5.5,7,11,14,22 etc.
PHI – 0.618, 2.618, 0.3819, 1.3819, etc.
3.14159 – π.
FSC/ 𝛂- 1.37035999 206.
Precession & 864.
√3 – 1.732.
6/5 – 1.2 and 15.552/4 and 162.
345.6789 etc.
51.84 / 5184.
108 /109.2.


x 1.112 = 400
1.2 (6/5) = 432 (144 x 3)
(440/360 = 1.2 – See Octave & Giza/GP 7/11/14/22/28/44).
1.2345 = 444.44 = 4 x √123.4
1.44 = 518.4 = 72²/10.
1.4 = 504
14 = 5040 – see Earth : Moon radius total.

1.5                =  540                               
1.6                =  576   (144 x 4)
2.0                =  720   (144 x 5)     
2.4                =  864   (144 x 6)                            
3                   = 1080
4                   = 1440
4.444            = 1600
4.5                =  1620
5.555            =  2000

360 x 6 = 2160
360 x 6.66 = 2400 (RC)

[ ie 360 x 2/3 = 360 / 3/2 = 240(0)]

360 x 360 = 129,600
360 x 517.45 = 186,282 = C.
(see angle of Great Pyramid = 51.7 – 51.8°)

  • as the King Lists of Sumer & Babylon stated, as reported by Berossus and Abydenus, the first ten kings reigned 120 ‘sars’ of 3,600 years each, making 432,000 in total. The Kings were said to be deities or their hybrid ‘god’/human offspring, which accounted for the longevities involved. A Sar was one ‘year’ of the planet Niburu in its elliptical orbit of the Solar system. Hence the Sexagesimal system of 6 x10 x 6 x10 and so on.

Interestingly, the;
radius of the Sun = 432,000 /360 = 1200
radius of the earth = 3960 /360 = 11
radius of the moon = 1080 /360 = 3

So the Sun : Moon = 400 :1
Sun : Earth = 400 :11 = 36.36 36 (so that 400 / 1.111 = 360.0 3600 3600)
Earth: Moon = 11:3 = 3.66:1

Making the sexagesimal system ideal for planetary and celestial measures, ie as a connecting ‘gear-wheel’.

360:400 = 9:10 = 1 : 1.111 as seen in Square and Circle.

360 / 1.618 = 222.4 = 2 √123.4
/ 1.112 (√123.4) = 2(161.8) = 2(φ)
/ 1.272 (√φ) = 2(141.5) = 2 √2
/ 1.414 (√2) = 254.59 = 2 √φ
/ 144 = 2.5
/ 1.8 = 200
/200 = 1.8 = 10/5.55
/216 = 1.6666 = 10/6

1.414 / 1.234 = 1.1459
360/π = 114.6 /3 = 38.19
120/π = 38.19

360 x 1.2733 (√φ) /4 = 114.59 7 (= 360/3.14159)

[360 x 1.3703599 /4 = 123.33 23991]

360 x 1.54321 = 555.5556 ( 5.555 = 11.111/ 2)
x 1.543210987654321 = 555.55595555 !
x 3.456789 = 155.5555 05 !

5.555 = ¹⁄₃ of ¹⁄₆ (16.66), or ¹/₁₈ of 1(00)

so 360 x 1.54321 = 100/18.
& 200/ 11 = 18.18 = 100/ 5.5

100 / 1.54321 = 64.8 (360/5.555 ie 32.4 = 360/11.11)
360 x 1.8 = 648 (ie./2 of 1296 etc)

1.414 x 1.234 / π = 0.554 = 1/6 /3

5.236 / 1.618 = 3.236 = 1.618 x 2. (Egyptian Royal Cubit = 0.5236 metres)

3600 /8.1 /1.23456790123 = 360.000
3960 – 360 = 3600
ie 11x 360 = 3960m Earth’s radius
or 3600 + 360 (10 x 360 + 1 x 360)

360.11/π x 1.370359= 157.0796 (314.1592 /2)

Resonances; 360 x 360/3 (120) = 43,200 = Sun radius 432,000/ 10
and height of Gt Pyramid : Earth polar radius (481.4ft : 3947miles = 1:43,290)
360 x 360/5 (72 ) = 25,920 = Precession cycle
360 x 360/9 (40 ) = 14,400 (see Bible/ City of Heaven re. 144 and 144,000
360 x 360/86.4 (4.166 or 1/6 /4) = 1500
/81 (4.444) = 1600
/43.200 (8.33) = 3000
/.432,300 (832.7) = 299,792

See Giza 29.979°N & C (299,792km per/second)
And in fact – 432,500 = actual diameter of the Sun

5.5 / 7 / 11 / 14 / 22 / 28 / 44 etc, and

harmonics of these found in squared circle.

The Great Pyramid is based geometrically on these inner ratios which derive from
harmonics of 22 and 7, ie π – also √2, √φ, √123.456… and to the frequencies of the
A^ octaves in the piano 440/220/110/55/27.5 Hz etc.

14 / 11 x 2.468 = 3.1416
or 7 /11 x 1.234 = π

100/90 = 160/ 144 = 80/ 72 = 1.111111

400 / 111.1 = 3.6000360003
4 / 1.273 = 3.14159

172.8 / 3.1416 = 55.004 172.8 : 144 = 6:5
144 / 2.618 = 55.003819 3.1416 : 2.618 = 6:5

1.414 x 1.234 /3.1416 = 0.5554 (x2 = 1.1181)
3.1416 /1.414 = 2.221777 / 1.234 = 1.800

π / 2 / ” = 1.110888
360 / 1.6181 = 222.516
” / 4 = 55.63
√ π x π = 5.568

11 x 1.414 = 15.552 / 360 = .0432 !

[15.552 / 2 = 7.76
/ 3 = 5.184
5.555 x 7.777 = 43.2 01235
100/ 6 (16.665) / 3 = 5.555 (100/18)
100/ 18 x 7.77*rec = 432.098765432055555

11 / 14 = 0.7853
100/39.3 = 2.544529 (100/ 78.6 =1.272 264 = √φ)

100/ 18 = 5.55
100/ 81 = 1.2345679 012 (10²/9²)
100/ 90 = 1.11111 (10 /9)

22.222 : 16.666: 11.111 : 5.5555 = 4:3:2:1 see TREE OF LIFE.
15.5555 / 11 = 1.4141 = √2
15.5555 / 1.1111 = 14
“ / 0.5555 = 28 (see 5.5/11/14/22/28 GP) *

28 / 1.8 = 15.55/ 3 = 5.184
π x 11 = 34.56
π /1.818 = 1.728

864 / 1.111 = 777.6776777


90 x 1.11 = 100 (90 x √1.234 = 100)
x 1.2 = 108
x 1.234 = 111.1 = √123.4
x 1.2733 = 114.59
x 1.414 = 1.2727 (90 x √2 = √φ)
x 1.57 = 141.4 = √2
x 1.6 (8/5) = 144
x 1.7 = 153
x 1.8 = 162
x 57.6 = 5184
x 144 = 12,960

 x 0.618   = 55.6 (111.21 /2)
 x 1.618   = 144

 /1.273    = 70.7

90 x 1.2733 = 114.59
90 / 78.53 = 1.146 0588
/ 54 = 1.666 666 [10/6]

90 / 32.4 x2 = 5.555
360 / 32.4 = 11.111
360 / 32.4 x4 = 44.44

Phi – φ
0.618, 1.618,2.618 /

0.3819, 1.3819 etc.

222.4 km = 138.19 295 m

2.236 – 1.6181 = 0.6179
2.236 / 1.618 = 1.3819
1.618/ 2.618 = 0.618
0.618 x 1.618 = 1
1.618 x 1.618 = 2.618
0.618 x 0.618 = 0.3819
2.618x 0.3819 = 1

161.8/ 5.618 = 28.8
161.8/ 144 = 1.1236 111111
161.8/ 57.6 = 2.8 – see 7/14 22 28 etc

2.618² / 5.554 = 1.234
” / 1.3703599 = 5.00 19

360/3.14159 = 114.59
114.59 /3 = 38.19
120 / 3.1416 = 38.19

38.19 x 1.414 = 54
38.19 / 1.414 = 27
141.4 / 5.236 = 27. 0053
2 / 5.236 = 0.3819

3.14159/ 6 = 0.5236
2.6181 / 5 = 0.5236
ie π/6 = ERC ; x 5 = 2.618 (φ²)
so π is 6/5 (1.2) proportion to φ²

0.38199 x 137.03599 (𝛂) = 52.35 ! Noteworthy is the distance between the Ten Perpetual Choirs in ancient Britain, which several writers such as John Michell have estimated were spaced 38.2 miles apart, in a circular shape.

with ERC being common denominator/ basis;
114.6 x 0.5236 = 60. 00 456
& 6 x 0.5236 = 3.14159
√5 (2.236) + 3 = 5.236 = ERC : 52.36 cm
√5/φ ( 2.236/ 1.618) = 1.3819
2 / 0.52359 = 3.819
1.728 /3.3 (11 x3) = 0.5236
57.6 / 11 = 5.236 (see Vesica units 14.4/ 28.8/43.2/ 57.6, etc)
1.618 / 5.618 = 0.288
141.4 / 5.236 = 27. 0053

12√2 x2 (ie, 1.059 x2) = 2.118 = [√5 /2 + 1]

√0.3819 = 0.618
√123.456 = 111.111
0.618 / 1.618 = 0.3819

2 x 111.8 = 223.6 – √5 (2.236)

(√5/ϕ) 2.236/ 1.618 = 1.3819 !
61.8 / 0.5555 = 111.2 511

138.19/ 3.618 = 38.19
38.19 / 3.618 = 10.555
10.555/ 3.819 = 2(1.3819)
√38.19 = 6.18
3.618/ 2.618 = 1.3819

[138.19 66/ 4 = 34.5 49]
[10.555 x 2.22 = 23.456 78 777]
180 / 36.19² = 0.1234
π / 1.414 = 222.1441
ie; π / √2 = 2(√1.23456)

127.3 / 3.333 = 38.19 03819 03819
38.19 x π = 120
144/ π / 120 = 0.3819 = 6/5 /π

38.19 x 3.66 = 140

π / 6 = 0.52359 x 5 = 2.618 (φ²)
π / 6/5 = ϕ²

38.19 x 3 = 114.59 [3 x 1.00]
38.19 x 3.33 = 127.29 [3 x 1.11]

114.59/ 3 = 38.19
138.19/ 4 = 34.5 475

Dihedral angle (angle between two intersecting planes ie in Platonic Solids) is
138.19 in the Icosahedron, the 20-sided polyhedron. Plato identified it as being
the Platonic solid which created water…

1.618 / 5.618 = 0.288 (!)
1.618 / 3.236 = 0.5 (ie,1.181 + 0.5, x2= 2.236+1)

ϕ progression;

4.236 (√5 + 2)
2.6181 (ϕ + 1)

1.6181 ϕ = (√5 + 1) ie. (1.118 + 0.5)
0.6181 ( ϕ – 1)
0.3819 (2 – ϕ)
0.236 (√5 – 2)

(so in fact any two values add up to the one above; ie 0.3819 + 0.236 = 0.618
with the middle term being at phi ratio).

2.236 / 1.618 = 1.3819
2.236 / 3.618 = 0.618
√5 (2.236) + 3 = 5.236 = ERC (x10) .5236 m

ϕ x 2 = 3.236
ϕ ² x 2 = 5.236 0615

1.728/ 3.3(3×1.1) = 0.5236
or 5.184 / 9.9 = 0.5236


Genesis 1.14 – ” let (the stars) be for signs and for seasons and for days and for years”…
The Holy Qur’an – 114.6 suras.

360 / 3.14159 = 114.6
365 x π / 10 = 114.6 68

127.3 /1.111 = 114.6
(√φ / √1.234 = 360/π)

114.6 x 1.234 = 1.4141
114.6 x 1.4141 = 162.0 444
114.59 x 2.6181 = 300
114.6 x π = 360

90 x 1.273 (√φ) = 114.6
90 / 78.53 = 1.146 0588

114.6 x 0.54 = 61.81 (54 = 9 x 6)
114.6 x 0.33 = 38.19 (33 = 5.5 x 6)

3.14159/2 / 1.370359 = 114.6 26

3.14159 – π

π² = 9.87 (9.8696044)
π / 1.6181 x 4 = 7.76

4 / π = 1.273
7 / π = 2.228
9 / π = 2.864
123.45/ π = 39.29 = 78.6 /2

1.111 / π = 0.3536 [x2= 0.707] ie. 1.414/ 4
so, 400 x 1.111/ π = √2 (141.41) ie. 4.444/π=√2
√2 x 1.11 072 x 2 (2.22 144) = π
or √2 x √1.234 = π/2

1.62 x 2 x 1.2345 = 4
(ie 3.24 x 1.2345 = 4)
π x 1.273 = 4

1.4141/ 1.1118 = 1.272 00356

360 / 1.618 = 222.4 = 2(111.2)

π / 1.272 = 2(1.2345) (π & ϕ)
π / 1.272 = 2.469
π / 1.414 = 2.22 ie.2(√1.234)
π x 1.414 = 4.44 4(√1.234)
π x 1.272 /1.618 = 2.46978 = 2(1.2345)
(ie π x √φ / ϕ = 2(1.2345)

π/ 1.818 (20/11, or 10/5.5) = 1.728 = 2 x .864

28/ 1.8 = 15.55
28/ 22 = 1.272 (√1.618)
14/ 11 = “

π x ϕ = 4(√φ)
π x π/2 = 4(1.234)
π x √φ = 4 [π x 1.273 =4]
π x √2 = 4.44 288 = 4(√1.234)

2 x √1.234 x 1.618 = 360
ie. 2.224 x 1.618 = 359.8

(111.2 km = 1° of the earth’s equatorial circumference ie 1/360,
making the total 40,032km. The Sun, Moon and Earth have 4/400/10,000
harmonic ratios occur repeatedly).

π x 22 = 69.11 = 1° of Earth’s Equatorial circumference in miles

π x 11 = 34.56 (1/720 Earth circumference)
π x 38.19 = 360/3 = 120
127.3 x 3 = 381.9 …
π x 51.51 = 161.8 2

864 / 11 = 78.54 (864 / 22 = 39.27)
π / 4 = .7853 98

π/ 0.1370359 (α)/ 0.1666 (1/6) = 0.382 088 =0.3819 (to within 0.0001)
π/ 6 = 0.52359 877 ; x 5 = 2.61799 = ϕ²
π/ 6 = ERC x 5 = ϕ²

π x 9²⁄₂ = 127.2 345


369 / 3 = 123
/3.3 = 111.81 8181 = √5/₂ ie. 2.236/₂

√123.3³ = 1,369. 1297

123 x 3 = 369

123.456789 x 3 = 369 + 1.37035999 = 370.370359
=> 3 x .456789 = 1.370359

Fine Structure Constant (𝛂) Alpha

αˉ¹ = 1/137.035999206 = 0.007 297 352 56

= 0.00 729 735 256 93
= 7.297 352 5693 x 10ˉ³

123.456789 x3 = 370.370367 = 369 (!) + 1.37036 (!)
ie. 123 x3 = 369
0.456789 x3 = 1.370367

3x 123 = 369

  • 3x .4567866 666 = 1.370359998

314.159/ 38.19 x 16.6584 = 137.035999
( 100/ 16.6584 = 6. 00 297747)

π / 2 / α = 114.6

2 / 1.62 = 1.23456789
2 x 1.62 x 1.234567 = 4
2 x 1.62 x 1.370359 = 4(√1.234) = 4.44

1.37035999 / 2.618033 = 0.523431
ERC = 0.52359 m ~0.0001677755 diffce
(1.37035999206 x 0. 3819 66= 0.52

34 similarly).

1.618033² x 2 = 5.236 046
ie 2.618 x 2 = 5.236 0615 [√5 = 2.236]

1.728 / 3.3 (3×1.1) = 0.5236
3.456 / 6.6 = 0.5236
5.184 / 9. 9 = 0.5236

365.24 / 1.370359 = 4 x 66.6

137.0359 / 1.2345 = 111.005
√1.234 x 1.234 = 1.370359
137.0359 x 8 = 1096.2872
” x 9 = 1,234.55

1.111 x1.111 x1.11021 = 1.37035999

137.0359 x 1.1181 = 153.219

(√123.4³ = 1370.795719)

137.035999/ 1.11= 123.45 58

√1.233738489³ = 1.37035999

ie 11.1 073781³ = α

The two values 10/9 (100/90) and 10²/9² (100/81) = 1.111 & 1.23456789.

  • 111.111 / 81. 081695 = 1.37035999 44 (√ ” =9.0045)
    [& 111.111 / 81. 1539 = 1.369 00383 ( ” =9.0085]

314.159 2653 / 1.370359992 /2 = 114.6 2654 !!

10 090/ 400 x 1.37035999 = 34.56 7
(10 090 = Earth diam +Moon Diameter+10m
ie. 2ms per radius/ See – Knight & Butler re significance of 400 & Moon and Sun).

864 and 432.

x 4 [/2.5] = 3456
x 5 [2] = 4320
x 6 [1/6] = 5184
x 9 [/1.11] = 7777

  /3.3      = 261.81 
  /345.6  = 2.5
  /360     = 2.4 0
  /5         = 172.8                 
  /6         = 144           
  /7         = 123.4
  /8         = 108
  /12       = 72
 /π         = 275 (34.56/ π =11.000 789 666)

See – Gt Pyramid 440 RC/ piano Standard Ref Note A4 = 440Hz; 220/ 110/ 55/ 27.5 Hz, etc
Plus – the human inner ear /cochlea – has 2.75 spirals.
7/8.1 = .8642
/11 = 78.6 / 2 = 39.27 [ 78.6 x π = 2(123.4)]
/14 = 61.7

864 /16.66 = 51.84
/111.1 = 7.776 /12 = 64.8, (777.6/ 24 = 32.4 = 360 /11.111)
/123.4 = 7.00 162 0
/55.55 = 15.55
8.64/5.5 = 1.5709 (3.1418/2)
24 883.2 /432 = 57.6
“ /864 = 28.8 – See Vesica units and Bible /Temple of Solomon.

7920/55 = 144
/22 = 360
/110 = 72

864,000/ 7920 = 109. 091
” /25920 = 33.3333

Mass of Sun : Earth = 333,000:1 (

55.55 x 7.777 = 432.01235
(See Gt Pyramid section for significance of 5.5/7/11/14 etc)

√186 282 = 431.6039
+ 0.396 (radius of Earth)/10,000
= 432

            x 1000
           = 432,000 = radius of Sun

So -1000th the radius of the sun
minus 10,000th the radius of the earth
= the Square Root of the Speed of Light !

55.55 x 7.77 = 431.6235 (!)
11/4 x π = 8.639 379
100/ 115.4 = 86.6%

Precession and 864

360 / 12 = 30 = ° per 12th
25 920/30 = 864 = 1/30th of P. = 1/1000 of Sun diameter.
25920/360 = 72 = 1° of P.

