrians.

Wikimedia, Public Domain.

The words of Gilgamesh grieve Queen Ninsun. She prepares herself with ablutions, and new vestment, and goes to the roof of the Temple alone to consult with Shamash  She blames Shamash for inflicting a restless heart on Gilgamesh.

         ‘…on the day that you see him on the road

            may Aja the Bride without fear remind you

            and command also the Watchmen of the Night,

            the stars, and at night your father Sin’.

           (the god of the Moon) to protect her son.

She then calls to Enkidu, saying he is not of her womb, but he should consider himself as such in his task, of protecting Gilgamesh as his brother.


The two friends journey. They walk many leagues, until they reach a mountain range near Lebanon.

Gilgamesh climbs the mountain, and makes an offering to Shamash (the setting sun) whilst Enkidu

prepares their sleeping place;

            He made him lie down, and…in a circle.

            they…like grain from the mountain…

            While Gilgamesh rested his chin on his knees

            Sleep that pours over mankind overtook him’

 (presaging his experiences on his journey to the ‘faraway’ later on).

     Gilgamesh has troubling dreams and visions, hears voices in the night…and says to Enkidu,

                            ‘the dream I had was deeply disturbing,

                             in the mountain gorges…

                             the mountain fell down on us.

                             Wet (?) flies…

                             he who was born in the wilderness.

Enkidu seeks to reassure Gilgamesh, says the dream was ‘most favourable’… this repeats during the night,

indicating forthcoming trials. The next night after travel similar dreams and visions occur. The following

night, while the disturbances continue, Shamash’s voice from the clouds declares to them;

                          ‘Hurry, do not let Humbaba enter into

                           the forest, and hide in the thickets.

                          ‘ he has not put on his 7 coats of armour’.

Gilgamesh and Enkidu say, emphasizing the universal need for support and unity;

               ‘One alone cannot-


                a slippery path is not feared by two people who help

                each other… a three-ply rope cannot be cut.’

   They journey on, and reach the Forest the next day;


         They stood at the forest’s edge, 

         gazing at the top of the Cedar Tree

         gazing at the entrance to the forest  

         Where Humbaba would walk there was a trail…

         Then they saw the Cedar Mountain, the Dwelling of the Gods…

         Across the face of the mountain the Cedar brought forth

         luxurious foliage/ its shade was good, extremely pleasant…’

        -Suddenly the swords…and after the sheaths…the axes were smeared…

         dagger and sword…alone…

Humbaba spoke to Gilgamesh, saying, ‘He does not come…


       Enkidu repeats his coda to Humbaba saying

‘Humbaba, one alone…


                                        a three-ply rope cannot be cut.’…

       Humbaba says to Gilgamesh

‘. . .an idiot and a moron should give advice to each other

but you, Gilgamesh, why have you come to me?

Give advice, Enkidu, you ‘son of a fish’, who does not even know

‘his father’

You have brought Gilgamesh into my presence. . .

you stand. . . an enemy, a stranger. . .

Gilgamesh, throat and neck,

I would feed your flesh to the screeching vulture, the

eagle and the vulture.

‘Gilgamesh spoke to Enkidu, saying ‘my friend, why does Humbaba’s face

keep changing…?’

   Pleasantries over, a fight to the death begins, a flurry of tumultuous strife;

‘the ground split open with the heels of their feet,

as they whirled around in circles Mt Hermon and Lebanon split.

The white clouds darkened/ death rained down on them like a fog.

Shamash raised up against Humbaba mighty tempests, Northwind. . .

Eastwind. . . Ice wind, demon wind, wind of Simurru, Storm, Sandstorm. .’!

‘so that Humbaba could not move; he begged for his life; ‘O scion of the heart of Uruk, King Gilgamesh. . . Gilgamesh, let me go, I will dwell with you as your servant (?)

       Enkidu. addressed Gilgamesh, saying;

      ‘My friend, do not listen to Humbaba’

Humbaba; ‘You understand the rules of the forest, the rules. . .

further, you are aware of all the things so ordered by Enlil

I should have carried you up, and killed you/

at the very entrance of the forest’. . .  

So now, Enkidu, clemency is up to you.’

Enkidu recommends to Gilgamesh, ‘kill, destroy, and pulverise Humbaba, Gilgamesh,

before the pre-eminent god Enlil hears. . .’

As in the story of the deluge, (later in the poem, and in Noah/Atra-hasis versions),

the wishes of the gods – Enlil, Lord of Earth, and Enki his brother, Lord of the

Waters/ South, are at variance with each other. Gilgamesh and Enkidu are able to act against

Enlil’s servant Humbaba, because the fellow deities Shamash, and Ninsun (and Enki?)

support them, against the ‘Lord of the earth’.

 After more discussion between Enkidu and Gilgamesh, they kill Humbaba;

       . . .they ‘pull out his insides including his tongue’;

      ‘. . .abundance fell over the mountain, abundance fell over the mountain. . .

While Gilgamesh cuts down the trees, Enkidu searches through the ‘urmazallu’ …

      (they plan to float the cedar down the Euphrates river to Nippur,

       and make a triumphal door from it);

      ‘My friend, we have cut down the towering Cedar* whose top scrapes the sky…’;

      ‘they tied together a raft. . . Enkidu steered it/ while Gilgamesh

       held the head of Humbaba.’

   –  *possibly a symbol of the authority of Enlil, and the divine landing place,

       restricted to Lebanon as the cedar was.