864/ 72 = 12
864,000 / 33.33 = 25,920
864 / 2.4 = 360
8.64 / 3.3 = 2.6181
8.64 / 11 = 0.7854

√25 920 = 160.9 9689
P / 9 = 2880
P / 8 = 3240 (=3600/ 1.1111)
P / 7 = 3702.857
” – 369 = 3 333.8571
/7.776 = 3333.333 (77,760 / 3 = P)
P / 6 = 4320
P / 5 = 5184
P / 4 = 6480
P / 3 = 864 0
P / 2 = 12 960
P / 180 = 144
P / 360 = 72 years per degree.
P / 36 = 720
720/ π/ 1.4141= 162.0569 369 0
162 / 5 = 32.4 x 1.370359 = 44.4 (11.1 x4)

[ 25 920 /99 = 261.81
25 920 /16 = 1620 ]

25 920 / 12 = 2160 (years per house, zodiac)
864,000/2160 = 400 Sun:Moon ratio/size
” /2400 = 360


x 2 = 345.6
x 3 = 518.4
/1.2 = 144
/2 = 86.4
/3 = 57.6
/4 = 43.2
/5 = 34.56
/6 = 28.8
/7 = 24.68 = 2(12.34)
/8 = 21.6
/3.60 = 48

17.28 / 5.5004 = 3.14159

/1.1001 = 157.08 (π/2)
/1.1119 = 155.4
/1.44 = 120
/1.4 = 123.4
/1.5 = 115.2
/1.554 = 111.2
/1.5708 = 110.007
/1.6 = 108
/2.2 = 78.5
/2.222 = 77.6777 677
/2.4 = 72
/2.5 = 69.12
/2.7 = 64
/3.2 = 54
/3.3 = 52.36 (ERC = 52.36cm; or 20.6”)
/4.4 = 39.27
/5.5 = 31.418 (~π)
/6.6 = 26.181 (φ)

√3 1.732

/2 = 0.866
/1.2 = 1.44
/3 = 57.6 (0.576)
/4 = 43.3
/6 = 28.86 (0.288)
/12 = 14.43


√2.9999 = 1.732
C = √2.9979 = 1.731 /4 =0.432
C = 299,792.458 km/s. = 1 080,000,000 km/h
C /1.6093 = 186,282 m/s.
√186,624 = 432.

186 282 x 86.4% = 160,947. 648

Giza great pyramid is at; 29.9792°N 31.134°E, Lhasa (capital of Tibet) is at 29.65°N, 91.14°E.
29.9792°N – 29.6548°N = 0.324 4° N of Lhasa (1/1110 of 360°)
91.1406°E – 31.1342°E = 60.0064°E of Giza (1/6 of 360°)
1110/ 6 (x2) = 370 (-3.69 = 366.31, -36.9 = 333.1, etc)
See – Gt Pyramid; Entranceway to Ascending Passage = 1110’
1/6 = 0.16665 x 0.009 (1/1110) = 0.00015 ( 1/.00015 = 6666.66)

173 Astronomical Units per/day (1AU = c.93 million miles, between Earth and Sun).
C = 670,616,629 miles/per hour
= 16,094,079,909 miles/ per day, 5,869 billion miles per year

Milky Way is 100,000 light years across…

As there are 5.8692 trillion miles per light year, x 100,000 = 600 million billion miles across. In other
words, a space craft travelling at 1 million mph would cover 8.76 billion miles a year, and would cross the
Milky Way in 68.49 million years !
This may be why Gurdjieff said each step of the Ray of Creation is as ‘a point to infinity’ to the one above it…
(ie, Do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-si-do from the Moon up through the dimensions to ‘All Galaxies’, or sidereal space, extending c.14 billion light years outwards, or ‘backwards’ in time in terms of light received here on Earth. The differences between the moon, earth, planets and sun are more pronounced in terms of energy or ‘life-force’ than in physical dimensions – plus Gurdjieff was speaking primarily in terms of the energies and dimensional differences of the discrete ‘steps’ of reality).

186 282 m/s /518.4 = 359.34
√5 / 1.2 00365 = 1.86 282 3772

186 282/ 2 587(5174/2) = 72
/ 2 592 (5184/2) = 71.8 68055
186 282 / 111.81 = 1 666. 0585 (= 10⁴/6)
186 282 / 120.02 = 1 552
” ” / 864 = 215.6 (Moon = 2160m)
“ “ /432 = 431.208 (432 – 431.208 = 0.7920; diameter of Earth = 7920m)

186 282/ 5235.9(ERC) x Pi = 111.77 (+.04=111.81)

√186 282

= 431.6039
+ 0.396 (radius of Earth/10,000)
= 432

x 1000
= 432,000 = radius of sun.

186 282 / 1.37035999 / π = 43,270.
See GT PYRAMID 1:43,200 of Earth Equator-Pole.

See also the Sun’s actual size – 432,500m radius / 865,000miles diameter,
also Vesica geometry of 86.6%.

6/5 (1.2) etc.

3.14159/ 1.2 = 2.618 (φ+1)= 1.618² (φ²)

36O /3 = 120 x 1.2 = 144

144 x 1.2 = 172.8
x 2(1.2)= 345.6

[ 34.56/ Pi x √2 = 15.55 7 ]

144 x 3(1.2) = 518.4
x 4(1.2) = 691.2
x 5(1.2) = 864
x 9(1.2) = 1555.2
“ /550 = 2(√2 ) = 2.828
and 7.77 /5.50 = √2 = 1.414

√2 (1.414) x 11= 15.556
15 552 / 360 = 432
240 x 1.2 = 288
360 x 1.2 = 432
432 x 1.2 = 518.4
7777x 2 = 15554

137.0359992 *1.2 = 366.6 077 (!)

3.14159 / 1.2 = 1.618² = 2.618
√0.618 = 0.786 12 (see – Squared Circle; π/4)



 x 1.109992 = 137.03599934  (ie 1.11)

   x  3            =  370.37067 
   x  3.60       =  444.444  =  4(√123.4)

  x  1.80   =  222.2 
  x  3³       =  3333.33
  x  3⁴       =  9999.99  = 10

  x  3⁵       =  30,000 etc...

  x  3.5      =  432.09
  x  44       =  5432.09

  x  18⁴     =  12,960,000
  x  18³      =     720,000
  x  18²      =    400 x 360 = 144,000

  x  14        =  1,728
  x  7          =   864 
  x  3.5       =   432. 09 
  x  51.84   =  6,400.123    (!) 

x 7.2 = 888.888
x 7.777 = 960.1234

x 8 = 987.654321
x 8.1 = 999.9936
x 9 = 1,111.111

√123.456789 = 11.111111 060
x 19 = 234.56789

/ 0.555   =  222.2 = 2(√123.4)
/ 2          =  61.728
/ 3.14159=  39.29 ( x2 = 78.6)

123.456789 x3 = 370.370367
ie. 123 x3 = 369
0.456789 x3 = 1.370367

   3x 123    = 369
  • 3x .456786666 = 1.370359998

√1.123 = 1.059 7169

2x √1.234⁹ = 5.151 672118
or 2x √1.234³^² = “

1.23456789⁹ = 6.66 246 275

123.456789/ π = 39.29 75164 (x2 = 78.58) – see squared circle
circle of 50 diam. = square of 39.27 diameter -> so diameter x Pi gives;
inside c. of diameter 39.2975164 has circumference of 123.456789)

(369) 1111.111 / 3 = 370.370
370.370 – 369 = 1.3703 33
-36.9 = 333.47
-3.69 = 366.6 …

345.6 789

/1.2 = 288
/1.234 = 280
/2 = 172.8
/2.4 = 144
/3 = 115.2
/4 = 86.4
/6 = 57.6

3456.789 /7.777 = 444.4 88

3456.789/ 7.777 / π = 1.414 8 = √2
440 / 3.456 = 127.3 14 ie. √φ
34.56 /11 = 3.1418
34.56 /22/7 = 0.2244668181

 x 1.5        = 518.4
 x 5/4 (1.25) = 432

34.56/pi x √2/360= 0.04321 5183 1 !

-> 34.56 x 2 = 69.12 = 1° of Earth circumference exactly !
ie 1/720 cmf. = 34.56 miles. Also, if divide 69.11 / 1.1181 = 61.81 !
showing harmonic relationships that exist between the Circle/Pi, 360°
of sexagesimal system, 34.56, √5/2 (1.1181), the Earth, ancient metrology of the mile and Phi. . .
it is coincidental also that 720 = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6. (then x 7) = 5040 which =
Earth radius + Moon radius ie 3960 +1080m. This total also = 7 x 8 x 9 x 10 (!)
while the Earth’s diameter = 7920m, which = 8 x 9 x 10 x 11. This means 11! / 7! = 7920, or Earth’s diameter.
From Great Pyramid/squared circle we know 11 x pi = 34.56 further indicating the harmonic
relationships which underlie many of the values within this subject…while the Grand Gallery is 346” high,

440/ 3.4567 = 127.2 890
34.56789 / 28 = 1.234567 See Giza/Great Pyramid ratios of 5.5/7/11/14/22/28/44 etc
” /28.8 = 1.2 = 6/5 – special harmonic in Bible/ cosmic #; ie 288 singers and musicians in Temple.
/14.4 = 2.4 (see GIZA/Great Pyramid ERC 2400 etc etc).

34.56 / pi = 11.000 789 666 5
34.56 /1.1181 x2 = 61.8191
34.56/ π / √2 = 7.779
34.56/ π x √2* /3 = 5.184 755 (*1.41 36)
” / π x ” /2 = 7.777 1332

34.56 / 1.370359 x 200 = 5 045.08 (m) Ea/Moon = 5 040m.(3960+1080)
x 400 = 10,090m. ” diam = 10,080m.

366 / 345.6 = 1.0594 = ¹²√2 (the twelfth root of 2)
(ie. difference in frequency between each note in standard E/T Octave !)

69.12 (1° of longitude on the Earth’s Eq/ Circumference)

/8.64 = 8
/4.32 = 16
/28.8 = 2.4
/28 = 2.468
/2 = 34.56
/1.272= 54.321003812 !
69.1x 2 = 138.2 = 2 – 0.618 (ϕ)

69.1/0.618 = 111.81
√5 /1.6181 = 6.91 (6.90997)
√5³ = 11.180339887/ 1.6181 x 3600 = 24 874.37 (Equatorial cmf Earth = 24 883 = +8.6ms difference)
24 874.37 = 180,000,000 /16181 x √5

=> 18,000 / 1.618 x √5 = 24 876

EARTH radius 3960 x 2x π = 24 883m /360 = 69.11m/degree

5045 / 3456.789 / 2 = 0.7297 234514 (= FSC 0.729 7352)

123.45/ 16.666 x 7.777 = 57.6 0 6543261 (14.4 x 4 -‘base’ units Ad Tr/ Vesica)

200 / 162 = 1.2345679012
222 / 162 = 1.37037 (0.000 011 difference ..!)
360 /π x 2/1.4141 = 162.006 536
720 /π /1.4141 = ” x α = 444.219

    51.84/ 5184

√5184 = 72.

/12 = 432
/3 = 1,728
/3.6 = 1,440
/1.414 = 366.5
/1.5706 = 3,300
/1.8 = 2,880
/2.4 = 2,160

51.84 x 1.111 = 57.60
x 1.234…9 = 64

1/ 1.272 = 0.7861

60 x 60 x 12 x 1.2 = 51 840

3x4x5 x 4x3x2 x 6² = 51 840.

         518.4 / √2 = 366.6 

√1.234³ ^² x2 = 5.1 51 -62

777.6 / 518.4 = 1.5 (ie. 3/2)

153 / Great Pyramid, etc 

153.22 / 137.035999206 = 1.1181 00359 (!)
153″ x 12 = 1836′
153/ 4.006= 38.19 2710933
153 x 4 = 6120 = 3960+ 2160

153.6/ 4.444 = 34.56

1697″ / 12 = 141.41 ft

153 x π /4 = 120.1

153.6 /4.444 = 34.56

153 / 4.0057 = 38.19 557
152.78/ 4 = “

1692 / 12 = 141
1692 / 137.052 = 12.3456789012

1696.92 x 12 = 141.4 “ft

2160 x π /4 = 1696.46

2160 x π/ 1.414 /4 = 1200

216O/ 1200 x π /1.414 = 4
216O/ 2400 x π = 2√2 (2.827)

431.75 x 12 = 5 181
431.2 x 360 = 155 235
186 282 /1.2 = 155 235
5184 /12 = 432

    √186 282  =  431.6 

That some of these cos# values are in discrete proportions to the measures of the world is a basic tenet, established in antiquity; thus the Equatorial circumference of the world is = 1000 x 360 x 365.24 feet ie 24,902m or 40,068.5km (compared to accepted values of 24,901.4m/40,065.7 km).

One degree of the earth’s circumference ie 1/360 = 111.2 km, or 69.12 miles,
(which also equals π x 22; so π x 11 = 34.56). Likewise therefore 1/720 of the circumference = 34.56 miles; and 720 = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 (!). This x 7 = the Earth’s + the Moon’s radii added together, ie 3960 + 1080 = 5040; which also equals 7 x 8 x 9 x 10 (!)

Moreover, both miles and feet units are a discrete fraction of the measures of the Earth, something which gives them this added significance in all sacred sites ratios, measurements and distances; but also to time as measured as the number of seconds and hours it takes for the Earth’s full circumference to turn 360 degrees.
And as Michell and Richard Heath explore in their books, the main fractions of the Earth can be expressed by using the first five prime numbers, namely, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 11. All five of which are key numbers within sacred geometry and cosmic#; the first three with their square roots, and 7 and 11 as we have seen prevalent in the Great Pyramid due to being fractions of Pi (22/7), as well as giving us the Law of Seven, and what might be called the ‘eleventh harmonic’.

So the mile is; = 2⁵ x 3 x 5 x 11 = 5280 feet.
The Earth’s Eq. radius is = 2³ x 3²x 5 x 11 = 3960 miles.
And the Great Pyramid = 2⁵ x 3 x 5 = 480 feet…

That the length of a mile = 5280 feet, shows that both measures may have been derived originally in Egypt, with regard to the Great Pyramid, and the Pyramid with regard to the proportions of the Earth, as the height of the edifice measured at 480 feet, makes it exactly 1/11 of a mile in height. Likewise the radius of the earth, 3,960 miles / 11 = 360.

The height of the pyramid is also almost exactly 1/43,200 of the polar radius of the earth, which = 3,950m/6,356km. In fact, the closest height obtained of the pyramid is 481.4 feet, which makes it 1/43,323 of the polar radius, very close to the 43.3 % ratio of the height of each half of the vertical axis of the Vesica Piscis, (ie 0.866/2),and the 432,500 mile radius (865,000mile diameter) of the sun. If the number of feet in a mile is divided by 481.4, the result is not actually thus 1/11, but 1/10.9 6.
This, however, is almost as significant a value within astronomic terms as the harmonic of 11 – for the number of earth diameters across the diameter of the sun is 1: 109.25; the number of solar diameter’s across the Earth’s orbit at aphelion is 109.26; the number of sidereal days in 1 lunar orbit is 27.322, which x 4 = 109.2; while the nominally unrelated (to orbital period) ratio of the moon’s diameter to the earth’s is 27.322%, (also the orbital period of moon in days) or conversely that of the earth to the moon is 366% ; (also the sidereal orbital period in days of the earth around the sun!); and the size of the Moon circumference in kilometres is 10,920… (all figures re 109.2 from Knight and Butler, op.cit).
Another example is that the Earth’s polar circumference = 24,883.2 miles – which is exactly 12⁵/10, ie 248,832/ 10…
Similarly reflective of the harmonies of both the planet and the form of measurement, the mean Earth radius (mean distance from centre to surface) can be expressed as 12⁶ x 7 feet (ie. 3,958.7 miles, compared to NASA measurement of 3,959miles…)

  5. NERVE, etc.
  11. OAK/ AXIS/ OX
  12. AB ZU/ SU

1. SINEW –

  • sino / sinuous / sine-wave / SION / SINEW – relates to connecting tissue midpoint between energy & matter.
    sine; serbian = son.
  • Old English ‘seonuwe’, oblique form of ‘sionu’; from Proto-Germanic/
    Saxon ‘sinewa’; Old Norse ‘sina’; Old Frisian ‘sine’; Middle Dutch’senuwe’,etc-
    from PIE root ‘sai-”to tie, bind (source also of Sanskrit ‘snavah ‘
    ‘sinew’,’syati’,’sinati’ “to bind”; Irish ‘sin’ “chain”; Hittite ‘ishai’-“to bind”. And so on… Ligate - lizard/ ligature - tie, bind Sphinx - tie, bind, asphyxiate. " - 'lion of the ground', ie. serpent/lizard. ligament - bind, tie, connective tissue. sinuous - serpent like, coiling sinew - connective tissue, grasping / coiling energy sine wave- coiling line of energy around axis.

ZION / SION – line from sphinx (sinuous ‘lion of the ground’ and solar symbol) passes solar energies along serpent line through ‘Sion’ on 30th parallel – along ‘sinew’, in a sine wave, to Sino=China, (land of the dragon, and the sun)
a line which binds the energy fields around the world, in a chain /channel/ significant line of energy… see bible for Pi and therefore spherical geometry related references to ‘serpent’ such as genesis 3.14-15, etc.
Sin / sinai / sinim / sino – connected to Far East and China. . . Isaiah 49.
plus the Babylonian (Moon) god Sin – significant member of the tribe of Anunnaki. . .
Sinai a sacred mountain and region to Hebrew religion, from earliest times onwards…
Probably not – though may be – related to modern word sin, which observers state probably comes from Latin ‘sons’/’sontis’, meaning guilty.

[levi ] to join or connect – priesthood/elite – a circular coiled or twisted band (of leaves) (NOBSE*)
-a force of adhesion cf as priests / only tribe of Israel having no land, serve to unite the tribes.
cf. LEVIATHAN/potential link to Ouroboros (?)
Nehushtan (Nahash) – brass/bronze serpent affixed to a pole by Moses. Healing properties/ life-force.

2. CAIN – line of/ –

chain / channel / canal / CHINA
CHEN / CHAN-SIU / CHANG / ZEN comes from related words meaning chain or ‘line of force’.
Sen in European languages, meaning intelligence, ‘sentience’; related?
cane / cannon / canon / meanings of line or channel.
CHUNG bell – CHUN stringed instrument –
Gu-Qin / guchin also stringed instrument, where the length of the string or position where note
is struck determines the tone/ frequency of the note, and it’s harmonics, undertones, timbre etc.
Chun standard length/measure in China.
chain length used in Egypt to measure distances, even miles etc – related?
Chance/ change related? as – lines/ chains of events.

Cain means ‘acquire, possess’ which why Eve said ‘I have gotten (qayin) me a man from the Lord’.
Likewise Cain says ‘Am I my brother’s keeper?’… forming as such a ‘pun’ on the meaning of his name.

CHINA from chin (length of chord/ channel/ chain of energy/ sine wave, sinuous).

  • silk reeling = chan siu
    silk = twining (from China) [sir = snake, from India]

3. SINEW –

connective tissue / energy
Qin, cane, channel etc = lines of energy – channels.
KIN / kind /kine / kinetics /cinema / similar.
In Hebrew – the word for spear is qyn (related to Tubal-Cain /metalworking, and line of Cain.

-these two related etymological groups are actually joined with the use of the word the
syn-optic gospels – meaning the grouped/related/ ‘like’ gospels, ; as any reader of the Bible
will know, the form and structure and contents of the four gospels are obviously intentionally
very alike…

This may be connected to the division of the circle into 4 quarters of 90° each.
the ratio of 9:10 (of ‘material reality’) for some reason being important…
As such it is a common practice in religious art to make images /symbols of the circle with
the representative animal; rising eagle; winged lion; winged ox; divine man; each occupying one
quarter / the ‘four corners of the circle’.

Gen / genetics – line of hereditary / Gun ; channel; -gon angle generated. Genesis, obviously.
Gin / djinn / jinn / (‘lines of the devil’) genie (ditto = Cain) (cf. Gu-qin/ Gu-chin string inst.). See also the Egyptian word for snake, ’dj’ ie ‘genetic line/chain’. Engine – means ‘producing’ etcetera.
(Cainites linked to; Kenites – smiths – metalworkers…see copper/technology etymologies.

It is a curious coincidence that the word ‘kindness’, which has the ‘kinship’ of close relatives at its heart, is similarly reflected in the word ‘gentleness’, which likewise contains indication of what might be called the ‘consanguinuity’ of near family and friends in the stem linked with the root ‘gen’, ie as in ‘genes’…

Chin nah = Chinese ‘grasping energy’ in martial arts and Taiji – similar to sinew/sine meanings of coiling energy /lines or channels.’ application of linear energy’.
Qinnah = Syrian for reed / Hebrew qaneh = stalk, reed.
King / Queen (line of?) = qa-yin letter (Hebrew)

Sino – prefix meaning ‘chinese’ from 1879 late Latin SinAi. The Chinese, from Ptolemaic Greek Sinai, from Arabic ‘Sin’, is possibly related to Chinese ; Ch’in (4th dynasty of – ).

Links exist between the Sumerian and Chinese people / nations; such as Sumerians are called ‘the black haired people’ in myths, epics etc; both nations have guardian celestial dragons – see mushussu in artworks of Sumer/ Babylon, such as with Ningiszida the fertility deity/ divine gatekeeper (centre of image left, from the Akkadian Seal of Gudea, c.2300Bce). Perhaps also Babylonian mythical creature the sirrush (shown below right, from the Ishtar Gate at Babylon, in tile-work); (also linked to the sea-serpent Tiamat which in the Babylonian creation epic the Enuma Elish stole the Tablet of Destiny from the ruling deities of Sumer, and was pursued and killed by the Babylonian deity Marduk.)

-see ‘spire’ – (geometry) – “the part of a spiral generated in one revolution of the straight line about the pole. A spiral. (from 17th c). One of the sinuous foldings of a serpent or other reptile… a coil ”. (from; etymology.geek)
See – Moses and Nehushtan – serpent fixed upon a pole! – on it’s side resembles a sine-wave on axis! Also; Moses introduced the Nehash was revered 2 – 3 centuries, then pulled down by Zedekiah (?) as idolatry. After the Old Testament experiences of Moses, circa 1400 Bce, Christianity started to worship the symbol of the cross in the first century Ad after the crucifixion of Jesus. Jesus talked of his own destiny as the same as Nehash, to be raised up on a pole… JOHN 3.14/15 (the geometric value of Pi, the transcendent mathematics value).

(left; sine-wave on x and y axis turned vertically! ; the rod of Asclepius denoting medical matters, as shown on ambulance; Moses and the Nahash in the desert; Numbers 21.9)

  • The Gu-Qin has been part of Chinese culture/philosophy for at least 3000 years. Depending on the harmonics of strings touched rather than pressed against a fret, they contain harmonic under/overtones of a sublime level of artistic expression. The craftsmanship by which they have been made through these eras has been of a similar high standard; so much so that a Gu-Qin auctioned at Sotheby’s New York in 2010 for $22 million, making it the most expensive musical instrument ever.
    In 1975 NASA included an example of Gu Qin playing on its Golden Voyager Record, a record of mankind’s highest achievements for the discovery of any extra-terrestrial races who might encounter the Voyager spacecraft…
    As Wikipedia succinctly puts it, “The reason to select (this work) is because the tonal structure of this instrument, its musical scale, is derived from fundamental physical laws related to vibration and overtones, representing the intellectual capacity of humans on this subject.”
    In like manner the music of the Gu Qin was declared by UNESCO in 2003 to be one of the ‘Masterpieces of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity”.
    Incidentally, the Voyager Golden Record contained a section of pictures detailing pregnancy and foetus growth; in the picture they show the size of the embryo at 30 and 40 days – but define the time in seconds; namely 3,456,000 and 5,184,000 seconds. A curious appearance of two of the most significant cosmic-# (geometric) values. . .

Sen – sentience etc. Hebrew – asam gather store storehouse close cognate asna – thorn bush (as burning bush; which could be symbolic of ~ the mind/nervous system, if view the firing / constant activities of the energetic synapses as ‘fire’…
Is cognate with sinew in Swedish/Old German/Scots/Frisian/Dutch/Icelandic senuw etc.

see – sense from frankish sinn – Eng/Fr/German/ Latin; sensus to perceive, feel, sense, reason etc.

so sin (e /w ), sion, sense etc all have some possible etymological links… see Sennen Bay at start/end of Michael and Mary line(s) in Cornwall…and Sinodun Fort at phi point of 366 mile line.
Could be link between Su-en version of Sumerian/ Babylonian deity Sin, and also Mount Sinai etc. Linking
the su of Ab-su (the abyss/depths) with the instinctive centres of the brain and body.


ligates – ligature – alligator (1560’s Americas)
legation – legion – legend (?) –

LACERTES (from Anglo/French, Old French ‘lusard’/’laisarde’
from LT ‘lacert-a/us’ ; lizard

  • lacerate – delegate – allegation – virtually all related to connections and parallels
    lacertal; ligature; hunter, muscle, strength, sinew are the language of energy.
  • ligament- from LT, a band, bandage, tie, ligature, from ‘ligare’ ‘to bind, tie’. From PIE *leig to tie, bind, unite…!
    see SPHINX/ same.
    Latin – ligo/ligatus / Eng ligate – same meanings. connects to sinew also / connected words – Alley – league – liaison. Etymology.geek
    Latin – lego – collect, gather, bring together – related words English/French – legion/ allegiance /religion
    Latin – logarithmus – Logos – the ‘word’, meaning can be called the ‘unified blueprint of God’s will’ / or the template from which reality is formed.

muscle – late 14th c, from LT ‘musculus’ a little mouse !
from Greek also ‘mys’ both mouse, and muscle. (due to shape of muscles)…

In Middle English ‘lacerte’/ ‘lacertous’,from LT for lizard, was also used as a word for muscle..! ( –
curiously, the instinctive centre, source of vitality and strength, is governed by the reptilian centre of the brain.
Figurative sense of ‘muscle, strength, brawn’ is by 1850; that of ‘force violence, threat’, to ‘muscle’, is 1930, American English. Muscle car -‘hot rod’ -is from 1969.

ENERGY; en + ergon ancient Greek, in work ; ie activity
” = “ ; organise (Fr/Lt etc) from ancient Greek; ergon – from PIE; wergom – work.

5. NERVE, etc –

‘sinew , tendon, core of the body’. also defined as ‘fiber, bundle of fibers that convey the capacity to feel or move, from the brain or spinal cord to the body’..! from Latin ‘nervus’ / Greek ‘neuron ‘ – ‘sinew, tendon, cord, bowstring, string of a musical instrument’.
From PIE *(s)neu – tendon, sinew source of Sanskrit ‘snavan’ ; band, sinew.
proto-italic / greek – (s)neuros – a sinew tendon nerve muscle vigour force power energy strength… a cord string bow or wire.

Could snake, and it’s PIE root*s(nego) be related, as nerves / sinews are snake-like..? very probably – Nagas – and Zion / sion / sinew, all come from PIE *(s)neu.

SINEW proto-Ger senawo – cord tendon sinew nerve.

Old Eng seonu Mid Eng sinue Eng sinew – a cord or tendon of the body; muscle nerve nervous energy vigour strength ; that which gives strength, or in which strength consists…a string or cord of a musical instrument.To
knit together or make strong with. ETY.GEEK.

  • in a real sense we are musical instruments with seven ‘strings’ or ‘expressions of frequency’/ (energy centres/ chakras; ‘wheels’). (per-son; ‘sound through’) – see – chordata also!


Indian – nagas nagas = royal cobra. PIE s*nego; snake.
Egypt – Egyptian cobra – naje haje – naje from Sanskrit ‘naga’, haje from Arabic ‘snake’. We have seen the etymological links between genetics, gin, djinn for line, or to produce. Also that the Egyptian hieroglyph for dj was a small cobra or serpent. Thus linking to the Arabic word djinn for (the lines of) the devil, concomitant with the word for genes, and Genesis, which first raises the subject of the bloodlines of the ‘sons of the gods’ in Genesis 6.1 – something which in this way was associating the serpent with the devil, and the created lines. This is in contrast to the Sumerian (and Egyptian) representations of (cosmic) serpents, and the lineages of hybrid beings with both Anunnaki and human heritage. The major deity Enki/ Ea, junior only to Enlil, was portrayed from around 3200 Bce frequently as a serpent-hybrid being, as shown. The role of Enki was far more positive, in helping create mankind, and establish civilization and give mankind ‘understanding’ about the practices which enabled progress, such as metallurgy, agricultural and irrigation systems, writing, art and so on. Nevertheless Enki was associated in principle with the Ap-su, the subterranean ‘abyss’ where the waters of life come from; thus with the underworld, the instinctive / reptilian centre, and all the later biblical negative connotations. As we see in the section on the Bible though, the serpent in Eden, (who walked around on two feet, and knew of the inner matters of Eden) was never actually called Satan; this assumption resulted in later centuries due to the words of St John the Evangelist in the last book of the Bible, Revelations, when Jesus talks of ‘that old serpent, Satan’, linking the two concepts strongly.

The Uraeus was a cobra head-dress worn on the forehead in Egyptian paintings and hieroglyphs, with links to the Greek Ouraeus. It also has cognates related to Sumer – the word Ur containing meanings of both the ‘heavens’, and ‘light’, as we see in the Or- section shortly.
Ethiopia – the Kebra Nagast – the ‘Glory of Kings’ religious text is believed to date from around the 10-12nd century Ad. The composite text describes the marriage of king Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba, of Ethiopia, drawing largely on the main narrative from the Old Testament of the visit to meet king Solomon of the Queen of Sheba, believed to represent the Sabeans, from South Arabia, or Yemen and Ethiopia. But additionally, as in the Old Testament, ‘sheba’ means ‘seven’ – and considering the extensive use of number symbolism in both this story, the life of Solomon, and the Bible, this meaning may well be as important as any other.
The first section of chapters 1-20 concerns ‘of what does the Glory of Kings consist?’, and quotes an Archbishop Demateyos reading from a book he says comes from the church of ‘Sophia’ – thus linking the Kebra Nagast with strands of Gnostic belief which were widespread and influential in the early era of Christianity; as well more obviously to Hebrew religion which considered the ‘outward wisdom of God’ to be female in nature. The main body of the book (chapters 21-65) describe the events of Sheba’s visit from her homeland to Israel, to see the revered king Solomon. They become lovers or ‘marry’ during her visit to Jerusalem, giving birth to her son Menelik when she returns home. He visits Jerusalem when he is 22, to see his father; Solomon offers him the kingship after him, but Menelik prefers to return to his mother; Solomon gives him a company of ‘the first-born sons of the elders of Israel’ to accompany him home, who unbeknownst to Menelik bring the Ark of the Covenant with them. When Solomon discovers the artefact is missing he pursues the company, but through the Ark’s powers the youths are miraculously flown home. . . after this, King Solomon turns for solace to his wife, the daughter of the Pharaoh of Egypt, thus instituting the worship of pagan gods and idols in Israel in his reign.
In keeping with the themes of the ‘celestial bloodlines’ of kings begun in Sumer, and following civilizations, and likewise in the lineages described in the Old Testament such as the line of Cain, the nephilim, and other bloodlines of various characteristics (such as that symbolized by the lineage of the Egyptian Pharaoh), the Kebra Negast then studies in chapters 66-83 the central issue of the lines of kings, and the intermixing of various royal families, including a study of the two separate lines of the ‘seed of Shem’, meaning Sumer, in chapters 72-73. In chapters 96-117 the book praises the king of Ethiopia, the king of Egypt, and establishes the ownership by Ethiopia of the true Ark of the Covenant, and the lineage of the kings of Ethiopia as coming from Solomon himself. The following seventeen chapters are a collection of prophecies, some in support of the messianic nature of Jesus, and the superiority of Ethiopia over Israel. The Kebra Nagast has a final prophecy that the power of Rome will be eclipsed by that of Ethiopia, so presumably the two are used as symbols of deeper issues in a moral, or Manichean sense, as Egypt, Babylon and Rome are all portrayed in the Bible.
Academics have interpreted much of these latter parts of the book as anti-Jewish polemic in it’s language, and it’s argument that the Hebrews were ‘unworthy custodians of the Ark’. The composite and eclectic nature of the book points to several different authors over time however. Overall the book links many of the subjects contained within cosmic number, such as ‘divine power’ and it’s workings within the world; the marriage of male and female (energies) in ‘alchemy’, and as always, the presence of the ‘hybrid’ celestial /human lineages raised at various times in the Bible, as well as the non-canonical ‘apocrypha’ – texts such as the Books of Enoch, Jubilees, and Noah, the (amazing) Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran in 1947, and so on. (Indeed academics such as D.A.Hubbard in 1956 traced much of the language used in the Kebra Nagast to these books, particularly Jubilees and Enoch, and the Syriac Book of Adam and Eve – unlike the main religions these texts were given canonical status in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church). Works which like many of the (often complex and confusing) Gnostic texts of the period contained depictions of the ‘sons of the gods’ – or ‘fallen angels’ – descending to earth to couple with the daughters of men and create lineages of ‘kings’, or rulers, a strand of Near Eastern mythology and religion from the Sumerian civilization on; this subject may well have contributed to such texts being rejected by the mainstream religions as canonical, whether Hebrew, Christian or Gnostic in character. Academics have also traced some Arabic influences in the Kebra Nagast, considering it to overall be a “pastiche of legends . . that blended local and regional traditions and style and substance derived from the Old and New Testaments, various apocryphal texts, Jewish and Islamic commentaries, and Patristic writings” (H.G.Marcus, A History of Ethiopia).
What perhaps points to the human rather than cosmic influence at work in the book’s creation, is that the writers of the Kebra Nagast don’t seem to have been aware of the irony in their assertion that all the kings of Ethiopia were descended directly from king Solomon. For he, like his father David, are indicated in the Bible to be of the bloodlines of ‘kings’, meaning the lines of Cain, Nimrod the king of Babylon, and the ‘mighty men of old’ – possibly the Nephilim, or a parallel lineage, but definitely of a hybrid celestial-human character. The amount of references to demons, djinn and suchlike connected to the life of Solomon contained within the Bible as well as numerous other texts of Middle Eastern mythology point to this inner-reality of his nature; the number 666 first mention in the Bible is in the narrative of Solomon’s life, when he receives that amount of ‘talents of gold’ in a shipment from Ophir to use in the building of the temple. Gold is symbolic throughout history of the Sun, as is the name Solomon, and as Sheba herself is called by the Bible in a dream Solomon has of her; these are all symbolic of the celestial bloodlines, which incorporate the powers of the sun within their genes. Hence the father of Noah, Lamech believes his new born son (in the Tales of the Patriarchs, from the Dead Sea Scrolls) to be a ‘child of the Watchers’ when he is born;

“I thought in my heart, that the conception was the work of the Watchers, the pregnancy of the Holy Ones, and that it belonged to the giants (Nephilim) . . .and my heart was upset by this. . .”

Likewise in the Dead Sea Scrolls Book of Noah, 6.1-6, the appearance of the new born Noah arises concern in Lamech;

“And after some days my son Methuselah took a wife for his son Lamech, and she became pregnant by him and bore a son. And his body was white as snow, and red as the blooming of a rose, and the hair of his head and his long locks were white as wool, and his eyes beautiful. And when he opened his eyes, he lighted up the whole house like the sun, and the whole house was very bright. . . and his father Lamech was afraid of him and fled, and came to his father Methuselah, and said; I have begotten a strange son, diverse from and unlike man, and resembling the sons of the gods of heaven; and his nature is different and he is not like us, and his eyes are as the rays of the sun, and his countenance is glorious. And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me but from the angels, and I fear that in his day a wonder may be wrought upon the earth.”

There is similar description of Moses when he came down from Mt Sinai…from the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible it was read as ‘his face was horned with light from conversation with the Lord’, something which led at the time of the 4th century when the Latin Vulgate Bible was produced to the convention of depicting him with horns on his forehead. (ie. as depicted left, in Michelangelo’s statue of Moses at St-Peter-in-chains’ church in Rome). Nevertheless, it has been an accepted artistic convention to represent holy figures as having a halo of light around their head and face, since the earliest eras, so can be seen as not necessarily related to questions of bloodline and so on.

This is a hidden reality encoded into the names, details and narratives of both rulers, and their extended families, in ways which leave virtually no room for doubt on the matter, as the Bible section shows. What this inner-narrative points to is a deeper, and more nuanced (lifelong) testing circumstance, for many of both the Hebrew and Christian patriarchs and founding figures. One which has rarely if ever been raised in literary studies. Simon Peter is one of the clearest figures under the influence of the duality of both celestial and base influences within his being, or hereditary circumstances; as the Bible section on him examines.

Nevertheless, the confluence of relevant subjects within the Kebra Nagast, as well as legends of the presence of the Ark of the Covenant being located – within recesses of various obscure churches in Ethiopia – make the text certainly worth studying. And as seen, the subjects raised by the Book give indication the authors had possibly some links to sources of higher dimensional consciousness.

Whether these bloodlines, mentioned in so many (if not all) cultures and texts of antiquity, contained the genetics of the Nagas as depicted in India and the East is a matter of debate; but as representatives of the highest dimensions they are depicted to be much like the Seraphim (angelic ‘flying serpents’) of Exodus, and Isaiah, who tormented the Israelites in their wanderings in the desert before entering the Promised Land. As such they appear to be fulfilling a cosmic purpose. In similarly intriguing manner they are linked with the serpent of the Garden of Eden (who is himself associated with serpent deities of Sumer, and Babylon) who gave ‘understanding’ or wisdom to mankind, as well as ‘angels of the Lord’ in various parts of the Bible who are called ‘satans’, (meaning ‘opponent’) while doing the Lord’s bidding (1Samuel16.14, 2Samuel24.16, Job1.6-12, 2.1-7, Zecharia3.1-7 etcetera); this seems to be one of the least understood areas of the Bible in modern study, as perspectives are thoroughly entrenched in Manichean dualities, now as much as then. And yet the words of the Bible would indicate otherwise.
The seraphim’s bite was healed by the brazen serpent Nehushtan, made by Moses c.1400Bce; (as the serpent-deity Enki/ Ea had the epithet ‘lord of the waters’, so the name of Moses means ‘from the waters he was drawn’…) The number of serpent-related events in the life of Moses, plus the incredible scenes on Mt Sinai and other times indicate that Moses was blessed by God, as well perhaps as being involved with higher dimensional forces as represented by the concept of the Nagas; furthermore, he was born with some proportion of the blood of the celestial lineages of Sumer and the Anunnaki within his genetics, to both his detriment and his benefit. The reasons why the Lord might wish for such a widely spread circumstance to prevail within the Bible is almost too abstruse to understand; theories can only offered with uncertainty; yet it appears likelier than not that divine will is served best by such a complicated reality…

Interestingly, there are further Old Testament links concerning the Nagas; the Anakim (the Rephaim/Nephilim) are the people of the tribe of Anak (the forebear). He divides his lands between his three sons, recalling the three-fold division of the world by the founder-father of the Anunnaki; (the tribe of Anu, ‘father of the heavens’) dividing world into equal 1/3rds between Enlil, Anu and Enki (sky, earth, and seas/abzu); or N.Pole-30°N/ 30°N-30°S /30°S – S.Pole.
(ie. northern, equatorial, and southern lands, or hemispheres). This division is mirrored by Noah and his 3 sons, who become the ‘fathers’ of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Europe. (or east, south and north.) And in similar but smaller scale by the 3 sons of Anak who receive each a third of his lands.
From the Hebrew root/stem Naq, or Nq, which means ‘neck-ornamentation’, in possible reference to the link between the head and the body, and heavens and earth – much as the Anunnaki represented the heavens come to earth; as seen, the neck point is the occipital bone, or ‘gate’ (in Tai Chi) ie. a key part of the spine/head axis.
An additional etymological link of Naq /nq is between Anu/Anak, ; and Nagas/ NaKua /etc – so this may well be a genuine link encoded unobtrusively into the minutae of the Bible, (something which is found repeatedly to hold great depths of meaning within the smallest of details…)
Coincidentally, the NOBSE interprets anakim/naq as meaning ‘ long-necked’ – a reference to the pride of Satan, and the line of Cain/ the Nephilim..? (or the ‘sons of Belial’, as Shimei calls king David and his relatives, likewise a source of shame to David for their heedless violence… so that the term ‘ye sons of Zeruiah’ is used often by David as a reproach. Zeruiah the sister of David is the daughter of; Nehash !)

It is of interest that the two references to people called Nehash in the Old Testament serve to link King David to the bloodlines of the Nagas; Nehash – as mentioned, the father of the sisters of David, Abigail and Zeruiah (2Samuel 17.25). (Some rabbis maintain Nahash is another name for David’s father , Jesse; others that she was a prior wife to Jesse, before David’s mother… but either way, we are forced to confront the connection between Nahash and David in close genetic terms. Further emphasis is brought to bear in several passages where David reprimands excessive violence/bloodthirstiness in his captains (and three cousins, Joab, Abishai and Asahel) by calling them ‘ye sons of Zeruiah’, in what becomes a refrain or trope for ‘men of violence’. . .