They wash themselves, ‘throwing off their dirty clothes and putting on clean ones’.

But they do not do so unobserved. . .

‘When Gilgamesh placed his crown upon his head/ a princess Ishtar

 raised her eyes to the beauty of Gilgamesh.’

(Inanna/ Ishtar- was not the original ‘Mother’ of mankind – Ninnar/ Ninsun – in the Anuna

pantheon she was the daughter or niece of Enki. Thus as the succeeding generation became

the foremost ‘goddess’, the Queen of Heaven, of the middle-late S/A/B/A eras, the Sumerian goddess of the Eanna (‘house-of heaven’; temple of Erech, in circa 2500 Bce) – when adopted by later Mesopotamian civilizations (c.2100-500Bce) – plus within surrounding areas (such as the Phoenician’s goddess Astarte/ Greek Aphrodite etc. . .)

Esther (see Old Testament book) and Easter, estrogen/ are feminine/ fertility-associated words very likely derived from her name root. She has many names, myths, and stories associated with her in the Sumerian cultures, and by the late-Sumerian era was equivalent to being the pre-eminent ‘feminine aspect of the divinity’, among the other gods and goddesses… ie the

main goddess women in particular prayed to, in all stages of their lives.)

   ‘Come along Gilgamesh, be you my husband/ to me grant your lusciousness.

    Be you my husband, and I will be your wife

 …Bowed down beneath you will be kings, lords and princes’. . .

 Gilgamesh answers the goddess with a degree of circumspection;

  ‘What would I have to give you if I married you!

   I would gladly give you food fit for a god,

   I would gladly give you wine fit for a king.

  (you are. . .)

   . . .a half-door that keeps out neither breeze nor blast

   a palace that crushes down valiant warriors

   a pitch that blackens the hand of it’s bearer…

   Where are your bridegrooms that you keep forever?’ *

 * this perception of Gilgamesh/ raises a key issue namely the

   ‘inauspicious’ matings /weddings of gods with humans. . .

    As in the book of Genesis,  Enoch, Greek myths etc etc –

    (including Ishtar and Tammuz, a sheep-herd), there are

    virtually no clear examples of fulfilled marriages, and families. . .

Gilgamesh then goes on to list some of her previous lovers/husbands;

   You loved the Shepherd, the Master Herder,

   Who continually presented you with bread baked in embers

…Yet you struck him, and turned him into a wolf,

   so his own shepherds now chase him,

   and his own dogs snap at his shins. . .

   You loved Ishullannu, your father’s date gardener,

   You raised your eyes and you went to him;

   Ishullanu said to you;

   What is it you want from me!

   Has my mother not baked, and have I not eaten

   that I should now eat food under contempt and curses

   And that alfafa grass should be my only cover against cold?’…

   And now me! It is me you love, and you will ordain for me as for them!”

  Ishtar’s response is not unexpected;

  When Ishtar heard this, in a fury she went up to the heavens,

  Going to Anu, her father and crying,

  going to Anrum, her mother, and weeping.

 “Father, Gilgamesh has insulted me over and over.

  Gilgamesh has recounted despicable deeds about me,

  despicable deeds and curses!”

 Anu addresses her calmly;   

  ‘Was it not you who provoked King Gilgamesh?’

   So that he recounted despicable deeds about you,

   Despicable deeds and curses!’

Ishtar says,

  ‘Father, give me the Bull of Heaven,

   So you can kill Gilgamesh in his dwelling. . .

   If you do not give me the Bull of Heaven, 

   I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld

   I will smash the door posts, and leave the floors flat down

   And will let the dead go up to eat the living..!’

Anu replies,

   ‘If you demand the Bull of Heaven from me,

    there will be 7 years of empty husks for the land

    Have you collected grain for the people!’

Ishtar answers smoothly,

‘I have heaped grain in the granaries for the people,

    I have made the grasses grow for the animals.’

  At which Anu recognises prudence and places the nose-ring of the

  Bull of Heaven in  her hand, which she leads down to Earth.

  Ishtar leads it down the Euphrates, and Sumer. Examples of it’s

  power are given, it snorts and a huge pit opens up; a hundred men

  fall in, etc. Then more. Then Enkidu falls in the hole, but only

  up to his waist.

He immediately climbs out to battle it and literally seizes the bull by the horns!

  ‘My friend, we can be bold (?)-

   My friend, I saw. . .

   And I will rip out. . .

   I and you, we must share (?)

   I shall grasp the Bull. . .

. . .between the nape, the horns, and. . .thrust your sword.’

   Enkidu stalked and hunted down the Bull of Heaven. . .

. . .while Gilgamesh boldly and surely approached. . .between

   the nape, the horns, and. . .he thrust his sword.’

   Straight away they tear out its heart, and present it as an offering

   to their protector Shamash, then

 ‘They withdrew bowing down humbly to Shamash.’

The inevitable uproar occurs;

Ishtar went up onto the top of the wall of Uruk-Haven,

  cast herself into the pose of mourning,

  and hurled her woeful curse;

 “Woe unto Gilgamesh who slandered me and killed the Bull of Heaven!”

At which Enkidu tears off the Bull’s hindquarters and throws

 them in her face, with some strong words. . ;

 “If I could only get at you I would do the same to you!”. . .

 Ishtar reacts immediately;

‘. . .(she) assembled the (cultic women) of lovely-locks, joy-girls and

  harlots and set them to mourning over the Bull.’