2Samuel 3.39;
And I am this day weak, though anointed king; and these men the sons of Zeruiah be too hard for me;
The Lord shall reward the doer of evil according to his wickedness.

This entire narrative serves as a focus upon the contradictory aspects of the ‘kingly’ bloodline. The genetic ‘kingliness’ flows through the veins of David and his relatives – he is naturally strong; but inherently weak too, as the strength is inherited rather than the result of positive work and growth… and being genetic this essential contradiction has its effects upon the actions and thoughts of them all. They are related to, or equated with, the ‘mighty men of old’; the Nephilim.

  • Men of renown, of valour, of incredible vigour, yet cruel and violent, incomplete human beings…

SEE – the other Nehash – king of Ammon at start of Saul’s reign attacked Jabesh-Gilead!; the inhabitants sued for peace – he gave them one week to consider his terms, which included – every occupant give up one of their eyes..! strong implication of the nature of the bloodline at worst. 1.Samuel1.11 !
Or perhaps evidence that Nahash, like the Nagas is more subtle than is traditionally believed possible. Who could make such a demand except a tyrant?

  • the nature of ‘imbalanced’ bloodlines, like that of Cain and Lamech, or Gilgamesh and Enki.
    Possibly all this helps to indicate the nature of the influence of the Nagas – serpents of wisdom, and the Seraphim – holy angels for the Lord of Hosts – ie for those who are blameless, and on the other hand, those who are sinners? People such as David, Moses and many others show the ongoing battle within such individuals between the varying aspects of their natures… all of which lends some support to the antique civilizations ‘contradictory’, or duality based perspective on the energies granted to some of mankind from above.

Links to other religions or groups include;
NAGAS – NARJIS (wife of the 11th IMAN, and mother of the 12th) – NASHQBANDI – NASOREANS – NASSARENES/ NAZARENES and so on.

  • originators of I-CHING; Fu Hsi & Na Kua (male and female intelligence) snake – PIE s-nego ie nagas…central to conclusions – also possibly ‘ANUNNAKI’ – (ie Anu-nagas…celestial serpents !)

Negus – Abyssinian – title of ruler of,159O’s – from Semitic negush, ‘king’ – from stem of nagasha, ‘he commanded, ruled’.



CADUCEUS/ – symbols of the intersection of cosmic energy/spirit, (symbolised by the snake),
with matter/material reality (the pole/axis/spine/cosmic tree).
If viewed side on, looks like a sine wave turning around the axis).

P/I/E          - (s)neh    - to spin, (in various ways/definitions).
   "/ Proto-Germanic   - (s)neh,  - cord, tendon, sinew, nerve
P/I/E          - (s)nego  -'snake' -  to coil – linked to nerve/ neuron etymology also.   

Snake- sinew – sinuous, tendon, ligament (lizard-like), cord etc all linked.
Further to this – links of serpent to intelligence (see myths of genetic infusion of the ‘gods’, the sins of the nephilim in giving mankind the ‘knowlede of the heavens’, the serpent’s role in the Garden of Eden, and so on).

  • sapient – PIE root- *sep – intelligence; from which Hebrew / Greek safia / (sophia) (feminine spirit of) wisdom.
    Old English, sefa – mind, understanding, insight. see sephiroth (centres of intelligence/ energy in Hebrew Qabalah)
    • seven (law of) septa. Greek Hepta / Avestan Hapta / Sanskrit – sapta / Sumerian sebet / Hebrew shaba, sheva
    • serpent – to creep, Greek herpein, to creep. Latin – serpere
      Greek herpeton, snake. PIE – serpe, to creep, crawl/ reptile.
  • sapient Latin sapere, to taste/ be wise. PIE *Sep – taste, percieve

God says to the serpent in Genesis 3.14; “And the Lord God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly thou shalt go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life”.
It is stated by etymological dictionaries that the Latin root of ‘perception’ is ‘per-cipere’ to ‘receive, understand’, from per- through, and ‘capere’ to seize, take’ – but links to cephas/cephal/ caput, raise connections to the head, serpent, and intelligence again, while perception and understanding are a form of ‘seizing’, ie reaching out to reality. Traditional Chinese martial arts (TCMA) have a saying; “the brain eats the body”, meaning among other things that the strengths and abilities of the brain cause it to borrow energies meant for the body. Regarding Per-cival , from the 12th century Grail cycles – the knight fails to use his mind or seize the opportunity (much like the hybrid/celestial king and aspirant Gilgamesh in Tablet XI of the Epic who falls asleep at the moment of testing, a mythic work passed down through the civilizations from 2800Bce onwards), and thus loses the Grail, condemning the land to sickness. (In some languages he is called Perlesvaus, alluding to the loss (of potentials) his inaction causes).
‘cipere’ – to understand – etymological links to cipher/ safia/ sapient/ serpere / PIE sep – taste, perceive…!
so intelligence and perception are linked very strongly to serpent, and to seven..!

            SIMON PETER – (Arabic) Samun al SAFA (Greek; cephas = stone) - satan/ serpent/ etc.            
                                                                              "  cephal = head/ mind/ wisdom/ “ ...

Again we are brought to the connections between Enki, the serpent deity of Sumer, who gave mankind the skills and the wisdom of (the arts of) civilization, to the serpent of Eden, and to Simon Peter, the ‘foundation’ of the church after the crucifixion of Jesus.

  • seven / sapient / serpent(ine) / meanings & associations / shape / sound are all linked, as well as to ‘S’ – as are sine and sinuous, etc in one of the English (and other) language’s strongest onomatopeic relationships.

Incidentally, there is some supporting evidence of the long-term connections arising from ‘sapere’ / wisdom which
appears to stem from Proto-Indian-European roots but may have links to the languages of Mesopotamia too..! This comes from the article “On the Origin of the Watchers”…etc, by Amar Annus, the prolific Finnish academic, published in 2010 in the Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, (p.286-7); in this he writes that “following Adapa, all mythical and historical sages had received their knowledge out of the hands of the gods themselves…consisting (therefore) of the ‘secrets of the gods’. It is not said that Ea (Enki) himself wrote these texts or collections, but that the knowledge contained in these corpora originate ‘from his mouth’ (sa pi )…in the oral tradition of scholars, their role as mediators between gods and men is indicated by the Akkadian phrase sa pi ummani (‘from the oral tradition of the masters’).” A quite fitting link to ‘sapere’ as a definition of genuine wisdom; linked also by the representations of both Oannes/Ea, and the apkallu (‘celestial sages’) as hybrid beings, and with the Anuna gods in Sumer… moreover as noted by the academic Amar Annus, the original sages of Sumer and Babylon, as in the Epic of Gilgamesh, were grouped together under the appellation ‘the seven sages’. So a certainly intriguing matrix of associations passed down through Near Eastern civilizations from Sumerian mythology onwards, itself said from the earliest times to have been passed to mankind ‘from the mouth of the gods’. And who in their genetic manipulations described within the Sumerian creation myths, infused their own genetics with those of early humanid-types, creating over thousands of years the human species ‘completed in god’s image’, as symbolized by Adapa, as well as the Hebrew Adam, and Eve, the mythical two first representatives of completed ‘homo sapiens’.


spire – sphere – respiration
inspire – espere (hope) – prosper(?)
pyramid (?) – spirit – aspire –

(even) perspire(create energy/grow through work… man is a dynamo – to each day the strength thereof…
ie.the energy that was earnt/created by work the day before – the diurnal cycle). Hence YHVH decree to
Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, ‘by the sweat of thy brow shall thou earn thy bread’ ie consciousness,
and energy, as a dynamo dependent upon individual effort.

So; hope – aspiration – work – breath – worship – the heavens – the spirit.

          SPHINX  - sphere /spiral/ phi / sphinx (constrict/bind)
                    encircling line of energy 'tied around the earth' ...
                    binding point, in circle around earth...

PYRAMID – contains; Pi – central geometric concept of circle/spiral
Pyre – (fire)energy
Ram – biblical term POWER
RA – Egyptian SUN god…
Mid – centre of geometry of AD/TR lines of force. #


Babylonian/ Ur-anna = light of the heavens/ Anunnaki – related etymology.
therefore ur/our/or(e) = SUN / star(light)/the motive power of life and meaning within the Universe.

  • this does indicate the nature of the energy of the Ouroboros.
    Or – French for gold – symbolic of the refined power of the Sun – inner link to ‘copper serpent/ Nehash/ ‘knower of secrets’/ alchemy/ metals/ Sun and Orion…
    When solar energy is refined/balanced, it becomes gold, the energy of life.

organ – organise – orb(ital) / horizon / aura/ aurora.

Origin from Latin – orire – to arise, originate – arising – is key aspect of the etymology of Or(e) related words, pointing as it does to both essential origins, and the rising of the Sun; creation of sunlight, bringing its life-giving energies each day.

The Latin ora* – “cord” refers to the rope or bond of the cosmic boundary, or the edge of the bounds. This Egyptian hieroglyphic of a cord in a circle was used to represent the circle of the heavens, the limit and bounds of the heavenly enclosure of the Creator, within which all was protected. In Sumerian culture this was represented by the similar ‘rod and ring’ symbol held by the gods, in countless instances; Inanna / Ishtar here for example (below right).
(left) Egyptian depiction of shen-coil also as ‘omphalos’ marker-stones of higher dimensional points on Earth’s surface. (From the entrance to Ramesses II temple, Abydos).
The cord symbol in Egypt was therefore a symbol of the ‘bond of regularity’ (shes maat) with which the sovereign was shown to rule ‘all that the Aten encircles’. Thus these encircling cords were considered to be protective, to ‘set the bounds’, of the kingdom, as with the Creator and the cosmos. Each ruler of Egypt’s name/symbol was placed in hieroglyphics within the Shen coil; over time this stretched out into a lozenge shape, the Royal cartouche, linking the terrestrial ruler with the Universal Ruler, protecting the encircled sacred region of the kingdom….

*NB – these ‘ora’, or ‘cords’ may relate to the later ‘omphalos’ (Greek), which then led to the ‘umbilicus’ (Latin). Representing, as such, cords stemming from the higher dimensions which feed the Earth the necessary celestial energies for the growth of life.

The dynasties of Egypt did have ceremonies concerned with ‘setting the bounds’, as well as with measuring the dimensions of the land distance-wise. In similar vein the Sphinx, as we see in the Egypt section, is located intentionally, it seems, within a few hundred yards of the 30th Parallel North, looking eastwards to where the Sun rises each day; in this way likewise ‘establishing’, or pointing to, a significant energy-line wrapped around the world at this important geometric division of the globe. This belief may well have been an early expression of the concept of the Ouroboros, the ‘celestial serpent’ wrapped around the world, with it’s tail in it’s mouth; by the time of the Greek civilization which popularized the concept (and which as a culture was shaped predominantly by both Egyptian, and Mesopotamian systems of knowledge and wisdom), the Ouroboros was associated with earth-energies and lines, connecting sacred sites, much as Chinese civilization postulated ‘lung mei’, ‘dragon-lines’ carrying celestial energies throughout the earth…the Ouroboros was also used as a symbol of infinity, or eternity, encapsulating the idea of perpetual rejuvenation, and the turning of the earth and the heavens. It may well be that the name of the sun-deity of Egypt – Ra – stemmed from the cognate-group associated with ‘Or…

(left) the Uraeus headwear; Seti I offering to the goddess of Truth, at the Temple of Abydos. Picture; John Ward, 1902.

As G.Strachan notes in ‘Chartres, Sacred Geometry, Sacred Space’, the Latin word for gold- ‘aura’ was linked to sunlight by the word for dawn; ‘aurora’. Additionally, the Vesica Piscis was also known as the ‘aureole’ according to Strachan, and thus in depicting Jesus framed within the Vesica this was;

“symbolic of the light body of Jesus. . .and also of the human aura . . . which surrounds and protects our physical bodies in the same way the layers of atmosphere surround and protect our planet”. (p.85)

Not just the straightforward aspects of the Sun are indicated, either;
For example, through the process called nuclear fusion occurring inside suns all elements are created in the nuclear furnace, in a cycle of creation/ explosion/ dust clouds/ accretion/ stars. Thus all ores on Earth for example are the result and expression of this cosmic process or cycle involving vast nebulae, the forces of gravity, and stars.

Light’s power can be measured by it’s ability to create systems of life, and of meaning, against the flow of entropy. . . So we find this potential of the light of the Sun, and all suns, (akin to the Divine dispensation, or Will) is reflected in the varied etymologies of the terminology of ‘or, which as we have seen gives rise to words such as orient, orientation, order, orbit, and so on.
Following the further meaning of creative potential, we can see the relation to the words originate, organise, orchestrate. . . and organ, a word central to life in its metabolism related meanings – the essence of complex living beings/bodies/systems is the functioning of the inner organs – breathing, feeding, drawing sustenance, cleansing and creating/ renewing inner substances, perceiving, thinking, reproduction, waste disposal, etc have associated organs to perform the necessary functions in tune with Life and each other – in well-orchestrated order, etc.
These functions transcend the physical body too – all can be applied to such things as companies, associations, governments, nations, planets, galaxies and so on, with understandable clarity. Any composite entity containing individuality, structure and purpose, which lives, grows, and dies or changes.

It is generally believed words such as ‘organ/ise’ etc stem from the PIE stem of *werg, from which the word ‘work’ comes, likewise ‘ergonomics’ etc… but it is certainly possible the two stems themselves are related; thus the ‘organs’ are those things of the body which are part of the body’s ‘workings’, and are concerned with the transformation of the (higher) energies of Life. A valuable multi-dimensional definition of the body’s organs and processes.

  • does word contain this root etymology also, as a ‘plan for creation’ as it means? see orate / oracle also.

The Hebrew word for light is ‘Or’ ; which very likely stems from the Sumerian name of the sacred city of Ur (and likewise the name of an era of Sumerian history, as Ur-III is used) – the original name for the Sumerian birthplace of Abraham, the ‘father of nations’. . . Biblical confirmation of the Ur-annu; the ‘light of the heavens’ source for Orion.
There is good additional support for these semantic associations in the (complicated) genealogies of the Old Testament in the Bible. To quote from the article on Zerubbabel on the website ‘’;

“Zerubbabel is the hallowed leader of the second and great wave of returnees from exile (Ezra2.2) … he’s also an ancestor of Christ according to both Matthew and Luke. The name Zerubbabel consists of two parts… the second part obviously being the Hebrew word for Babylon. The origin of the first part is a bit of a mystery. Only a very select group of scribes still spoke Hebrew (in Babylon, presumably); all others spoke Aramaic, and the name Zerubbabel may have originated in Aramaic or Babylonian. The name is Zorobabel in Latin, which brings to mind the name Zoroaster, which is a Latinized version of the Old Persian Zarathustra ; and the first part of that name is probably based on a word meaning gold. Some scholars propose that Zerubbabel is in fact the wholly Babylonian name Zeru Babel, which means Seed of Babel”…

In both senses offering support for the theory offered, as representing light, the heavens, gold, and/ or arisings or origins… Zoroaster presumably thus means the light of the stars’, or ‘the heavens’ – a highly appropriate word for the religious leader and philosopher who lived in Persia in the 6th century Bce, and has been grouped along with Buddha, Pythagoras, Lao Tzu (founder of Taoism, c.500Bce), and others, who collectively marked a world-wide shift of religious thought away from the (age of Aries’) emphasis on leaders, autocracy and wars, towards the universal potentialities of the individual spirit, according to J.G.Bennett (Gurdjieff; Making a New World).
As the Bible section shows, aspects of the ’seed’ meaning lineages are seen to be highly meaningful in the Bible, indeed all antiquity. In this way the lineages of Sumer and Babylon form a significant part of the history of the Near Eastern peoples, and the Hebrew tribes, so that the mythologies of the Nephilim (and other celestial) lineages related to the patriarchs of Israel form a significant, if ambiguous and difficult to interpret aspect of the Bible’s many books.

In the Bible Isaiah uses the Hebrew word ‘Or’ to describe God’s light in opposition to the darkness of the heavens in space. Where the Hebrews gained this word from is unclear; but Ur meant the light of the heavens in Sumerian languages; while words relating to the ‘gold’ of sunlight have similar roots leading back to PIE; for example ‘ore’ where the cognate was the PIE ‘aus’ meaning gold, connected to the Latin ‘aureate’, Low German ‘ur’ being ‘iron-containing ore’, Old English ‘ar’ brass/copper/bronze, and so on. Latin ‘oriri’ meaning arising (such as the Sun, as well as ‘origin’) likewise stems from the related PIE root ‘heri-’; indeed, the word ‘earth’ itself has roots which stretch back to the PIE root of ‘er’, meaning earth, or ground. With such minerals and ores as gold being the productions of the earth; perhaps why YHVH asks the Philistines to compensate the Israelites with ‘gold hemerods’ for their theft of the Ark of the Covenant in the Bible at 1Samuel 6.17…

As mentioned, Ur-aeus itself stems probably from related words meaning the light of the heavens, as does Orion, while the Ouroboros is similar in concept to the Uraeus.

The term ‘urban’ is still used today also, meaning ‘place of light’ presumably. In the sense of people gathering together in mutual dependency and support the original meaning has become turned around, perhaps inevitably?


All related to the terms for the ‘World Tree’, the ‘spine’ connecting the heavens and the Earth.
Eight as a # does exactly that as midpoint between 4 (the material, earth plane) and 12 (the heavens)…
Octave – from PIE *okto/u – eight
See – ray of creation – doubling of energies – periodic table – groups of eight atomic elements.

The spine serves as an instrument along which (seven) energy centres transform/distribute energies, as part of octave from base of spine (earth) to crown of head (heavens). In TCMA is the ‘occipital ‘gate‘ at base of back of head, where the energies of the body meet the brain in the spine/ brain-stem.

See; the ‘occipital’ point in the Great Pyramid (towards the top steps of the Grand Gallery, which in the ‘levels of the Pyramid as levels of the human body’, represents the upper regions of the spine as it becomes the brain-stem entering the head – thus the four levels are; basement (instinctive/ stomach); ground (moving centre/ stomach); Queen’s Chamber (heart/ emotions); King’ Chamber (brain/ mind)… The ‘occiput’ point is where the mi-fa line of the Grand Gallery wall crosses the N.shaft of the King’s Chamber at the exact N-S vertical axis point, thus forming a hexagonal six-pointed star…the point is marked by the symbolically important Great Step, which is approximately 4 inches north of the centre-line. This essential geometry may explain why the N.shaft extends around thirty feet from the wall of the King’s Chamber to this point…

Sumerian akk = bone (relate to stem for back-bone?) re Octave/oak/axis; eight-sided octagon used in Sacred Geometry/ Architecture to mediate between the square of the world and the circle of the heavens. This understanding of the octagon is central to much Chinese TCMA/philosophy.

Sacred Geometry based design; St Pauls cathedral in London has an octagonal structure connecting the rectangular body of the building with the spherical dome. This feature was a central work in the building of St Paul’s. The nesting domes of St Paul’s were moreover designed upon the physics of a ‘catenary’ curve, as a necklace forms when it hangs downwards; Wren and his associates are said to have placed a mirror beneath such a chain, to obtain the shape of the upward facing curve, knowing it to be particularly strong as a support structure, between the hemispheric outer dome, and the steeper angled inner dome..! (Eggs are structured so that both ends are catenary curves, of different degrees, showing the essential strength of the curve).