Gilgamesh examines the remains of the Bull, summoning the artists and craftsmen they

 admire the thickness of its horns, each made from lapis-lazuli ! (ie, as if to

 say the Bull, like Humbaba, was a robot, a ‘machine’ created by the gods. . .)

 ‘Two fingers thick is their casing.

  Six vats of oil (!) the contents of the two

  He gave as ointment to his (personal) god, Lugalbanda. . .

They wash their hands, and walk beside each other through the streets

 of Uruk, with Gilgamesh asking the palace retainers,

‘Who is the bravest of the men 

  Gilgamesh is the boldest of males. . .

  She at whom we flung the hindquarters of the Bull Of Heaven in anger,

  Ishtar has no-one that pleases her in the street’.

 They hold a celebration in the palace,

‘The Young Men dozed off, sleeping on the couches of the night.

  Enkidu was sleeping, and had a dream,

  He woke up and revealed his dream to his friend’.


Enkidu’s dream forebodes troubles;

  ‘My friend, why are the Great Gods in conference?

  in my dream, Anu, Enlil and Shamash held a council, and

  Anu spoke to Enlil;

 ‘Because they killed the Bull of Heaven and have also

  slain Humbaba,

  The one of them who pulled up the Cedar of the Mountain

  must die!’

Enlil agrees saying ‘let Enkidu die, but Gilgamesh must not die’.

Shamash defends them both;

 ‘Was it not at my command that they killed the Bull, and

  Humbaba? Should innocent Enkidu now die?’

 Enlil becomes angry, blaming Shamash for encouraging them.

 Enkidu is lying there sick, in front of Gilgamesh who asks why

 he is being absolved instead of his brother. . .

 Enkidu is troubled in his mind, that he is to be killed, and

 will become a ghost, to roam the Cedar Forest alone, never to

 be with his brother again.

 He takes leave of his senses, talks to the door (the ceremonial

 door made of the wood of the Cedar), and calls it a stupid wooden door;

 ‘Had I known that this was your gratitude. . .

  I would have taken an axe, and chopped you up’.

 Gilgamesh listens to his friend’s irrational words and the tears flow

 from his face as he cautions him to be tactful;

“My friend, the gods gave you a broad mind and. . .

 Though it behoves you to be sensible, you keep

 uttering improper things!

 The dream is important but very frightening,

 your lips are buzzing like flies.

 Though there is much to fear, the dream is important.

 To the living they (the gods) leave sorrow

 to the living the dream leaves pain.

 I will pray and beseech the Great Gods. . .

 I will appeal to Enlil, the Father of the Gods. . .

 I will fashion a statue of you, of gold without measure,

 do not worry. . .gold. . .

 What Enlil says is not. . .

 What he has said cannot go back, cannot. . .

 My friend. . . of fate goes to mankind”

 As dawn breaks, Enkidu raises his head, and cries out to Shamash,

 recounting the time he was brought from the marshes in order to

 control Gilgamesh; he curses the trapper in the marshes, he curses

 Shamhat the harlot; ‘I will curse you with a great curse. . .’

 Shamash, hearing Enkidu’s lengthy cursing, speaks down from the sky

 reminding him of the blessings his new life brought him;

 “Enkidu, why are you cursing the harlot Shamhat

  she who fed you bread fit for a king (consciousness)

  she who dressed you in fine garments,

  and she who allowed you to make beautiful Gilgamesh your comrade!

  Now Gilgamesh is your beloved brother-friend 

  He will have you lie on a couch of honour. . .

  He will have the people of Uruk go into mourning for you. . .

  And after he will don the skin of a lion and roam the wilderness”

‘As soon as Enkidu heard the words of valiant Shamash,

 His agitated heart grew calm, his anger abated.’

 He now blesses the harlot Shamhat instead, wishing joy for her.

 Then he recounts a further dream to Gilgamesh;

 He spoke everything he felt, saying. . .

 ‘Listen my friend, to my dream. . .

  The heavens cried out and the earth replied,

  And I was standing between them.

  There appeared a man of dark visage-

  His face resembled the abyss (anzu)

  His hands were the paws of lions,

  His nails the talons of an eagle!

 -he seized me by the hair, and overpowered me.

  I struck him a blow but he skipped about like a jump rope,

  and then he struck me, and capsized me like a raft,

  and trampled on me like a wild bull.

  He encircled my whole body in a clamp.

 “Help me my friend!” I cried,

  But you did not rescue me, you were afraid, and did not. . .”

 “Then he. . . and turned me into a dove,

  So that my arms were feathered like a bird,

Seizing me, he led me down into the House of Darkness. . .

  to the house where those who enter do not come out,

  along the road of no return. . .

  On entering the House of Dust,

  everywhere I looked there were royal crowns gathered in heaps,

. . .it was the bearer of crowns, who in the past had ruled the land,

  who now served Anu and Enlil cooked meats,

  served confections and poured cool water from waterskins.

  In the House of Dust that I entered

  there sat the high priest and the acolyte,

  there sat the purification priest and ecstatic,

  there sat the anointed priests of the Great Gods.

  There sat Ereshkigal the Queen of the Netherworld,

  Beletseri, the Scribe of the Netherworld, knelt before her,

  she was holding the tablet and was reading it out to her Ereshkigal.

  She raised her head when she saw me. . .

 ‘Who has taken this man?'”

Following this, Enkidu is struck down with illness, and lays in

 his bed, one day, two, up to ten days, growing worse each day; he

 calls to Gilgamesh for him to support him, as he dies. . .