The revered Islamic site at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, the Dome on the Rock, located over the exact point of the ‘world-navel’ or ‘omphalos’ within Jerusalem, is likewise designed to contain the cube in the edifice’s main body, which is surmounted by an octagon, with a spherical dome for the roof reflecting the spherical geometries of the heavens., in section on Uz, (‘strength’, or ‘contemplation’) the home land of Job, states that Osem is the Hebrew word for ‘might’ or ‘skeleton’. Osma – strength; Esma – bone; Aseh – backbone of animal. (noun ‘ezrah – one who arose locally, ie. ‘one arising from the soil’).
The axial/framework nature of the bones/skeleton is one of their basic metaphorical meanings, (similar to the World Tree/ oak, enabling connection and growth) – it certainly seems possible to connect this stem osem to the slightly later Latin root for bone, oss, and onwards. Likewise in Ancient Greek – osteon ; bone. (wiktionary)

It may be equated with the upper spine/backbone, ie the neck as sensitive meeting /crossover point of the physical and the ‘mental’/ ‘spiritual’… The Bible, in perhaps polemical manner, portrayed the Sumerian ‘celestial lineages’ as being embodied in, among many groups, the ‘sons of Anak’, linking to Anu, the ‘father’ of the Anunnaki of Sumer; as well as perhaps to the PIE word ‘s’nego’, from which came the Nagas, the ‘celestial serpents’ of Buddhism and Hinduism…other words stemming from s’nego include ‘sinew’, ‘neuron’, and ‘nerve’, as we have already noted, indicating a ‘connecting’ or axial nature.

The Prophet Mohammed – ‘each man’s fate have we tied to his neck’ – (from the Qur’an, Sura 17.13, ‘The Children of Israel’).

Chinese eight-sided figure of Universe – Pakua/ bagua ; same stem within word?
So in main languages across the world in antiquity, ak-, ox, oss etc were linked to meanings centred upon; bone/ ox/ foundation/ axis/ backbone…

          En Ki    = Lord of the earth
          En Och = Lord of the axis of heaven/earth    

In fact, this is supported by Sitchin, who in Divine Encounters (p.66) notes the similarities to Enoch, as seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs, and Enmeduranki in the Sumerian kings list of pre-Diluvial rulers is likewise seventh of ten;
Enmeduranki means Lord-of (en) the (divine) tablets (me)-of the heaven-earth-bond (dur-an-ki) ! A perfect match to the proposed theory. And as with Enoch in the Book of 1Enoch, Enmeduranki was taken heavenward by two divine beings (as ‘guardians of the gate’) to be blessed, and taught a variety of higher sciences for the guidance of mankind…

In the myth of Adapa, he was taken into the celestial palace by the two deities Ningishzida and Dumuzi, the ‘gate-keepers’ of the ‘palace of heaven’… see right for representation of Ningiszida as an intertwined serpent between two Mushussu, celestial ‘dragons’/ serpents – who hold staffs/ swords, or door/gate-ways for him ;

See Bible section for examples of Cosmic ladder /Tree (Oak, axis etc ) – Bethel, Beersheba, etc.

  • also death of Absalom in the boughs of an oak tree, caught between the heavens and
    the Earth, as the text states at 2Samuel18.9.

11. AB ZU –

Abyss of heavens/ from the depths zu (of earth, or space)
Su = wisdom ie from deepest sources/ reaches.
ZU LU = People of the Stars – from where their mythology says their race was created…

     ZU - zodiac - zoology (the heavenly menagerie...)

Related to Leviathan and Levi, the priest elite of Moses and Aaron – both of whom conspicuously associated with
serpents – awwim / tanniym the serpent nehash of healing/ the rods with Pharaoh, etc – also Nagas as ‘celestial
serpents’ / bringers of knowledge/ nahash…

see Enki/Ea ; lord of the Ab-zu/ Ap-su – the deeps (waters, space). In fact the name Ea, used in Akkadian civilization for Enki, is a contraction of the words ‘E(n)’-‘a(b)’, ie
the ‘lord of the Ab(zu), the waters of the depths, with ‘Ab’ meaning ‘waters’ and ‘zu’ meaning depths…in related manner the word Ea in Sumerian means ‘the house of water’.
The original meaning referred to the underground waters, whether as aquifers/ reservoirs, from which the rivers of Sumer and the world ensured the survival of life and mankind, or as metaphor of the cosmic ‘waters’ from which the universe was born, and life’s energies likewise come. The Sumerian goddesses Nammu, (the spouse of Anu and the mother of Enki in the Sumerian myth ‘Enki and Ninmah’) and Babylonian Tiamat were both deities of the ‘ocean’, or the ‘depths’, as in works such as the Babylonian creation myth the Enuma Elish, where in the first of the seven tablets of the epic Tiamat and her spouse Apsu gave birth to everything that exists, including the first Anuna, the heavens, and the earth.

(left) Oannes / ‘apkallu’, hybrid being, akin to ‘those who saw the deep’.

The deity Tiamat, and her biblical character as Rahab, the ‘celestial serpent of the deep’, are closely linked through ‘sea-serpents/ ‘serpents of the deep’ with the ‘reptilian’ – fish/ tail/ scales, etc – in the same way that Enki is a serpent hybrid-deity in many depictions, while as with Ea is connected with ‘the waters’. The metaphorical aspects of the ‘waters’, the ‘depths’, and the Apsu/ ‘abyss’ are all associated with these themes throughout antiquity. A significant difference between Enki/Ea/Oannes/ the ‘mushussu’/ the apkallu (all connected with the divine order), and Tiamat /Rahab is the destructive nature of the latter two, as representatives of the forces of ‘chaos’…

The (temple of) Apollo at Delphi is an example of deep (subconscious) instinctive wisdom levels, represented by female seers at the Delphic Oracle called the ‘pythonesses’. It is argued Apollo’s etymology is as ‘destroyer’; or alternatively as Plato argued, it meant ‘redeemer’ (apolysis) or ‘ purification’ (apolousis). It can mean ‘breaking things down’ rather than destruction, perhaps of conscious mind constructions/ defences…(?) Both meanings may connect with the Sumerian stem ‘ap’ of the Apsu, the limitless depths and ‘waters’ of the (cosmic) abyss that fertilise the land and the world. The same concept in Hebrew religion has the Eben Shettiyah, the foundation-stone of Temple of Jerusalem placed over where the waters of the Deluge receded into the earth, and which still give life to the earth at such ‘navel-points’ of the higher dimensions. That the waters of the Deluge may symbolize energies is clearly a possibility raised by the various works of antiquity.

Symbolism can include meanings related to – the instinctive/ reptilian centre of the stomach/ brain.
Lord of the South/ the Deep/ the waters (Su) his title therefore is apt on several levels;

  • the personal – the lowest centre, stomach – instinctive, (deep) subconscious.
  • geographic – marshes/ deltas/ possibly the southern hemisphere; oceans.
  • mining the depths [of the land], possibly in S.Africa (theory) for gold, minerals –
    and thus giving mankind technology in various ways – giver of wisdom; which neatly connects the various aspects of the epithet concerned with subconscious wisdom. Represented in the Bible by various ‘wise women’, such as Maacah, portrayed with positive and negative connotations. [Same role as the ‘god’ Thoth in Egypt].
  • and lastly, space – as mentioned, from the depths of, ie. from further than this solar system as Sumerian mythology stated. Also; Lord of the South – for various reasons the Southern hemisphere was considered the ‘underworld’… the three great axes of the Gods; See Hamlet’s Mill p258/9.
    The god Sin – the etymology of the name comes from Su-en apparently. (ie.’lord of the Su’).

It is curiously apt that biblical researchers at the website link the word ‘sud’ to such matters connected with the instinctive rather than intellectual centre; to quote from the analysis of ‘Sidon’;
“The (Hebrew) verb sud means to hunt or fish…by working for it in the wild, rather than purchasing it. This verb in the Bible would…concern an active pursuit of problems and their solutions…rather than absorbing other people’s theories at some school.”

A clearer exposition of instinctive intelligence could hardly be hoped for. This connects the fish or serpent hybrid celestial beings of Sumer etc, such as Enki/ Oannes, with biblical characters such as Simon Peter, from the area of Bethsaida, who is called a ‘fisher of men’ by Jesus at their first meeting. (That Peter occupies a role as a ‘hybrid’ or dual-natured being is clear, as the many references placing him ‘between the heavens and the earth’, for example at Matthew16.18/18.18, similarly signify. In all cases the emphasis is on the instinctive (stomach-based) centre of the deep subconscious, rather than the (head) intellect or the (chest) emotions. In other words the lowest of the three centres of the human being, the stomach-level, is concerned with matters of survival, instinct, intuition, awareness of surrounding circumstances, physiology and so forth. The many associations to Enki in Sumerian myth and onwards likewise were linked – indeed created – with these meanings in mind. The nature of the Nehushtan, the Brazen Serpent created in the wilderness by Moses likewise referred to several of the themes under consideration, including at the physical level those of healing illness and injury. Another meaning of the Nehushtan was of the ‘keeper- or knower – of secrets’, again linking to the role of Enki/ Oannes in passing on to mankind the secrets and skills of metallurgy, technology and civilization, in his role of the ‘craftful artificer’.
The ‘South’, as governed by Enki, was the source of several levels of meaning throughout Mesopotamian, Hebrew and Near Eastern mythology and religion. So from the earliest myths, such as ‘Adapa and the South Wind’, the south was associated with powerful but potentially harmful forces. This theme was continued in many ways; in Tablet XI of the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Deluge strikes from the South;

The Anunnaki lifted up the torches,
setting the land ablaze with their flare,
Stunned shock over Adad’s deeds overtook the heavens,
and turned to blackness all that had been light.
The…land shattered like a… pot
All day long the South Wind blew…
blowing fast, submerging the mountain in water,
overwhelming the people like an attack.

Still in Sumer and Akkad, the Suteans, a tribe of ‘mountain-dwelling people in the south’ were feared and excoriated in Akkadian literature (often written in Sumerian-Akkadian, showing the early origins of the concept). One example of marked nature comes from the depiction of Lamastu, the female ‘demoness’ who was highly likely a precursor of Lilutu in Akkadian, and Lilith in Hebrew mythology. To quote from myths such as Lamastu (2.136), the demoness is depicted as coming from the Sutean region, meaning in other words from the ‘wilderness of the South’;

“I am the daughter of Anu from heaven, I am a Sutean….I am terrifiying. I enter the house, I leave the house (as I please). Bring me your sons; I want to suckle them. In the mouths of your daughters I want to place (my breast). Anu heard (this) and wept, the tears of Aruru, Lady of the Gods were flowing; ‘Why should we destroy what we have created, and why should the wind carry away what we have produced? Indeed, take her to the sea, or to the highest outcrop of mountain! Indeed, bind her to a free-standing tamarisk, or a lone reed stalk. As a corpse does not have life… may the Daughter-of-Anu like smoke leave town, and never return!”

Lilutu was a similar Akkadian female ‘demon’, as in the myth of ‘Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Netherworld’, who looks likely to have been the source of the Hebrew character of Lilith.
In the Bible the Queen of Sheba is called the ‘queen of the South’ by Jesus, while in Job his worldly possessions, and his family are killed and destroyed by Sabeans, ie raiders from the South. In this way adding support to the long-term associations throughout antiquity of the South to the ‘abyss’ and destruction, although as noted, the Ab-zu was the subterranean reservoir of the waters necessary to all life when overseen by Enki, waters capable of also destroying life when unbalanced, such as in the Deluge. Biblical concepts tended to emphasize the negative aspects predominantly. As an example, the Book of Job raises several references to related concepts; when Satan agrees with YHVH to test the righteous man Job, he says to YHVH at 1.10, “Hast thou not made an hedge about him?” – we saw elsewhere, in Ecclesiastes 10.8;“He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it; and whoso breaketh an hedge, a serpent shall bite him”, and equated it to 20th century Jungian psychology, meaning one who breaks the boundaries between conscious (intellectual) and subconscious (instinctive) minds will be exposed to the ‘serpents of the deep’, within the deep subconscious*… The ‘south’ is likewise associated with evil in Job1.15, where the text states his sons and daughters, and the livestock of his household have been attacked and destroyed; “And the Sabeans (from the South) fell upon them, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only I am escaped alone to tell thee”…
The following verses confirm some form of connection to the Sumerian mythologies; verse 1.17 tells Job that the Chaldeans (the Babylonians) have attacked his stocks of camels, used for (international) trade, and all his servants with them, while verse 1.19 reads; “And behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead” – bringing us back to Sumerian / Akkadian concepts of the (evil) South Wind…

  • In the Tarot, card XV, the Devil has several references pertaining to the chains of the human being to the lowest physical, instinctive centres of consciousness, rooted in sexual, and instinctive drives (of the level of the stomach). Most esoteric authorities from the 19th and 20th century stressed the intrinsic part of such drives, and energies within the human being, noting that these levels are the ‘well-spring’ of much vitality, and only become harmful when in a state of excess, or imbalance. Without these ‘waters’ from the instinctive centre/ ‘ap-su’, human consciousness may become an ‘arid desert’ of autocracy and rational literal-mindedness.

Later in Isaiah 30.6, are further references to the South, where the angelic order the Seraphim (in Isa6.1-4 shown to be servants of the Lord in the highest heaven) are described as ‘flying dragons’, ‘vipers’, ‘destroyers’;
“The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them”.

So the dualities inherent within concepts of the South find perfect expression in the seraphim-related narratives. Here it is interesting that the reference to the south links in to the repeated metaphor of the Sumerian (serpent-) deity Enki as Lord of the South, as well as the ‘evil’ South Wind found in many works, hence the subterranean depths of waters, the ‘abyss’, and the instinctive/reptilian centre of the stomach, the body’s primary source of life-force and energy. The female priestesses at the Delphic Oracle, the ‘pythonesses’ were similarly representative of the powers of the subconscious, instinctive centre of the body and mind. The use by Isaiah of the word ‘burden’ and ‘beasts’ also raises aspects associated with the ‘dark’ lines of the Nephilim, as well as links to the ‘celestial’ lineages as portrayed in the burdens felt by so many of the characters studied in the Bible section, from Cain onwards virtually.

There are some theories linking the Sabeans to the Akkadian Suteans, meaning as it does the ‘tribesmen of the South (mountain-lands); for example by Amar Annus in his paper “The Sons of Seth and the South Wind. That Sumerian myths of Enki and the following references contained these multiple levels of meaning from the ‘Lord of the South’ is significant in itself, perhaps, of the cosmic nature of the consciousness of the Anuna, the formative celestial beings of the first civilization.
Likewise it is of some significance that one of the most basic of words within language, that meaning ‘south’, has remained effectively unchanged since the beginning of civilization in the 4th millennium Bce..! And kept some of the deeper connotations originally incorporated into the concept.
It is a fact, additionally, that the Sumerian/ Akkadian ‘ap-su’ has passed down through history from the earliest civilization in Sumer to many today as the word for the South, ie Sud… It is curious in this respect that the region where the Queen of Sheba came from, around Ethiopia, is near to Sudan, and was previously called Abyssinia !
The word ‘ap-su’ is believed to have given rise to the name for the deity of the Moon, Su-en, which later became Sin. As such linking the ‘ap-su’ and it’s waters to the lunar powers of the moon. In the story of Solomon and Sheba he obviously personifies male ‘solar’ energies, while she represents female ‘lunar’ energies, the marriage of which create an ‘alchemical wedding’; this being one instance of the inner cosmology of the Hebrews, and preceding civilizations.
The long-term continuity of this most elementary term ‘sud’ ; South… means that it is still prevalent in languages today across the globe, in French, German/ Norse, Spanish and English languages… so this word, with its manifold meanings, has been used in it’s basic form throughout the entirety of history.

Possibly related words may include – from (old german sunnen the sun) & PIE ‘sawel’ the sun. Also potentially submarine / subterranean (?) connects to Enki/ the ap-su ‘the abyss’ – as already noted, within the terms or symbolism of the human body Enki represents stomach/ instinctive/ subconscious. Linked also to water/ serpents / fish etc. In the Bible are Tiamat, Rahab etc, described as ‘serpents of the deep’ / abyss, with the emphasis on the negative aspects of the celestial forces; although the wise-women of the Bible, such as Rahab who lets the Israelites into Jericho, are within the tradition of ‘pythonesses’ in this respect, although covertly linked with such strands of meaning.


(From the same root stem as Cord/ Chord) – all relate to run – line of – consequence of;

correre – run (Roman), PIE *kers; run. Corridor – course – cause – current – carry – CAR –
career – courier – curry – curate – (cross ? 2 intersecting lines) – crossroads – crusade –
curse… cursor – crucial? – cairn? (line of highpoints/ mountain-top structures) curtain –
curtail – curb & kerb – curl – kernel. Quarter/ cross-roads.
curve; (from Latin curvus; from PIE s(ker); bend, curve, turn)

Correction possibly – cord / record ety; french/latin. – cors – accord (see below); possible connection to – car /
carne / carnival – ‘of the body’.
see – CERN large hadron collider, particle accelerator in Switzerland / and similar to this; Kurchatov the long-established major nuclear fusion research centre in Moscow.
(also link ‘kernel ‘ /core – cognate with old English/ proto-Germanic/Hebrew ‘kerndl ‘ seed/corn)
‘the core, centre or essence of a body, or system’ – kernel as edible substance in a nut/ seed, stone of a fruit,
raises several questions related to Gilgamesh/ the gods Enki/ Shamash/ Ninkursag, etc; and book of Genesis.
the Cerne Abbas giant is an obvious fertility figure, with his seed/ reproductive organs to the fore…

[See Genesis1.11 (!) Zera – seed of things (Strong’s Concordance) – possibly linked to seed/cor.e/corn/kernel?
Hebrew, Aramaic, Phoenician, Arabic, Assyrian, Sumerian; Zeru ; seed. root of zero (?) ie centre point of circle, like atom/ or sun in solar system?]

In fact, core may relate as to this section’s words.. the seed or source of the line!
Kernel may refer to the seed/ centre/ point of arising; of atoms/ (or with regard to people; reproductive sense/ organs as sources of new life and energy…) Core etymology includes; middle English ‘corn’/grain; old french ‘cour’ heart; from Latin cor ‘heart’; also links to Latin corpus, body…
When Moses came down from the mount with the 10 Commandments, his face was ‘qaran’ – ‘horned’ (shining) with brightness from the ‘glory of God’ – this led to Latin Vulgate by Jerome saying he was ‘cornuta’; his face was horned with glory etc – images of him with horns.

This actually links to the phrase ‘the four corners of the world’; (thus with Four Corners, USA, where Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah meet; the symbol at the monument is of a circle divided into four quarters – see right). The word ‘crossroads’ comes from the French carrefour similarly. The phrase ‘the four corners of the earth’ is used many times in the Bible, to convey a sense of completeness, or to refer to the ‘powers of the world’, in other words the most powerful empires. Examples include; 1Chronicles9.24, Job1.19, Ezekiel7.2, Isaiah11.12, Revelations7.1/ 20.8, and so on. Nearly all of these references (in particular) refer to the ‘powers of the world’, in such, being thus contrasted with those of the heavens and God.

As the highly symbolic and important (Assyrian) Tablet of Shamash from Sippar c.9th century Bce shows, the ‘planet’ symbol may be described as both ‘(four-)rayed’, or ‘quartered’, with the rays being interleaved by four ‘rivers’ – as ”a river went out of Eden, and thence it was parted, and became into four heads” ! (Gen2.10). ie the unity of the energies of the heavens was ‘quartered’ as it entered ‘four-square’ material reality, the world.