Gilgamesh recounts the life, and actions of Enkidu, and the friendship of

 the two.

“…Enkidu my friend, the swift mule. . . the panther of the wilderness

    after we joined together and went up into the mountains,

    fought the Bull of Heaven and killed it,

    And overwhelmed Humbaba, who lived in the Cedar Forest.

    Now what is this sleep which has seized you?

    You have turned dark and do not hear me!

   But his eyes do not move,

   he touched his heart, but it beat no longer.

   He covered his friend’s face like a bride,

   swooping down over him like an eagle,

   and like a lioness deprived of her cubs,

   he kept pacing to and fro.

   He shears off his curls and heaps them on the ground,

   ripping off his finery and casting it away as an abomination.”

  Gilgamesh has entered a new phase of life. . .

  The tablet ends with Gilgamesh giving obeisance to Shamash, and leaving to

  roam the wilderness, dressed in wild animal skins.



Gilgamesh laments as he wanders alone through the landscape;

 ‘I am going to die – am I not like Enkidu?

  Deep sadness penetrates my core,

  I fear death, and now roam the wilderness

  I will set out to the region of Utnapishtim

  When I arrived at mountain passes at nightfall,

  I saw lions and I was terrified!

  I raised my head in prayer to Sin (the Moon god)

  He was sleeping in the night, but awoke with a start with a dream;

  A warrior enjoyed his life –

  he raised his axe in his hand

  drew the dagger from its sheath

  and fell into their midst like an arrow. . .

  He struck and scattered them,

  The name of the former. . .

  The name of the second. . .*

*Of interest here is how this dream presages the behaviour of Gilgamesh

  when he damages the ability of the boat of Urshanabi to travel across the

(cosmic) waters to reach his aim of meeting Utnapishtim. . .

 especially considering it is two things that he damages. So the effect is like

 a kaleidoscope of spiritually significant moments…

  (some 26 missing lines here,) then Gilgamesh on his quest to speak with the

   survivor of the flood encounters some other-worldly beings and places ;

. . .Then he reached Mount Mashu,

Which daily guards the rising and setting of the Sun,

above which only the dome of the heavens reaches,

and whose flank reaches as far as the Netherworld below,

there were Scorpion-beings watching over it’s gate.

Trembling terror they inspire, the sight of them is death

Their frightening aura sweeps over the mountains.

  Gilgamesh approaches them, terrified but determined. . .

‘The scorpion-being called out to his female;

 ‘He who comes to us, his body is the flesh of the gods’

  His female answered him, saying,

 ‘Only two thirds of him is a god, one third is human’.

They ask him his reason for approaching –

 Gilgamesh explains to speak with his ancestor Utnapishtim,

 “Who joined the Assembly of the Gods, and was given eternal life.

  About Death and Life I must ask him.”

The scorpion man replies that ;

  ‘never has there been, Gilgamesh, a mortal man who could do that.

   No-one has crossed through the mountains,

   for twelve leagues it is darkness throughout-

   dense is the darkness, and light there is none.’

 Gilgamesh answers,

“Though it be in deep sadness and pain,

  in cold or heat –

  gasping after breath – I will go on!

  Now! Open the Gate!”

 The scorpion-man grants Gilgamesh the right to enter-

 ‘The Mashu Mountains I give to you freely,

  the mountains, the ranges, may you traverse-

  The gate of the mountain, to the rising of the Sun.’

 Gilgamesh begins his journey;

 ‘As soon as Gilgamesh heard this

  he heeded the utterances of the scorpion-being

  Along the Road of the Sun he journeyed –

  one league he travelled –

  dense was the darkness, light there was none.’

He travels further into the darkness, from one to 12 leagues*

(in a poetic form identical to the journey of the spirit of

the Pharaoh through the (12 hours) of the night, upon death;

travelling in this symbolic period from the earth, through purgatory

and hell, to the Heavens. . .)

 ‘Eleven leagues he travelled, and came out before the Sun(rise)

  Twelve leagues he travelled and it became brilliant,

   . . .it bears lapis-lazuli as foliage,

  bearing fruit, a delight to look upon. . .

  /Gilgamesh. . . on walking onward,

   raised his eyes and saw. . .


 Having journeyed beyond the known world now, Gilgamesh meets Siduri, the


   The tavern-keeper Siduri who lives by the sea-shore,

   She lives. . .

   the pot-stand was made for her, the golden fermenting vat was made for her

   She is covered with a veil. . .

   Gilgamesh was roving about. . .

   wearing a skin. . .

   having the flesh of the gods in his body,

   but sadness deep within him,

   looking like one who has been travelling a long distance.

*note- the use of cooking/domestic implements as objects of ‘religious’

 reverence/symbolism was popular across virtually all of the

 main cultures of the Middle East at this early stage of civilization,

 (see Sumerian objects discovered in the Tomb of Kings, for example).

 Most probably this resulted from their being objects of clear

 significance and worth to all members  of society – especially when

 then gold-plated, and sanctified.

 The tavern-keeper mistakes Gilgamesh for a murderer, not a king on a quest! –

  “That fellow is surely a murderer !

   Where is he heading?. . .”

. . .she bolted her door,

   bolted her gate, bolted the lock.’

   But at her noise Gilgamesh pricked up his ears,

   lifted his chin, and then laid his eyes on her.

 “Tavern-keeper, what have you seen that made you bolt your door,

  bolt your gate, bolt the lock?”

Siduri repeats her worries, he looks like a vagabond, a murderer. . .

 Gilgamesh answers forcefully,

 “I am Gilgamesh, I killed the Guardian!

  I destroyed Humbaba who lived in the Cedar Forest,

  I slew lions in the mountain passes!

  I grappled withe Bull (of Heaven), and killed him.”

  Siduri asks, if you are Gilgamesh, who did all these things,

  “Why are your cheeks so emaciated, your expression so desolate?

. . .Why is there such sadness deep within you?”

Gilgamesh explains the series of events that led to his situation; the friendship

  with Enkidu, their journey to the Cedar forest, their battle with the robot

  Humbaba; and their battle with the Bull of Heaven.

 “My friend, whom I love deeply, who went through every hardship with me,

   Enkidu, whom I love deeply. . .

   the fate of mankind has overtaken him”.

Further, he adds,

 “I began to (then) fear death, and so roam the wilderness.

  The issue of my friend oppresses me, so I have been roaming

  long trails through the wilderness. . .”

 “How can I stay silent, how can I be still!

  My friend whom I love has turned to clay.

  Am I not like him? Will I lie down, never to get up again?”

  “So now, tavern-keeper, what is the way to Utnapishtim!

   What are it’ markers. . .Give me the markers!

. . .If possible, I will cross the sea;

    if not, I will roam through the wilderness. . .”*

*  the ‘sea’ here, in context of the ‘quest’ Gilgamesh is following, is the

  ‘sea’ of the depths of ‘space’ or the ‘higher dimensions’ – as Enki’s title

   the ‘Lord of the Deep’ implies, as well as the various beings in the Old

   Testament are labelled as ‘sea-creatures’ of the ‘deep’ – Tiamat, Leviathan

   etc, indicating origins beyond the limits of the solar system…

And the markers thus assume the character of astronomic /celestial guide-points. . .

  Siduri answers kindly,

“There has never been, Gilgamesh, any passage whatever.

   there has never been anyone since days of yore who

   crossed the sea.

   The only one who crosses the sea is valiant Shamash (the Sun-god’).

…the crossing is difficult, it’s ways are treacherous –

   and in between are the Waters of Death that bar it’s approaches!

   And even if, Gilgamesh, you should cross the sea,

   When you reach the Waters of Death what would you do!”

 Continuing, Siduri gives some (puzzling) advice;

“Gilgamesh, over there is Urshanabi, the ferryman of Utnapishtim.

  The ‘stone-things’ are with him, he is in the woods picking mint.

  Go, let him see your face

  If possible, cross with him;

  If not, you should turn back.”

But Gilgamesh is seized by forcefulness, as is his nature;

“When Gilgamesh heard this

   he raised the axe in his hand,

   drew the dagger from his belt,

   and slipped stealthily away after them.

  Like an arrow he fell among them (the ‘stone-things’)

  From the middle of the woods, their noise could be heard.”

 The ferry-man, Urshanabi responds to the clamour;

   “Urshanabi, the sharp-eyed, saw. . .

    When he heard the axe, he ran toward it.

    He struck his head. . .Gilgamesh.’

    He clapped his hands and. . .his chest,

    while the ‘stone things’. . . the boat

. . .Waters of Death

. . .broad sea

    in the Waters of Death. . .

. . .to the river

. . .the boat

. . .on the shore.”

Ie Gilgamesh has destroyed the correct way to cross the sea, to reach the waters of Life,

  (the river), in the only way designed for reaching safety. . .

    “Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, the ferryman,

 . . .you”

  But Urshanabi cuts him off immediately, to ask familiar questions;

 ” Why are your cheeks emaciated, your expression desolate! . .

   Why is there such sadness deep within you!”

 Gilgamesh supplies the same explanations to Urshanabi as to Siduri; his

 epic travels, and travails, with Enkidu, journeying across mountains to

 battle the servant of Enlil, Humbaba, and the Bull of Heaven, sent by

 Ishtar. . .after which the death of Enkidu, and Gilgamesh’s wandering through the

 wilderness pondering human mortality. Again he asks for guidance;

 “Now Urshanabi, what is the way to Utnapishtim?

  What are it’s markers! Give them to me! Give me the markers!”

  If possible I will cross the sea. . .”

 Urshanabi the ferry-man answers;

  “It is your hands, Gilgamesh, that prevent the crossing!

   You have smashed the ‘stone-things’, you have pulled out their

   retaining ropes. (?)*

   Gilgamesh, take your axe. . .go down into the woods,

   and cut down 300 punting poles each 60 cubits in length.”

  *In other versions this second part of the sentence indicates

  that he has ‘picked up all the urnu-snakes’, as well as smashing

  the ‘stone things’. . .

  There are some reasons for considering this addition as valid, despite –

  or because of – it’s opacity.

  The punting poles are for propelling the boat ‘manually’

  across the waters of ‘Death’.

  Gilgamesh does this in the forest, and brings them down to the boat,


  “. . .(they) boarded the boat,

   Gilgamesh launched the ‘magillu-boat’ and they sailed away.”*

* The magillu-boat is from the Sumerian ma-gi-lum, and is a ship of the

  netherworld, a ‘boat of the west’, associated with the setting of the sun;

‘All living creatures born of the flesh shall sit at last in the boat of the

  West, and when it sinks, when the boat of Magilum sinks, they are gone. . .’