Corner also links to Quatuor Coronati – the world’s ‘premier Masonic research lodge’, which means ‘the Four Crowned Ones’ formed 1886, at Gt Queen St, London. This may show a conceivable link between the ‘crown’ of the head and the sense of Moses’ face being ‘crowned’ with light; possibly a better interpretation than ‘horned’ with light as St Jerome translated it. This is not an erroneous perspective though, for corner comes from Old English/Anglo-French cornere, Old French corne, Latin cornua, plural of cornu ‘horn, hard growth of head on animals’ (according to etymology dictionaries). From PIE *ker – horn, head… thus we see ‘quartered’ (from French quartiere/ Latin quartuarius /PIE *kwetwr, all meaning four), corner, and qaran (horned ) are all related.
‘Quartered’ places things firmly within the four-square world of material reality as sacred geometry and cos# maintain; as the compass divides into four, the clock into the same basic of quarters, the quadrants of heaven (from late 14thc), and so on… thus the PIE root for ‘horn’ (*ker) may relate tangentially to ‘four’ as from ‘horn’ or ‘head’ in this sense of ‘material reality’ – as well as to the numerous meanings connected to ‘cor’ and ‘cors’, ‘carne’ and ‘corpus’…
As the Moses section examines, the Horns of Moses link to the Horns of Ammon, Alexander the Great, and other relevant parts of antiquity.
We have seen many symbols throughout history bear the design of the quartered circle; in following order (l-r) from Sumer/Assyria (Shamsi-Adad V, c.850-811Bce) – the Templar Cross of the 14th century – NATO symbol – the squared circle – Cross of Knights of St John/Maltese Cross ––United Nations symbol – and so on, each relating closely to symbolism of the sphere of the world in some way or other…

MYCORRHIZA ; fungus/mushroom/mycelium networks beneath ground; long filaments, like nerves/ganglia,
essential for nutrient transfer to trees/plants, and chemical processes of breaking down/transforming
decaying matter in the soil/earth. Systems can form up to 5 miles of networks, at present knowledge…

A number of times the seed of things is used as a phrase with deeper meanings attached to it than might be assumed on cursory inspection; in Genesis 1 and 2 for instance, when granting stewardship of the Earth to Adam and Eve, thus explaining their role in the world, as they are sent out of Eden.
The ‘sons of Zeruiah’, as representatives of the nature of the seed of the bloodline king David belongs to, may have connections with this etymology, with various meanings related to essence or related characteristics, although in fact
Zeruah meanwhile is stated to stem from the verb‘sara’ meaning duplicitious, or from ‘sara’at’, meaning skin-disease, ‘to have patches of different coloured skin’ (, or one possible meaning which is ‘hornet’, from ‘sirah’. All are highly descriptive in the sense of the line of Cain, which rabbinical sources averred resulted from a mating between Eve and Samael, as was named the upright, walking serpent of Eden (although the Serpent of Eden is never referred to anywhere in the Bible as ‘Satan’; perhaps as the serpent-god of Sumer, Enki/ Oannes, who brought wisdom from the ‘heavens’, and created mankind, and civilization was never considered demonic…) The similar name Zeruiah, as relating to the ‘mighty men’, the ‘sons of Zeruiah’ who are David’s cousins, has a great many possible meanings, the most obvious of which have possible relevance; ‘sarar’ (I) means to bind, or secure, the verb ‘sara’ (II) to show hostility, while the noun ‘sar’ means adversary. The denominative verb ‘sara’ means to suffer distress. The verb ‘sarar’ (III) means to be sharp, with the related noun ‘sur’ meaning ‘rock’ and is the equivalent to the Greek noun ‘petra’, from which comes the name Peter. As we shall see in the Simon Peter section, there are many semantic associations created by this name given by Jesus to Simon which are predominantly concerned with ‘rocky ground’, deserts, and the ‘satan’-related meanings of ‘the adversary’ – ties of meaning which indicate that of all the apostles Simon Peter was essentially different to the others, as well as to the other early fathers of the church, such as Paul of Tarsus. The Hebrew word ‘zera’, meaning ‘seed’, as used in Genesis4.25-6, and Luke8.4-15 regarding the seed falling on rocky ground, is not considered to relate to either Zeruiah or Zeruah, due to different initial letters.
the word Zeruah/ Zeruiah stems not from ‘zeru’ but from ‘sarah’’ and associated words, with various possible meanings.

The Book of Jude in the New Testament mentions (1.11) the ‘heresies’ of Core, the cousin of Moses who rebelled against Moses and his brother Aaron’s leadership of the Israelites in the wilderness, and was swallowed up into the ground, into ‘Sheol’, ie. ‘hell’. (described originally at Numbers 16.1). Jude states the rebellious cousin of Moses is a representative of all men who “speak evil of those things which they know not. . . for they have gone in the way of Cain… and perished in the gainsaying of Core” – thus linking him and his descendants clearly with the ‘lines of Cain’.

Korah is of further relevance as the ancestor of the Korahites, a part of the Levite grouping of religious functionaries in ancient Israel who are the city’s gatekeepers, keepers of the temple’s religious objects such as bowls, basins etc, as well as musicians (psalms 42-88); moreover, they are connected to the celestial bloodlines of Sumer as they enter the Hebrew tribes in part during the Babylonian Capture (as seen in the Bible section on David)– so questions related to seed and essence abound within the various narratives encoded into the Bible around Korah. And the characters considered as primary representatives of the Sumerian lineages, namely Shallum, Akkub, Talmon and Ahiman at 1Chronicles9.17-19, are linked with both Kore (9.17), and the four corners (9.24); all the implications of which are too complex to consider here.

(As to Kore’s name, it may well be over-simplifying the linguistic questions of derivation and the long-term migration of word-stems, to posit that the name has connections to the ‘core’ of the heresy, ie. a seed or essence of the error-filled path or lineage) Likewise the core of the three mainly definable centres of the human brain is the reptilian, around which are placed (or have grown through evolution) the mammalian (emotions), and the frontal lobes (intellectual). Hebrew dictionaries state Korah means ‘baldness’ (qarah) or ‘frost’ (qerah) – in either sense indictaing something reduced down to it’s bare features or minimum.

Zeru, zera in the sense of seed/ kernel/ core may relate to chord/ cord /etc. ie the human body’s seven chakras.
As noted in chord – also, we are chordatas (uniting the two words, chord + data/da’ath) ; in like sense, arrayed along the axis of the spine; as has virtually all developed life-forms since the period of history called the Pre-Cambrian explosion 574million years ago; spine, head, (with brain/organs of perception) tail (with organs of digestion/ excretion/ and reproduction situated nearby); two arms, and two legs, with shoulders, elbows, wrists, hands, fingers; hips, thighs, knees, ankles, feet, toes;etc. All this in mostly all animals being based upon the framework of the skeletal system, with muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves, arteries, veins and so on all arrayed around the foundational framework of the bones; which also create blood cells within, to replenish the body’s system.

Likewise the first land animals have been found to have all appeared at the same point in time, around 320 million years ago;
“the stage by which a fish gave rise to an amphibian are unknown…the earliest land animals appear with four good limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdles, ribs and distinct heads… In a few million years, over 320 million years ago, a dozen orders of amphibians suddenly appear in the records, none apparently ancestral to any other”

Dr Robert Wesson, Beyond Natural Selection quoted by Michael Baigent in Ancient Mysteries.

Whether dinosaurs, birds, fish, reptiles, mammals, primates or humans, this body-form has predominated as
the best template for survival of living forms of matter which are capable of reproducing, evolving, and developing consciousness of it’s surroundings, and the wider universe.

Core – cord – chord –CHORDATA;

(SEE gods/ angels/ prophets with measuring cords – (records) – related to greek-roman cors – for corridor/ course etc. Likewise possibly as contain the archetypal root ‘-ORS’ within their (essential) meanings… as can be seen by their basic definitions of structure, design, measurement, function, metabolism within the Octave of the transformation of energies.

  • chordata is very accurate as to what we are ! – instruments which process, and transform the data (the deep information) of life, in the process of existence and growth.
    Core / Cord / Chord-data are all deep expressions of the essence of the spine therefore; in virtually all living beings, since Pre-Cambrian Era; emphasizing the importance of the World-Tree axial nature of symbolism in Sumerian tableaux of the Tree of Life, and of similar metaphors in the Bible, such as Jacob’s Ladder; which takes place at Bethel (the House of God), but the previous name for the site was Luz (Genesis 28.19) meaning (a sacred) part of the shoulder, or back….
    The Caduceus shown in the next section has been interpreted to represent among other things the human spine, with interweaving lines of energy crossing it at several points – some theories say these are representative of the
    chakra points. The two wings at top are the two hemispheres of the brain, and the ball at the top of the axis is perhaps the ‘third eye’, or the pineal gland as it is referred to in physiology.

  1. KI / QI; Sumerian Ki = Earth

ANU NNA KI = Those born of Anu (Heaven Father) & (Nin) Ki (Earth Mother.
Earth’s ruler (Lord of Ki) = EN KI

Heaven-Earth ruler (Lord of Heaven/ Earth axis) = En och*
Chinese Ki (Qi) = Life/energy
Sumerian; Du -ran – ki

* Sitchin – ‘enoshut’ is the Hebrew for ‘that which is human’, the line of Adam, his grand-son is Enosh.
ties in with us being chordata/ axis along which the seven chakras are arranged vertically/
– or the limbs /organs/head are arranged around the central axis of the spine.
‘the heaven-earth line of the octave’ / axis/ oss (bone / spine /etc.
Many links between SUMER and CHINA – the ‘black-haired people’.
Gods of intertwined serpent tails such as Enki /Fu Xi +Na Kua, (upper right) and Ningiszida (below right)
China emblem the dragon; from antiquity this symbolizes divine spirit.

Sumer – Korea language connections;
Anna/Anu =heavens, sky/ God in Sumer Hana / Hanue = God, sky in Korea
Dingir the most great spirit Dangor the most great spirit PIE dang =sky.heaven
Korean for cow-head = so (cow) meori (head) Ur-du also in Korean means same.
It is a term for the utmost respect / sacred – see depictions of Anunnaki with cow-horn headwear, p.28…


Is it the densest level of energy/matter continuum…?
in periodic table this is radioactive metals, uranium etc.

Salt is etymologically related to the root word of the Sun – Sol – (as seen
in the name Sol-om-on; 3 different names for the Sun / cosmic energies. (The etymology
of his name in Hebrew is from the tri-consonantal root S-L-M meaning ‘peace’ ie ‘divine order’,
sunlight etc…). The dualities present within ‘salt’ are captured by the words of Jesus, at Mark9.50;
“Salt is good; but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith shall ye season it?”

Salt is the end result of the action of the Sun, ie drying out of waters, and from which many uses can be derived.
But after it’s use, what can be done with it – so it seems to be the end point of a cycle…
In Chinese Daoism (or Taoism), the yin and yang (male and female) energies symbolized by the Tai Chi symbol,
represent the flow of such energies in cycles, or ‘waves’… As one grows, the other recedes, until one predominates
and the other is just a dot within, this being the seed from which the cycle returns from a state of natural, but limited imbalance. So considering the ‘yang’, male nature of sunlight, salt appears to be the end-point of the (celestial) cycle,
from which only female ‘yin’ energies can grow, as a counter-balance. This offers a nice conception of the ‘salt waters’ of the female womb, within which the child grows. Likewise the salt waters on Earth within which the first seeds of Life grew several billion years ago. (As the Creation of the universe in Genesis1.2 states that;

“And the Earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep”.
And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters”.

A passage which derived from the creation myth of Babylon, the ‘Enuma Elish’;

“When on high the heaven had not yet been named,
Firm ground below had not yet been called by a name,
Naught but primordial Apsu, their begetter,
And Mummu and Tiamat – she who bore them all,
Their waters mingled as a single body…”

So Tiamat the name actually means ‘salt waters’, while the word used in Hebrew, as in Genesis, was ‘tehom’, for ‘the deep’, in plural being ‘tehomot’… showing the clear origins of the concept of the ‘waters of the deep’ in Hebrew texts came from Sumerian and Babylonian cosmology.

As an essential part of ‘the waters of life’ salts and related minerals are an essential part of human physiology, too, so much so that excessive loss of body-salts, for example through sweating, can lead to cramps, illness and even death.

So salt possibly represents both the bases of life, as well as in it’s ‘furthest state’ excessive exposure to the sun, or an imbalance of solar energies inimical to the biochemistry of life…

Thus was Lot’s wife turned into a pillar of salt as she faced the solar power of the destruction
of Sodom and Gomorrah. And in fact the words of Jesus just before the verse of Mar9.50 are
referential to the cataclysm (among other things) in terms of salt;

“For everyone shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt” (Mar9.49)

With the result of the cataclysm being the Sea of Salt, or ‘Dead Sea’…

Theories re nuclear bomb…Sodom/Gomorrah – Could be artistic caution to mankind of these
energies, (atomic blast / radiation / power), as much as a historical relating of events… or could be
accurate recounting.

SAVE – PIE etymological root is solo – whole, unity, health.
evolved to Latin salve, and English, save.
Salt was used in biblical times as a purifier, preserver, and antiseptic, hence the many positive uses and references to it in the Bible, and other works of antiquity. As we see, there is an intrinsic connection to the Sun – via solar energies.

So Lot and his wife – who is turned into a pillar of salt – has a meaning of..?

  • in terms of inner-growth she became ‘mechanical’ in life – backward looking!
    JESUS – ‘he will regret it who turns back to look’…/ ‘what use is salt that loses its saltiness?’

(Seraphim – fieriness/ dryness / parched / ie the powers of the Sun to extremes – also linked to serpents / Nagas – which condemned to always have ‘dust in their mouths’; as God says to the serpent in Eden after it creates ‘the Fall’; “…dust shalt thou eat, all the days of your life” (Genesis3.14/15)..!

Strong meaning of SALT as preservative. Compare to Salvation the process of being saved from hell.
Jesus ‘ words are a play on these levels of related meanings..! what good is virtue that becomes unbalanced/ mechanical – can no longer save. Perhaps a comment on the ‘religiosity’ of the Pharisees, etcetera…

=> we have the following chains of metaphors/concepts;

  • salt – the sun – Solomon – solar energies; first mention in Bible of 666 (talents of Gold) is in detailing
    Solomon’s actions in building the Temple of Jerusalem. This number symbolic of the products of the Sun –
    the # 666 is said to be the # of the (male) solar energies of the Sun (and the # 1080 to represent in Sacred Geometry of the (female) lunar energies. (Represented by the Queen of Sheba ; ‘Seven’)

-conceptual relation nuclear fusion/detonation to salt – Lot’s wife reduced to a pillar of salt,
on facing the ‘flash’ of the explosion. Also – this formed the ‘Sea of Salt’, or the Dead Sea, which has
the highest salt content of nearly all seas.
Sitchin says Sinai vicinity of Sodom/Gomorrah has remnants of nuclear contamination/chemicals.
In India, Mohendro Daro likewise appears to have suffered some terrible explosive energy around
2500-3OOO years ago.

Egypt Heliopolis was called ei – n – re ; On(u)/ An-(u?) – the Abode of the Sun. From which
Hebrew On or Aon (changed into Aven in Ezekiel 30.17) was taken, and which translated
into Beth-Shemesh – the House of the Sun.* the History of Herodotus by G.Rawlinson. (from ws.Abarim.)

Pharoah gave Joseph a wife after released him from jail ; daughter of the priest of On. (Gen41.45).

The verb ‘wn / awn in Hebrew means to experience alot, to go through alot, to toil,
be tired – not in bible, but in cognate langs. Positive version – On means prosperity, achieve
positive sense is to enjoy plenty, of rest, wealth, pleasure, And esp powers of fertility

  • back to pillar as symbol of Sun / male fertility…
    Noun awen means toil etc. On means surplus wealth/ reproductive powers.
    [Trouble – sorrow-idolatry / vigour – wealth – fertility] Also the name of Cain’s relative,
    believed to be the female source of the line of Cain; name relating to the ‘powers of the sun’.

Seems to be a complex of related ideas/areas, including further links of;
nuclear – solar energies – Nagas – sunlight – salt -(NaCl) wealth? gold?
Pillars, potency, male energy and serpents (which survive in harsh sun, in
salty deserts, without water-
(the durability of reptilian forms /centre in body, in terms of surviving extremes of heat,
and solar energies.

  • See figures of drought cracked earth – close up of the sun – and serpent scales…
    follow the same pattern of distribution of matter / energies, or effects of heat. GIZA complex – 29.974 N, 31.13 E – so Oak Ridge is 115.4° west of 0° Giza meridian.
    1/86.6% = 1.154 7
    1.732 /2 = 86.6 = √3 /2 as see in Vesica.
    and size of Sun = 864/5,000 m/diam.
    Additionally, e / pi = O.865 2559 where e is euler’s constant.

So refinement of first ever nuclear bomb (?) was at a significant point on the earth both N-S , and E-W axis, in relation to Giza – serpent lines… Not necessarily ‘essential’ to the work, but is a striking coincidence, somehow – relating the production of solar/ ‘higher’ energies/fuel sources (see Ley-lines of England for more on science research centres at key points on Earth’s surface in terms of energy fields and node points). – in other words making success more likely.

  • and as mention re era of lamentations in Sumer/Akkadian eras, salinisation led to the ground/agricultural areas, from irrigation, being crusted with a rime of salt for centuries, due to build up salts in the water table which then evaporated in the sun.
    Thus the negative connotations of salt ‘metaphor’, contain the aspect of it as destroyer of life/ and/or the remnant of life at its most ‘devolved’ state – radioactive matter… the end product of the Sun; pointing to the cosmic necessity of balance, ie by lunar energies, male/ female, and so on, in the nature of the Tao.
    • Sol – Latin, sun. French Soleil.
    • Norwegian – Solt = hunger.
  • Sage (n). Latin – salvia, from salvus ‘healthy’
    from PIE root – *sol – whole, well kept.


Date palm; aka tamarisk – (dark leaf tree) was a symbol of unseeable heavens/deep space –

  • dark – hidden from view, unknown, invisible.

DA ATH is the hidden, invisible sephiroth of the Qabalah, and has no number as such.
Its position is after the first (divine) three sephiroth, and before the next ‘middle’/ astral level.

  • is seen as a gateway to the highest and deepest heavens, and it connects these levels/dimensions,
    and acts as a balance. As such is a hidden gateway/ and has a guardian…
  • does data stem from these related meanings – the origins of meaning, at the level
    where the structured cosmos and the energy-source the abyss meet..?
  • see also SID-DARTHA GAUTAMA enlightened under a fig tree/actually bodra tree –
    symbol of the World Tree, axis linking the heavens and the earth…

This basic root of darkness could be the source of Greek use of DA/ DE used to denote evil,
negativity – destroy, death, diabolos/ devil, etc; whereas THETA ( used to denote positive, God,
love etc. Greek Dactylos used to mean finger, or toe – thus counting, and from this, digital / decimal?.

In possible support of this the Cedars of Lebanon are linked additionally in the Islamic religion to ‘Al-Khidr’, the ‘Evergreen’, a ‘servant of God’ who has been ‘given divine knowledge’, who in the Qur’an (18.65-82) discourses with Moses on various ‘higher’ matters).

THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH – an abridged version of the poem.


Tablet I. Introduction to Uruk-Haven, and the hero/king, Gilgamesh.
” II. Enkidu’s creation, civilization by Shamhat; Gilgamesh & Enkidu meet; fight; become best friends.
” III. Preparations for the quest – to the sacred mountain in Lebanon.
” IV. The journey to the forest/mountain of the Gods.
” V. The Cedar forest – Humbaba the terrifying ‘robot’/ the battle.
” VI. The goddess Inanna proposes to Gilgamesh.
” VII. The great Gods conference/the death of Enkidu.
” VIII. Gilgamesh mourns Enkidu…
” IX. Gilgamesh roams the mountains/wilderness, ponders man’s mortality.
” X. The inn-keeper (replenisher) Siduri questions G.’s appearance.
Gilgamesh’s journey to ‘the Faraway’ with the pilot Urshanabi. He meets
Utnapishtim, survivor of the Deluge.


Gilgamesh seeks eternal life. The Plant of Eternal Youth. His return home to Uruk-Haven.


He who has seen everything I will make known to the lands.
…Anu granted him the totality of knowledge of all.
He saw the Secret, discovered the Hidden,
he brought information of (the time) before the Flood.
He went on a distant journey, pushing himself to exhaustion, but then was brought to peace.
He carved on a stone stelae all of his toils; and built the wall of Uruk-Haven, the wall of the sacred Eanna Temple, the holy sanctuary.
Look at it’s wall which gleams like copper.
Take hold of the threshold stone – it dates from ancient times.
Go close to the Eanna Temple, the residence of Ishtar,
Such as no later king or man ever equalled.
Go up on the wall of Uruk, and walk around,
Examine it’s foundation, inspect it’s brickwork thoroughly,
…did not the Seven Sages themselves lay out it’s plans?