They travel a distance of a month and a half’s journey in 3 days, until

 arriving at the Waters of Death.

 Here, Urshanabi gives Gilgamesh one of the punting poles, and instructs him to

 propel the boat in this way, while making sure his hand does not touch

 the Waters. . .

 It takes up 12 poles, and then all 120 of the poles, to push the boat forwards. Once

 the poles are all used up, Gilgamesh is reduced to taking off his shirt/garments

 and hoping to use them as sails; (as sailors still did in the 19th century when surviving


 But this isn’t necessary – they are within sight of their destination, and of Utnapishtim

 now, having crossed the waters.

  Utnapishtim, the original Noah-figure, having received the help of

  the gods and survived the Deluge, now lives with his wife in what is called

  the ‘Far-away’ ie, beyond the boundaries of Earth. . .

 Utnapishtim is quick to sense problems approaching;

 “Utnapishtim was gazing far off into the distance,

  puzzling to himself he said. . .

  Why are the ‘stone-things’ of the boat smashed to pieces!

  And why is someone not it’s master sailing on it?

  The one who is coming is not a man of mine. . .

  I keep looking but not. . .

  I keep looking but not. . .”

  Utnapishtim poses the same questions to Gilgamesh as before;

“Why is your heart so wretched, your features so haggard!

    Why do you look like one who has been travelling a long distance

    so that ice and heat have seared your face?

. . .you roam the wilderness!”

 Gilgamesh repeats what he has said when asked the same questions by the

 other two ‘cosmic servants’, Siduri and Urshanabi. . . he tells about Enkidu,

 their experiences and Enkidu’s death, then his own period of inner questioning,

 concerning the reasons for man’s existence and the inevitability of death for all;

  “That is why I must go on, to see Utnapishtim who they call the Faraway.

    I went circling through all the mountains

    I traversed treacherous mountains, and crossed all the seas-

    that is why sweet sleep has not mellowed my face,

. . .though my muscles are filled with pain. . .”

 Here Utnapishtim asks Gilgamesh what his labours have achieved,

 in a passage reminiscent of biblical passages in both Ecclesiastes, and Job;

   “Why Gilgamesh, do you. . . sadness?

     You were created from the flesh of gods and mankind

     who made. . . like your father and mother?

     Have you ever. . . Gilgamesh. . . to the fool. . .

     They placed a chair in the Assembly. . .

     But to the fool they gave beer dregs instead of butter. . .

     Clothed with a loincloth(!) like. . .

     And. . . in place of a sash,

     because he does not have. . .

     does not have words of counsel. . .

     Take care about it, Gilgamesh,

 . . .their master. . .

 . . .Sin. . .(the god of the Moon)

 . . .eclipse of the moon. . .

     The gods are sleepless. . .

     They are troubled, restless. . .

     Long ago it has been established. . .

     You trouble ourself. . .

. . .your help. . .

     If Gilgamesh. . .the temple of the gods

. . . the temple of the holy gods,

. . . the gods. . .

. . . mankind,

     They took. . .for his fate.

     You have toiled without cease, and what have you got!

     Through toil you wear yourself out,

     You fill your body with grief,

     your long life-time you are bringing near (to a premature end)

     Mankind. . .

     the fine youth and the lovely girl

. . .death.

     No one can see death,

    no one can see the face of death,

    no one can hear the voice of death,

    yet there is savage death that snaps off mankind.

    For how long do we build a household?

    For how long do we seal a document?

    For how long do brothers share the inheritance?

    For (how) long is there to be jealousy in the land?

    For how long has the river risen and brought the overflowing waters,

    so that (people like) dragonflies drift down the river!

    The face that could gaze upon the face of the Sun

    has never existed ever.

    How alike are the sleeping and the dead. . .

. . .Yes, a human being, a man (are you).

    After Enlil had pronounced the blessing, (creating homo sapiens)

    The Anunnaki the Great Gods assembled.

    Mammetum, she who forms destiny, determined destiny with them.

    They established Death and Life,

    but they did not make known ‘the days of death’.


 Gilgamesh speaks with directness to the venerable man;

“I have been looking at you,

    But your appearance is not strange – you are like me!

. . .My mind as resolved to fight with you,

    (But instead) my arm lies useless over you.

    Tell me, how is it that you stand in the Assembly of the Gods,

    and have found life?”

  Utnapishtim* resolves to tell his tale to Gilgamesh;

  “I will reveal to you, Gilgamesh, a thing that is hidden

   a secret of the gods I will tell you!

   (in ancient) Shurrupak, on the banks of the Euphrates

   there were gods inside it.

   The hearts of the Great Gods moved them to inflict the Flood.

   Their Father Anu uttered the oath (of secrecy),

   Valiant Enlil was their advisor. . .

…Enki,the clever prince, was under oath with them,

   So he repeated their talk to the reed house(!);

   Reed house, reed house! Wall, wall!

   O man of Shurrupak. . .

   Tear down the house and build a boat!

   Abandon wealth and seek living beings!

   Spurn possessions and keep alive beings!

   Make all living beings go up into the boat,

   The boat which you are to build.

   It’s dimensions must measure equal to each other:

   It’s length must correspond to it’s width,

   Roof it over like the Apsu (Deep ‘South’)

   Utnapishtim replies to his Lord, who has chosen to warn him, as a

   righteous man, to ensure mankind, and all animals, survive the forth-

   coming Flood.

  “I understood and spoke to my lord, Enki:

   ‘My lord…I will heed and do it.

    But what shall I answer the city, the populace, and the Elders!’

Enki advises him to say to them that he is building a boat to leave the city

 as the God Enlil rejects him, so he therefore wishes to sail to live with his

 lord, Enki, in the ‘Apsu’/’Deep South’.

 ‘(and further, that). . . upon you he will rain down abundance,

   a profusion of fowl, myriad fishes,

  In the morning he will let loaves of bread shower down,

  and in the evening a rain of wheat!’

  Utnapishtim and his family and friends set about building the Ark.

 (Of interest, as well as the cubic definitions of the ‘ark’, are

  the quantities of goods used; it’s walls are 10 x 12 cubits in height

  – it has six decks, thus is divided into seven levels. The inside of

  each level is divided into 9 compartments. Then –

 “Three times 3,600 units of bitumen I poured into the. . .kiln

  Three times 3,600 porters of casks who carried (vegetable) oil,

  apart from the 3,600 units of oil which they consumed

  and two times 3,600 units of oil which the boatman stored away. . .”

So considering the base-60 units of the sexagesimal system introduced

 by the Sumerians, examined in other chapters, the boat and it’s (cube-like)

 dimensions would appear to be harmonically related to the measurements of

 time and space of the sexagesimal system. . . thus the measures would seem to

 be used symbolically in some sense, in one of the oldest works of art ever

 known to mankind.

  When the boat is finally built, Utnapishtim and all, load all the silver

 and gold they possess (!), all the living beings are loaded on, all his

 ‘kith and kin’, followed by all the beasts and animals of the field, as

 well as all the craftsmen go up into it.

  “Shamash had set a stated time:

  ‘In the morning I will let loaves of bread shower down,

   and in the evening a rain of wheat!

   Go inside the boat, seal the entry!’

   The stated time had arrived. . .

  I watched the appearance of the weather –

  the weather was frightful to behold!

  Just as dawn began to glow

  there arose from the horizon a black cloud

  Adad rumbled inside of it

  before him went Shullat and Hanish,

  heralds going over mountain and land.

  The Anunnaki lifted up the torches,

  setting the land ablaze with their flare,

  Stunned shock over Adad’s deeds overtook the heavens,

  and turned to blackness all that had been light.

  The …land shattered like a…pot

  All day long the South Wind blew…

  blowing fast, submerging the mountain in water,

  overwhelming the people like an attack.

  No one could see his fellow,

  they could not recognise each other in the torrent

  The Gods were frightened by the Flood,

  and retreated, ascending to the heaven of Anu.

  The gods were cowering like dogs, crouching by the outer wall.

  Ishtar shrieked like a woman in childbirth,

  the sweet-voiced Mistress of the Gods wailed:

  “Alas, the olden days have turned to clay,

  because I said evil things in the Assembly of the Gods!

  How could I…order a catastrophe to destroy my people!!

  No sooner have I given birth to my dear people

  than they fill the sea like so many fish!”

  The gods – those of the Anunnaki – were weeping with her,

  the gods humbly sat weeping, sobbing with grief,

  their lips burning, parched with thirst.

  Six days and seven nights

  came the wind and flood, the storm flattening the land.

  When the seventh day arrived, the storm was pounding,

  the flood was a war, struggling with itself like a woman

  in labour…

               *       *        *         *

  The sea calmed, fell still, the whirlwind and flood stopped up.

  I looked around all day long–quiet had set in

  and all the human beings had turned to clay!

  The terrain was flat as a roof.

  I opened a vent and fresh air fell upon the side of my nose.

  I looked around for coastlines in the expanse of sea,

  and at twelve leagues there emerged a region of land.

  Mt Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway.

  One day and a second…a third, fourth Mt Nimush held the boat

  A fifth day, a sixth…when the seventh day arrived

  I sent forth a dove and released it…”

  The dove returns though, finding nowhere to land. Utnapishtim sends

  off a swallow, which returns likewise. He sends off a raven;

 “The raven went off, and saw the waters slither back

  It  eats, it scratches, but does not circle back to me.

  Then I sent out everything in all directions and sacrificed

  a sheep.

  I offered incense in front of the mountain-ziggurat.”*

  The Flood is over, although its consequences remain.

  Utnapishtim burns more herbs, reeds, cedar and myrtle, in


  “The gods smelled the savour,

   the gods smelled the sweet savour,

   and collected like flies over a (sheep) sacrifice.

   Just then Beletili arrived,

…You gods, as surely as I shall not forget this lapis-lazuli

   around my neck,

   may I be mindful of these days, and never forget them!

  The gods may come to the incense offering,

  but Enlil may not come to the incense offering,

  because without considering he brought about the Flood,

  and consigned my people to annihilation.

  Just then Enlil arrived.

  He saw the boat and became furious (knowing nothing

  of mankind’s survival.)

 “Where did a living being escape?

  No man was to survive the annihilation!”

…Enki spoke to Valiant Enlil, saying:

  ‘It is yours, O Valiant One, who is the Sage of the Gods

   How, how could you bring about a Flood without consideration

…charge the offense to the offender

   but be compassionate lest (mankind) be cut off,

   be patient lest they be killed…

   Instead of your bringing on the Flood,

…would that (Pestilent) Erra had appeared to ravage the land!

   It was not I who revealed the secret of the Great Gods,

   I (only) made a dream appear to Utnapishtim, and thus he heard

   the secret of the gods.

   Now then! The deliberation should be about him!” (!)