Find the copper tablet box,
open the… of it’s lock of bronze
undo the fastening of it’s secret opening,
Take and read out from the lapis lazuli tablet
how Gilgamesh went through every hardship.

Supreme over other kings, lordly in appearance
he is the hero, born of Uruk, the goring wild bull.
…Mighty net, protector of his people
raging flood-wave who destroys even walls of stone!
Offspring of Lugalbanda, Gilgamesh is strong to perfection,
son of the august cow, Rimat-Ninsum…he is awesome to perfection.

It was he who opened the mountain passes,
who dug wells on the flank of the mountain.
It was he who crossed the ocean, the vast seas, to the rising sun,
who explored the world regions, seeking life.
It was he who reached by his own sheer strength Utnapishtim, the Far-Away,
who restored the sanctuaries (cities)that the Flood had destroyed!

Two-thirds of him is god, one-third of him is human. . .
The great Goddess (Aruru) designed the model for his body.
She prepared his form. . .
. . .beautiful, most handsome of men,
. . .perfect.

He walks around the enclosure of Uruk,
Like a wild bull he makes himself mighty, head raised
There is no rival who can raise his weapon against him.
His fellows stand alert, attentive to him,
And the men of Uruk become anxious. . .
Gilgamesh does not leave a son to his father,
Day and night he arrogantly (?) …

Is Gilgamesh the shepherd of Uruk-haven,
Is he the shepherd. . .
bold, eminent, knowing and wise!
Gilgamesh does not leave a daughter to her mother.
The daughter of the warrior, the bride of the young man
The gods kept hearing their complaints, so
The gods of the heavens implored the Lord of Uruk (Anu)
” You have indeed brought into being a wild mighty bull, head raised !
bold, eminent, knowing and wise,
Gilgamesh does not leave a son to his father !
Day and night he arrogantly…
Is he the shepherd of Uruk-haven,
Is he their shepherd…
Bold, eminent, knowing and wise.
Gilgamesh does not leave a girl to her mother,
The daughter of the warrior, the bride of the young man”,

Anu listened to their complaints,
And (the gods) called out to Ninhursag (Anu’s wife);
It was you… who created mankind,
now create a zikru to it/ him.
Let him be equal to his (Gilgamesh’s) stormy heart,
let them be a match for each other so that Uruk may find peace!”

When Ninhursag heard this she created within herself the zikru of Anu
She washed her hands, she pinched off some clay, and threw it into the wilderness
In the wilderness she created valiant Enkidu,
born of silence, endowed with strength by Ninurta.

His whole body was shaggy with hair,
he knew neither people nor settled living,
He ate grasses with gazelles,
And jostled at the watering hole with the animals,
as with animals his thirst was slaked with mere water.

A trapper addressed his father, saying
Father, a certain fellow has come from the mountains.
He is the mightiest in the land,
His strength is as mighty as the meteorite of Anu !
He continually plants his feet at the watering place.
I was so afraid I did no go up to him.
He filled in the pits that I had dug,
wrenched out my traps that I had spread,
released from my grasp the wild animals.

The trappers father spoke to him saying;
My son, there lives in Uruk a certain Gilgamesh.
There is no one stronger than he,
Go, set off to Uruk,
Tell Gilgamesh of this Man of Might
He will give you the harlot Shamhat, take her with you.
The woman will overcome the fellow (?) as if she were strong

When the animals are drinking at the watering place
have her take off her robe and expose her sex
When he sees her he will draw near to her,
and his animals, who grew up in his wilderness, will be alien to him.

This all goes according to plan; they wait at the watering-hole, for two days –
on the third day Enkidu approaches where the gazelles and animals drink;

Then Shamhat saw him – a primitive,
A savage fellow from the depths of the wilderness !
Shamhat unclutched her bosom, exposed her sex and he took in her voluptuousness,
She was not restrained, but took his energy.

His lust groaned over her.
for six days and nights Enkidu stayed aroused,
and had intercourse with the harlot
until he was sated with her charms.
But when he turned his attentions to his animals
the gazelles saw Enkidu and darted off.
Enkidu… his utterly depleted body
his knees that wanted to go off with his animals went rigid;
Enkidu was diminished, his running was not as before.

But then he drew himself up, for his understanding had broadened.
Turning around, he sat down at the harlot’s feet,
The harlot said to Enkidu,
”You are beautiful, Enkidu, you are become like a god.
Why do you gallop around the wilderness with the wild beasts?
Come, let me bring you into Uruk-Haven,
to the Holy Temple, the residence of Anu and Ishtar,
the place of Gilgamesh, who is wise to perfection,
but who struts his power over the people like a wild bull.”

What she kept saying found favour with him.
Becoming aware of himself he sought a friend.

“Come, Shamhat, take me away with you
to the sacred Holy Temple, the residence of Anu and Ishtar,
the place of Gilgamesh, who is wise to perfection.
I will challenge him…
Let me shout out in Uruk: I am the mighty one!
Lead me in and I will change the order of things
He whose strength is mightiest is the one
Born in the wilderness”.
Shamhat said Come, let us go – I know where he will be.
Look about Enkidu, inside Uruk-haven,
Where the people show off in skirted finery,
Where every day is a day for some festival
Where the lyre and the drum play continually.
Where harlots stand about, attractively,
exuding voluptuousness, full of laughter.

Enkidu, you who do not know how to live,
I will show you Gilgamesh, a man of extreme feelings,
he has strength mightier than you
without sleeping day or night
Enkidu, it is your wrong thoughts you must change!
It is Gilgamesh Shamhat loves,
And Anu, Enlil (etc) have enlarged his mind,
Even before you came from the mountain
Gilgamesh in Uruk had dreams about you”.

Gilgamesh meanwhile tells his mother of a dream of a heavenly comet landing by him;(fear of change?); she tells him this is the creation of herself and Anu;

‘As for the stars of the sky that appeared
and the meteorite of Anu, which fell next to you,
you tried to lift but it was too mighty for you,
I made it compete with you,
and you loved and embraced it, as a wife,
It is he who will repeatedly save you.
Your dream is good and propitious!’

Which Gilgamesh accepts; ‘may I have a friend and advisor; a friend and advisor may I have!’


Shamhat’s ‘taming’ of Enkidu continues. She again declares her love for Gilgamesh… Enkidu wishes to
meet him. They repair to a shepherd’s hut where Shamhat clothes him, (and repairs her own clothing)*

*the use of washing the self, and donning clean clothing as a metaphor, or ‘indicator’ of metaphysical questions is frequent throughout the narratives of the numerous characters and events of the epic… as is the case in many instances in the Bible.
Shamhat then introduces him to eating and drinking prepared meals like a human;

‘The harlot spoke to Enkidu, saying;
Eat the food Enkidu, it is the way one lives;
Drink the beer, as is the custom of the land…

…and he drank the beer; seven jugs! and became expansive
and sang with joy! / He was elated and his face glowed’.

Following this he washes, and puts on clean clothes;
‘He splashed his shaggy body with water,
And rubbed himself with oil, and turned into a human.
He put on some clothing, and became like a warrior…’

  • then he and Shamhat journey towards the city.

They meet a man who is hurrying to a wedding. He tells them he is hurrying, because;

‘… the selection of brides…
I have heaped up tasty delights for the wedding on the ceremonial platter.
For the King of Broad-Marted Uruk (G.),
Open is the veil of the people for the choosing of a girl’.

In other words, Gilgamesh will have first intercourse with the bride, the husband second, and more ‘match-making’ opportunities will be present thereafter, perhaps. Of Gilgamesh’s ‘kingly privilege’ the poem says, ‘This is ordered by Anu, from the severing of the umbilical cord it has been destined for him’. Enkidu is angry at this news, and they hurry to the streets of the city. Enkidu blocks the entry of Gilgamesh to the marital chamber – they grapple and fight.

After some time Gilgamesh stops, and embraces Enkidu, and they become best friends. Here the mother of Gilgamesh speaks plaintively to him; She went up to Shamash’s gateway (leader of the Igigi who circled above earth according to Sitchin – ‘those who turned’, or ‘those
who observe and see’ – and Middle/Eastern god representing the Sun – and Eagle figure in stela)..!

  • plaintively she implored – ‘Enkidu has no father or mother…
    he was born in the wilderness, no-one raised him’…

Enkidu hears these words, and begins to weep. Gilgamesh takes his hand, and Enkidu declares to Gilgamesh (presumably an oath of friendship or fealty).(42 lines missing-) presumably Gilgamesh suggesting they journey to the Cedar Forest, which circles the holy mountain, the ‘landing place of the gods’, in Lebanon –

Enkidu replies to Gilgamesh;
“To protect the Cedar Forest (around the sacred mountain/ landing place
of the gods) Enlil (Lord of the Earth/ author of the destruction of the flood)
assigned Humbaba (the robot) as a terror to mankind.”

Gilgamesh replies-
‘Who my friend can ascend to the heavens? Only the gods
can dwell forever with Shamash
As for human beings, their days are numbered, and
whatever they keep trying to achieve is but wind’…

(See Ecclesiastes for same. Many correlations between these two texts…)

‘Now you are afraid of death- what has become of your bold strength?
I will go in front of you (to cut down the Cedar, and battle Humbaba
Should I fail, I will have established my fame… it is I who will
establish fame for eternity…’

They go to the forge, to fashion an axe and weapons for the battle ahead.
Enkidu asks the townspeople to dissuade Gilgamesh from his plans;

‘Humbaba’s roar is a flood/ his mouth is fire, his breath Death!…

who among even the Igigi can confront him?


Gilgamesh listens to the counsel of the town elders, who say;
‘Gilgamesh, do not put your trust in just your vast strength
but keep a sharp eye out, make each blow strike it’s mark…
The one who goes ahead saves the comrade
Let Enkidu go ahead of you
He has seen fighting, he has experienced battle’…

Gilgamesh says to Enkidu for them to visit the temple of his mother, Ninsun, to ask which path
to follow;

‘Ninsun, I must go to kill Humbaba the terrible,
to eradicate from the land
something baneful that Shamash hates,
intercede with Shamash on my behalf.’

(right) Shamash seated on throne, from The Tablet of Shamash
c.900 Bce, Sippar, Mesopotamia under rule of the Assyrians.
Wikimedia, Public Domain.

The words of Gilgamesh grieve Queen Ninsun. She prepares herself with ablutions,
and new vestment, and goes to the roof of the Temple alone to consult with Shamash
She blames Shamash for inflicting a restless heart on Gilgamesh.

‘… on the day that you see him on the road
may Aja the Bride without fear remind you
and command also the Watchmen of the Night,
the stars, and at night your father Sin’.
(the god of the Moon) to protect her son.

She then calls to Enkidu, saying he is not of her womb, but he should consider himself as
such in his task, of protecting Gilgamesh as his brother.


The two friends journey. They walk many leagues, until they reach a mountain range near Lebanon.
Gilgamesh climbs the mountain, and makes an offering to Shamash (the setting sun) whilst Enkidu prepares their sleeping place;

He made him lie down, and…in a circle.
they… like grain from the mountain…
While Gilgamesh rested his chin on his knees
Sleep that pours over mankind overtook him’

(presaging his experiences on his journey to the ‘faraway’ later on).

Gilgamesh has troubling dreams and visions, hears voices in the night. . .and says to Enkidu,
‘the dream I had was deeply disturbing,
in the mountain gorges…
the mountain fell down on us.
Wet (?)… like flies…
he who was born in the wilderness.

Enkidu seeks to reassure Gilgamesh, says the dream was ‘most favourable’. . . this repeats during the
night, indicating forthcoming trials. The next night after travel similar dreams and visions occur. The
following night, while the disturbances continue, Shamash’s voice from the clouds declares to them;

‘Hurry, do not let Humbaba enter into
the forest, and hide in the thickets.
‘ he has not put on his seven coats of armour’.

Gilgamesh and Enkidu say, emphasizing the universal need for support and unity;

‘One alone cannot –
a slippery path is not feared by two people who help
each other… a three-ply rope cannot be cut.’

They journey on, and reach the Forest the next day;


They stood at the forest’s edge,
gazing at the top of the Cedar Tree
gazing at the entrance to the forest
Where Humbaba would walk there was a trail…
Then they saw the Cedar Mountain, the Dwelling of the Gods…

Across the face of the mountain the Cedar brought forth
luxurious foliage/ its shade was good, extremely pleasant…
Suddenly the swords… and after the sheaths… the axes were smeared. . .
dagger and sword… alone…
Humbaba spoke to Gilgamesh, saying, ‘He does not come…

Enkidu repeats his coda to Humbaba saying
‘Humbaba, one alone…
. . .strangers…
a three-ply rope cannot be cut.’

Humbaba says to Gilgamesh
‘… an idiot and a moron should give advice to each other,
but you, Gilgamesh, why have you come to me?
Give advice, Enkidu, you ‘son of a fish’, who does not even know
‘his father’.
You have brought Gilgamesh into my presence,
…you stand… an enemy, a stranger…
Gilgamesh, throat and neck,
I would feed your flesh to the screeching vulture, the
eagle and the vulture’
Gilgamesh spoke to Enkidu, saying ‘ my friend, why does Humbaba’s face keep changing..?’

Pleasantries over, a fight to the death begins, a flurry of tumultuous strife;
‘ the ground split open with the heels of their feet,
as they whirled around in circles Mt Hermon and Lebanon split.
The white clouds darkened/ death rained down on them like a fog.
Shamash raised up against Humbaba mighty tempests, Northwind… Eastwind,
. . .Ice wind, demon wind, wind of Simurru, Storm, Sandstorm… ‘ !

‘so that Humbaba could not move; Humbaba begged for his life
‘O scion of the heart of Uruk, King Gilgamesh.
. . .Gilgamesh, let me go, I will dwell with you as your servant (?)

Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying;
‘My friend, do not listen to Humbaba’

Humbaba; ‘You understand the rules of the forest, the rules…
further ,you are aware of all the things so ordered by Enlil
I should have carried you up, and killed you/
at the very entrance of the forest’
So now, Enkidu, clemency is up to you.’

Enkidu recommends to Gilgamesh,
‘kill, destroy and pulverise Humbaba, Gilgamesh before
the pre-eminent god Enlil hears… ‘

As in the story of the deluge, (later in the poem, and Noah/ Atra-hasis versions),
the wishes of the gods – Enlil, Lord of Earth, and Enki his brother, Lord of the
Waters/South , are at variance with each other. Gilgamesh and Enkidu are able to act against
Enlil’s servant Humbaba, because the fellow divinities Shamash, and Ninsun (and Enki?)
support them against the ‘Lord of the Command’, Enlil.

After more discussion between Enkidu and Gilgamesh, they kill Humbaba.

… they ‘pull out his insides including his tongue’;
‘… abundance fell over the mountain,
abundance fell over the mountain…
While Gilgamesh cuts down the trees, Enkidu searches through the ‘urmazallu’ (?)

(they plan to float the cedar down the Euphrates river to Nippur,
and make a triumphal door from it;)

‘My friend, we have cut down the towering Cedar* whose top scrapes the sky… ‘;
‘they tied together a raft… Enkidu steered it/ while Gilgamesh
held the head of Humbaba.’

*possibly a symbol of the authority of Enlil, and the divine landing place, restricted to Lebanon as the cedar was. See… the importance of Cedars in the Bible/ Solomon, etc.


They wash themselves, ‘throwing off their dirty clothes and putting on clean ones’.
But they do not do so unobserved…

‘When Gilgamesh placed his crown upon his head/ a princess Ishtar
raised her eyes to the beauty of Gilgamesh’

(Inanna/ Ishtar- not the original ‘Mother’ of mankind – Ninnar/ Ninsun – in the Anuna pantheon she was the daughter of Enki. Thus as the succeeding generation became the foremost ‘goddess’, the Queen of Heaven, of the middle-late Mesopotamian eras, the Sumerian goddess of the Eanna (‘house-of heaven’; temple of Uruk, in circa 2500 Bce) – when adopted by later Mesopotamian civilizations (c.2100-500Bce) – plus within surrounding areas (such as the Phoenician’s goddess Astarte/ Greek Aphrodite etc. . .)
Esther (see Old Testament book) and Easter, oestrogen/ all feminine/ fertility-associated, very likely derived from her name root. She has many names, myths, and stories associated with her in the Sumerian cultures, and by the late-Sumerian era was equivalent to being the pre-eminent ‘feminine aspect of the divinity’, among the other gods and goddesses… ie the main goddess women in particular prayed to, in all stages of their lives.)

‘Come along Gilgamesh, be you my husband/ to me grant your lusciousness.
Be you my husband, and I will be your wife
…Bowed down beneath you will be kings, lords and princes’.

Gilgamesh answers the goddess with a degree of circumspection;

‘What would I have to give you if I married you!
I would gladly give you food fit for a god,
I would gladly give you wine fit for a king.
(you are…)
…a half-door that keeps out neither breeze nor blast
a palace that crushes down valiant warriors
pitch that blackens the hand of it’s bearer…
Where are your bridegrooms that you keep forever..?’ ¹

¹ this perception of Gilgamesh raises a key issue namely the ‘inauspicious’ weddings of gods and humans. As in the book of Genesis, Enoch, Greek myths etc – (including Ishtar and Tammuz, a sheep-herd), there are virtually no clear examples of fulfilled marriages, and families.

Gilgamesh then goes on to list some of her previous lovers/husbands;
You loved the Shepherd, the Master Herder,
Who continually presented you with bread baked in embers
…Yet you struck him, and turned him into a wolf,
so his own shepherds now chase him,
and his own dogs snap at his shins…
You loved Ishullanu, your father’s date gardener,
You raised your eyes and you went to him;
Ishullanu said to you;
What is it you want from me!
Has my mother not baked, and have I not eaten
that I should now eat food under contempt and curses
And that alfalfa grass should be my only cover against cold?’…
And now me! It is me you love, and you will ordain for me as for them!”

Ishtar’s response is not unexpected;

When Ishtar heard this, in a fury she went up to the heavens,
Going to Anu, her father and crying,
going to Anrum, her mother, and weeping.
“Father, Gilgamesh has insulted me over and over.
Gilgamesh has recounted despicable deeds about me,
despicable deeds and curses!”

Anu addresses her calmly;
‘Was it not you who provoked King Gilgamesh?’
So that he recounted despicable deeds about you,
Despicable deeds and curses!’

Ishtar says,
‘Father, give me the Bull of Heaven,
So you can kill Gilgamesh in his dwelling. . .
If you do not give me the Bull of Heaven,
I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld
I will smash the door posts, and leave the floors flat down
And will let the dead go up to eat the living. . !’

Anu replies,
‘If you demand the Bull of Heaven from me,
there will be seven years of empty husks for the land
Have you collected grain for the people!’

Ishtar answers smoothly,
‘I have heaped grain in the granaries for the people,
I have made the grasses grow for the animals.’

At which Anu recognises prudence and places the nose-ring of the Bull of Heaven in her hand, which she leads down to Earth. Ishtar leads it down the Euphrates, and Sumer. Examples of it’s power are given, it snorts and a huge pit opens up; a hundred men fall in, etc. Then more. Then Enkidu falls in the hole, but only up to his waist. He jumps out and literally seizes the bull by the horns!

‘My friend, we can be bold (?)-
My friend, I saw…
And I will rip out…
I and you, we must share (?)
I shall grasp the Bull…
…between the nape, the horns, and… thrust your sword.’

Enkidu stalked and hunted down the Bull of Heaven…
…while Gilgamesh boldly and surely approached… between
the nape, the horns, and. . .he thrust his sword.’
Straight away they tear out its heart, and present it as an offering to their protector Shamash, then;

‘They withdrew bowing down humbly to Shamash.’

The inevitable uproar occurs;

Ishtar went up onto the top of the wall of Uruk-haven,
cast herself into the pose of mourning,
and hurled her woeful curse;
“Woe unto Gilgamesh who slandered me and killed the Bull of Heaven!”

At which Enkidu tears off the Bull’s hindquarters and throws
them in her face, with some strong words. . ;
“If I could only get at you I would do the same to you!”.