   Enlil went up inside the boat

   and grasping my hand, made me go up.

   He had my wife go up and kneel by my side.

   He touched our forehead and, standing between us, he blessed us:

  ‘Previously Utnapishtim was a human being

   But now let Utnapishtim and his wife become like us, the gods!

   Let Utnapishtim reside faraway, at the Mouth of the Rivers’

   They took us faraway and settled us at the Mouth of the Rivers”

  Thus ends Utnapishtim’s account of the Flood, and his part in it…

  From this he turns his attention to Gilgamesh, and his quest;

  “Now then, who will convene the gods on your behalf,

   that you may find the life you are seeking!

   Wait! You must not lie down for six days and seven nights”.

This is the chance for Gilgamesh, to achieve his quest,

  all that he asked for and sought. But he cannot fulfil his task;

“soon as he sat down (with his head) between his legs

  Sleep, like a fog, blew over him.”

  Utnapishtim said to his wife:

 “Look there! The man, the youth, who wanted (eternal) life!

  Sleep, like a fog, blew over him!”

  Utnapishtim’s wife says to touch him, awaken him, that he

  may return to his home safely the way he came…

  “Utnapishtim said to his wife:

   Mankind is deceptive, and will deceive you.

   Come, bake loaves for him, and keep setting them by his head

   and draw on the wall each day that he lay down.”

  They do this each day baking a cake of bread, and marking on

  the wall how many days it is he has slept…

  Each day’s loaf becomes desiccated, stale, mouldy, and so on…

…”the fifth sprouted grey (mould),the sixth is still fresh.

   the seventh – suddenly he touched him and the man awoke.

   Gilgamesh said to Utnapishtim

  ‘The very moment sleep was pouring over me

   you touched me and alerted me!’

   Utnapishtim spoke…saying

  ‘Look over here Gilgamesh, count your loaves!

   You should be aware of what is marked on the wall!’…

Gilgamesh repeats his claim, and Utnapishtim goes over the

   pictures on the wall, and the 7 loaves placed beside him

   as he slept…

   The truth sinks in, leaving Gilgamesh bereft of hope:

“O woe! What shall I do Utnapishtim, where shall I go!

   The Snatcher has taken ahold of my flesh,

   in my bedroom Death dwells,

   And wherever I set foot there too is Death!”

Utnapishtim speaks to the ferryman, Urshanabi, enjoining him

  to help clean and dress the matted-hair and bedraggled traveller


…”Let him cast away his animal skin and have the sea carry it off,

   let his body be moistened with fine oil,

   let the wrap around his head be new

   let him wear royal robes worthy of him!

   Until he goes off to his city,

   until he sets off on his way

   let his royal robe not become spotted, let it be perfectly new!”

  Gilgamesh boards the boat in his newly cleaned state, with the guide

  Urshanabi, but as they leave, the wife of Utnapishtim the Faraway says;

…”(he) came here exhausted and worn out.

   What can you give him so that he can return to his land (with honour)!

  “Then Gilgamesh raised a punting pole

   and drew the boat to shore

   Utnapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh saying,

…you came here so exhausted and worn out…

   I will disclose to you a thing that is hidden, Gilgamesh,

   I will tell you.

   There is a plant…like a boxthorn

   Whose thorns will prick your hand like a rose.

   If your hands reach that plant you will become a young man again”

– the Plant (or Tree) of Eternal Life as it has been called…

   “Hearing this, Gilgamesh opened a conduit(!) (to the Apsu – the ‘abyss’)

    and attached heavy stones to his feet.

    They dragged him down, to the Apsu they pulled him.

    He took the plant though it pricked his hand,

    and cut the heavy stones from his feet,

    letting the waves throw him, onto the shores”.

Gilgamesh explains the plants worth to Urshanabi, saying

   “I will bring it to Uruk-Haven,

    and have an old man eat the plant to test it.

…Then I will eat it and return to the condition of my youth”(!)

  But before their journey back has ended, disaster strikes;

  ” at thirty leagues they stopped for the night.

   Seeing a spring and how cool it’s waters were,

   Gilgamesh went down and was bathing in the water.

   A snake smelled the fragrance of the plant

   silently came up and carried off the plant.

   While going back it sloughed off it’s casing”.(ie rejuvenated


  Gilgamesh is stunned by misfortune, yet again, and sits down weeping;

  “For whom have my arms laboured Urshanabi!

   I have not secured any good deed for myself,

   but done a good deed for the ‘lion of the ground’!”

And though his mind turns to re-tracing his steps to the conduit

  and repeating his actions there, he quickly realises;

 “as I was opening the conduit I turned my equipment over into it”…

  What can I find (to serve) as a marker (?) for me!

  I will turn back (from the journey by the sea) and leave the

  boat by the shore”…

But there is no second chance here, and they continue back to

  the home city of Gilgamesh…

  “They arrived in Uruk-Haven.

   Gilgamesh said to Urshanabi, the ferryman,

  ‘Go up, Urshanabi, onto the wall of Uruk and walk around.

   Examine it’s foundation, inspect it’s brickwork thoroughly–

   is not (even the core of) the brick structure of kiln-fired brick

   and did not the Seven Sages themselves lay out it’s plan!

   One league city, one league palm gardens, one league lowlands, the

   open area of the Ishtar Temple,

   three leagues and the open area (?) of Uruk it encloses.

(Translated by Maureen Gallery Kovacs –

       taken from

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