Ishtar reacts immediately;
‘. . .(she) assembled the (cultic women) of lovely-locks, joy-girls and
harlots and set them to mourning over the Bull.’

Gilgamesh examines the remains of the Bull, summoning the artists and craftsmen they admire the thickness of its horns, each made from lapis-lazuli ! (ie, as if to say the Bull, like Humbaba, was a robot, a ‘machine’ created by the gods. . .)

‘Two fingers thick is their casing.
Six vats of oil (!) the contents of the two
He gave as ointment to his (personal) god, Lugalbanda…

They wash their hands, and walk beside each other through the streets
of Uruk, with Gilgamesh asking the palace retainers,
‘Who is the bravest of the men
Gilgamesh is the boldest of males…
She at whom we flung the hindquarters of the Bull Of Heaven in anger,
Ishtar has no-one that pleases her in the street’.

They hold a celebration in the palace,
‘The Young Men dozed off, sleeping on the couches of the night.
Enkidu was sleeping, and had a dream,
He woke up and revealed his dream to his friend’.


Enkidu’s dream forebodes troubles;

‘My friend, why are the Great Gods in conference?
in my dream ,Anu Enlil, and Shamash held a council, and
Anu spoke to Enlil;
‘Because they killed the Bull of Heaven and have also slain Humbaba,
The one of them who pulled up the Cedar of the Mountain must die!’

Enlil agrees saying ‘let Enkidu die, but Gilgamesh must not die’.

Shamash defends them both;
‘Was it not at my command that they killed the Bull, and
Humbaba? Should innocent Enkidu now die?’

Enlil becomes angry, blaming Shamash for encouraging them.

Enkidu is lying there sick, in front of Gilgamesh, who asks why he is being absolved instead of his brother. . .
Enkidu is troubled in his mind, that he is to be killed, and will become a ghost, to roam the Cedar Forest alone, never to be with his brother again. He takes leave of his senses, talks to the door (the ceremonial door made of the wood of the Cedar),and calls it a stupid wooden door;

‘Had I known that this was your gratitude…
I would have taken an axe, and chopped you up’.

Gilgamesh listens to his friend’s irrational words and the tears flow
from his face as he cautions him to be tactful;

“My friend, the gods gave you a broad mind and…
Though it behoves you to be sensible, you keep
uttering improper things!
The dream is important but very frightening,
your lips are buzzing like flies.
Though there is much to fear, the dream is important.
To the living they (the gods) leave sorrow
to the living the dream leaves pain.
I will pray and beseech the Great Gods…
I will appeal to Enlil, the Father of the Gods…

I will fashion a statue of you, of gold without measure,
do not worry… gold…
What Enlil says is not…
What he has said cannot go back, cannot…
My friend… of fate goes to mankind”

As dawn breaks, Enkidu raises his head, and cries out to Shamash, recounting the time he was brought from the marshes in order to control Gilgamesh; he curses the trapper in the marshes, he curses Shamhat the harlot; ‘I will curse you with a great curse. . .’

Shamash, hearing Enkidu’s lengthy cursing, speaks down from the sky reminding him of the blessings his new life brought him;

“Enkidu, why are you cursing the harlot Shamhat
she who fed you bread fit for a king (consciousness)
she who dressed you in fine garments,
and she who allowed you to make beautiful Gilgamesh your comrade!

Now Gilgamesh is your beloved brother-friend
He will have you lie on a couch of honour…
He will have the people of Uruk go into mourning for you. . .
And after he will don the skin of a lion and roam the wilderness”

‘As soon as Enkidu heard the words of valiant Shamash,
His agitated heart grew calm, his anger abated.’

He now blesses the harlot Shamhat instead, wishing joy for her.

Then he recounts a further dream, to Gilgamesh;

He spoke everything he felt, saying…
‘Listen my friend, to my dream…
The heavens cried out and the earth replied,
And I was standing between them.
There appeared a man of dark visage-
His face resembled the abyss (anzu)
His hands were the paws of lions,
His nails the talons of an eagle!
-he seized me by the hair, and overpowered me.
I struck him a blow but he skipped about like a jump rope,
and then he struck me, and capsized me like a raft,
and trampled on me like a wild bull.

He encircled my whole body in a clamp.
“Help me my friend!” I cried,
But you did not rescue me, you were afraid, and did not…”
“Then he… and turned me into a dove,
So that my arms were feathered like a bird,
Seizing me, he led me down into the House of Darkness…
to the house where those who enter do not come out,
along the road of no return…

On entering the House of Dust,
everywhere I looked there were royal crowns gathered in heaps,
. . .it was the bearer of crowns, who in the past had ruled the land,
who now served Anu and Enlil cooked meats,
served confections and poured cool water from waterskins.
In the House of Dust that I entered
there sat the high priest and the acolyte,
there sat the purification priest and ecstatic,
there sat the anointed priests of the Great Gods.

There sat Ereshkigal, the Queen of the Netherworld,
Beletseri, the Scribe of the Netherworld, knelt before her,
she was holding the tablet and was reading it out to her Ereshkigal.
She raised her head when she saw me…
‘Who has taken this man?'”

Following this, Enkidu is struck down with illness, and lays in his bed, one day, two, up to ten days, growing worse each day; he calls to Gilgamesh for him to support him, as he dies.


Gilgamesh recounts the life, and actions of Enkidu, and the friendship of the two.

“…Enkidu my friend, the swift mule… the panther of the wilderness
after we joined together and went up into the mountains,
fought the Bull of Heaven and killed it,
And overwhelmed Humbaba, who lived in the Cedar Forest.
Now what is this sleep which has seized you?
You have turned dark and do not hear me !

But his eyes do not move,
he touched his heart, but it beat no longer.
He covered his friend’s face like a bride,
swooping down over him like an eagle,
and like a lioness deprived of her cubs,
he kept pacing to and fro.

He shears off his curls and heaps them on the ground,
ripping off his finery and casting it away as an abomination.”

Gilgamesh has entered a new phase of life…
The tablet ends with Gilgamesh giving obeisance to Shamash, and leaving to
roam the wilderness, dressed in wild animal skins.


Gilgamesh laments as he wanders alone through the landscape;

‘I am going to die – am I not like Enkidu
Deep sadness penetrates my core,
I fear death, and now roam the wilderness

I will set out to the region of Utnapishtim (Noah-figure)
When I arrived at mountain passes at nightfall,
I saw lions and I was terrified!
I raised my head in prayer to Sin (the Moon god)
He was sleeping in the night, but awoke with a start with a dream;
A warrior enjoyed his life –
he raised his axe in his hand
drew the dagger from its sheath
and fell into their midst like an arrow…
He struck and scattered them,
The name of the former…
The name of the second… **

**Of interest here, is how this dream presages the behaviour of Gilgamesh when he damages the ability of the boat of Urshanabi to travel across the (cosmic) waters to reach his aim of meeting Utnapishtim… especially considering it is two things that he damages. The effect is like a kaleidoscope of spiritually significant moments. . .

(some 26 missing lines here,) then Gilgamesh on his quest to speak with the
survivor of the flood encounters some other-worldly beings and places ;

…Then he reached Mount Mashu,
Which daily guards the rising and setting of the Sun,
above which only the dome of the heavens reaches,
and whose flank reaches as far as the Netherworld below,
there were Scorpion-beings watching over it’s gate.
Trembling terror they inspire, the sight of them is death
Their frightening aura sweeps over the mountains.

Gilgamesh approaches them, terrified but determined. . .

‘The scorpion-being called out to his female;
‘He who comes to us, his body is the flesh of the gods’
His female answered him, saying,
‘Only two thirds of him is a god, one third is human’.

They ask him his reason for approaching –

Gilgamesh explains to speak with his ancestor Utnapishtim,
“Who joined the Assembly of the Gods, and was given eternal life.
About Death and Life I must ask him.”
The scorpion man replies that ;
‘never has there been, Gilgamesh ,a mortal man who could do that.
No-one has crossed through the mountains,
for twelve leagues it is darkness throughout-
dense is the darkness, and light there is none.’

Gilgamesh answers
“Though it be in deep sadness and pain,
in cold or heat –
gasping after breath – I will go on!
Now! Open the Gate!”

The scorpion-man grants Gilgamesh the right to enter-
‘The Mashu Mountains I give to you freely,
the mountains, the ranges, may you traverse –
The gate of the mountain, to the rising of the Sun.’

Gilgamesh begins his journey;
‘As soon as Gilgamesh heard this
he heeded the utterances of the scorpion-being
Along the Road of the Sun he journeyed –
one league he travelled –
dense was the darkness, light there was none.’

He travels further into the darkness, from one to twelve leagues* (in a poetic form very similar to the journey of the spirit of the Pharaoh through the (twelve hours) of the night, upon death; from the earth, through purgatory/hell, to the Heavens.)

‘Eleven leagues he travelled, and came out before the Sun(rise)
Twelve leagues he travelled and it became brilliant,
…it bears lapis-lazuli as foliage,
bearing fruit, a delight to look upon…

/Gilgamesh… on walking onward,
raised his eyes and saw…


Having journeyed beyond the known world now, Gilgamesh meets Siduri, the ‘inn-keeper’;

The tavern-keeper Siduri who lives by the sea-shore, (universe)
She lives…
the pot-stand was made for her, the golden fermenting vat was made for her
She is covered with a veil…
Gilgamesh was roving about…

wearing a skin. . .
having the flesh of the gods in his body,
but sadness deep within him,
looking like one who has been travelling a long distance.

*note- the use of cooking/domestic implements as objects of ‘religious’ reverence/symbolism was popular across virtually all of the main cultures of the Middle East at this early stage of civilization, (see Sumerian objects discovered in the Tomb of King, for example).

The tavern-keeper mistakes Gilgamesh for a murderer, not a king on a quest! –

“That fellow is surely a murderer !
Where is he heading?… “
. . .she bolted her door,
bolted her gate, bolted the lock.’
But at her noise Gilgamesh pricked up his ears,
lifted his chin, and then laid his eyes on her.

“Tavern-keeper, what have you seen that made you bolt your door,
bolt your gate, bolt the lock?”

Siduri repeats her worries, he looks like a vagabond, a murderer. . .
Gilgamesh answers forcefully,

“I am Gilgamesh, I killed the Guardian!
I destroyed Humbaba who lived in the Cedar Forest,
I slew lions in the mountain passes!
I grappled withe Bull (of Heaven), and killed him.”

Siduri asks, if you are Gilgamesh, who did all these things,
“Why are your cheeks so emaciated, your expression so desolate?
…Why is there such sadness deep within you?”

Gilgamesh explains the series of events that led to his situation; the friendship
with Enkidu, their journey to the Cedar forest, their battle with the robot
Humbaba; and their battle with the Bull of Heaven.
” My friend, whom I love deeply, who went through every hardship with me,
Enkidu, whom I love deeply. . .
the fate of mankind has overtaken him”.

Further, he adds,
“I began to (then) fear death, and so roam the wilderness.
The issue of my friend oppresses me, so I have been roaming
long trails through the wilderness… “

“How can I stay silent, how can I be still!
My friend whom I love has turned to clay.
Am I not like him? Will I lie down, never to get up again?”

“So now, tavern-keeper, what is the way to Utnapishtim!
What are it’ markers… Give me the markers!
…If possible, I will cross the sea;
if not, I will roam through the wilderness…”*

the ‘sea’ here, in context of the ‘quest’ Gilgamesh is following, is the ‘sea’ of the depths of ‘space’ – the ‘Lord of the Deep’, as the Anunnaki god Enki is called, as well as the various beings in the Old Testament are labelled as ‘sea-creatures of the ‘deep’; Tiamat, Leviathan etc, indicating origins within the depths of the cosmos…And the markers thus assume the character of astronomic guide-points. . .

Siduri answers kindly,

“There has never been, Gilgamesh, any passage whatever.
there has never been anyone since days of yore who
crossed the sea.
The only one who crosses the sea is valiant Shamash (the Sun-god’).
…the crossing is difficult, it’s ways are treacherous–
and in between are the Waters of Death that bar it’s approaches!

And even if, Gilgamesh, you should cross the sea,
When you reach the Waters of Death what would you do!”

Continuing, Siduri gives some (puzzling) advice;

“Gilgamesh, over there is Urshanabi, the ferryman of Utnapishtim.
The ‘stone-things’ are with him, he is in the woods picking mint.
Go, let him see your face
If possible, cross with him;
If not, you should turn back.”

But Gilgamesh is seized by forcefulness, as is his nature;

“When Gilgamesh heard this
he raised the axe in his hand,
drew the dagger from his belt,
and slipped stealthily away after them.
Like an arrow he fell among them (the ‘stone-things’)
From the middle of the woods, their noise could be heard.”

The ferryman, Urshanabi responds to the clamour;

“Urshanabi, the sharp-eyed, saw…
When he heard the axe, he ran toward it.
He struck his head… Gilgamesh.’
He clapped his hands and… his chest,
while the ‘stone things’… the boat
… Waters of Death
… broad sea
in the Waters of Death…
… to the river
… the boat
… on the shore.”

Ie Gilgamesh has destroyed the correct way to cross the sea, to reach the waters of Life, (the river), in the only way designed for reaching safety… What the ‘stone-things’ (possibly) are, is examined in the Gilgamesh chapter.

“Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, the ferryman,
. . .you”

But Urshanabi cuts him off immediately, to ask familiar questions;
” Why are your cheeks emaciated, your expression desolate!

Why is there such sadness deep within you!”

Gilgamesh supplies the same explanations to Urshanabi as to Siduri; his epic travels, and travails, with Enkidu, journeying across mountains to battle the servant of Enlil, Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven, sent by Ishtar. . .after which the death of Enkidu, and Gilgamesh’s wandering through the wilderness pondering human mortality. Again he asks for guidance;

“Now Urshanabi, what is the way to Utnapishtim?
What are it’s markers! Give them to me! Give me the markers!”
If possible I will cross the sea. . .”

Urshanabi the ferryman answers;

“It is your hands, Gilgamesh, that prevent the crossing!
You have smashed the ‘stone-things’, you have pulled out their
retaining ropes. (?)*
Gilgamesh, take your axe… go down into the woods,
and cut down 300 punting poles each 60 cubits in length.”

*In other versions this second part of the sentence indicates that he has ‘picked up all the urnu-snakes’, as well as smashing the ‘stone things’. . . There are some reasons for preferring this interpretation, which are examined in the Gilgamesh chapter.

The punting poles are for propelling the boat ‘manually’ across the waters of ‘Death’.

Gilgamesh does this in the forest, and brings them down to the boat, whereupon;

“… (they) boarded the boat,
Gilgamesh launched the ‘magillu-boat’ and they sailed away.”*

  • The magillu-boat is from the Sumerian ma-gi-lum, and is a ship of the
    netherworld, a ‘boat of the west’, associated with the setting of the sun;

‘All living creatures born of the flesh shall sit at last in the boat of the
West, and when it sinks, when the boat of Magilum sinks, they are gone.’

They travel a distance of a month and a half’s journey in three days, until arriving at the Waters of Death. Here, Urshanabi gives Gilgamesh one of the punting poles, and instructs him to propel the boat in this way, while making sure his hand does not touch the Waters… It takes up twelve poles, and then all 120 of the poles, to push the boat forwards. Once the poles are all used up, Gilgamesh is reduced to taking off his shirt/garments and hoping to use them as sails; but they are within sight of Utnapishtim now, having crossed the waters.

Utnapishtim – the original Noah having received the help of the gods, and survived the Deluge, now lives with his wife, in the ‘Far-away’ ie beyond the boundaries of Earth.

Utnapishtim is quick to sense problems approaching;

“Utnapishtim was gazing far off into the distance,
puzzling to himself he said…

Why are the ‘stone-things’ of the boat smashed to pieces!
And why is someone not it’s master sailing on it?
The one who is coming is not a man of mine…
I keep looking but not…
I keep looking but not…”

Utnapishtim poses the same questions to Gilgamesh as Siduri and then Urshanabi;

“Why is your heart so wretched, your features so haggard!
Why do you look like one who has been travelling a long distance
so that ice and heat have seared your face?
. . .you roam the wilderness!”

Gilgamesh repeats what he has said when asked the same questions by the
other two ‘cosmic servants’, Siduri and Urshanabi. . .he tells about Enkidu,
their experiences and Enkidu’s death, then Gilgamesh’s period of inner questioning,
concerning the reasons for man’s existence, the inevitability of death;

“That is why I must go on, to see Utnapishtim who they call the Faraway.
I went circling through all the mountains
I traversed treacherous mountains, and crossed all the seas-
that is why sweet sleep has not mellowed my face,
. . .though my muscles are filled with pain. . .”

Here Utnapishtim asks Gilgamesh what his labours have achieved,
in a passage reminiscent of biblical passages in both Ecclesiastes, and Job;

“Why Gilgamesh, do you… sadness?
You were created from the flesh of gods and mankind
who made… like your father and mother?
Have you ever… Gilgamesh… to the fool…
They placed a chair in the Assembly…
But to the fool they gave beer dregs instead of butter…
Clothed with a loincloth (!) like…
And…in place of a sash,
because he does not have…
does not have words of counsel…
Take care about it, Gilgamesh,
… their master…
… Sin… (the god of the Moon)
… eclipse of the moon…
The gods are sleepless…
They are troubled, restless…
Long ago it has been established…
You trouble ourself…
… your help…
If Gilgamesh… the temple of the gods
… the temple of the holy gods,
… the gods…
… mankind,
They took… for his fate.
You have toiled without cease, and what have you got!
Through toil you wear yourself out,
You fill your body with grief,
your long life-time you are bringing near (to a premature end)
the fine youth and the lovely girl

… death.
No one can see death,
no one can see the face of death,
no one can hear the voice of death,
yet there is savage death that snaps off mankind.
For how long do we build a household?
For how long do we seal a document?
For how long do brothers share the inheritance?
For (how) long is there to be jealousy in the land?
For how long has the river risen and brought the overflowing waters,
so that (people like) dragonflies drift down the river!

The face that could gaze upon the face of the Sun
has never existed ever.
How alike are the sleeping and the dead…
… Yes, a human being, a man (are you).
After Enlil had pronounced the blessing, (creating homo sapiens)
The Anunnaki the Great Gods assembled.
Mammetum, she who forms destiny, determined destiny with them.
They established Death and Life,
but they did not make known ‘the days of death’.


Gilgamesh speaks with directness to the venerable man;

“I have been looking at you,
But your appearance is not strange – you are like me!
. . .My mind as resolved to fight with you,
(But instead) my arm lies useless over you.
Tell me, how is it that you stand in the Assembly of the Gods,
and have found life?”

Utnapishtim* (see section for discussion of the possible inner
meanings of his name, taken from Babylonian version
resolves to tell his tale to Gilgamesh;

“I will reveal to you, Gilgamesh, a thing that is hidden
a secret of the gods I will tell you!
(in ancient) Shurrupak, on the banks of the Euphrates
there were gods inside it.
The hearts of the Great Gods moved them to inflict the Flood.

Their Father Anu uttered the oath (of secrecy),
Valiant Enlil was their advisor…
… Enki, the clever prince, was under oath with them,
So he repeated their talk to the reed house(!);

Reed house, reed house! Wall, wall!
O man of Shurrupak…
Tear down the house and build a boat!
Abandon wealth and seek living beings!
Spurn possessions and keep alive beings!
Make all living beings go up into the boat,
The boat which you are to build.

It’s dimensions must measure equal to each other:
It’s length must correspond to it’s width,
Roof it over like the Apsu (Deep/ ‘South’)

Utnapishtim replies to his Lord, who has chosen to warn him, as a
righteous man, to ensure mankind, and all animals, survive the forth-
coming Flood.

“I understood and spoke to my lord, Enki:
‘My lord. . .I will heed and do it.
But what shall I answer the city, the populace, and the Elders!’

Enki advises him to say to them that he is building a boat to leave the city
as the God Enlil rejects him, so he therefore wishes to sail to live with his
lord, Enki, in the ‘Apsu’/’Deep South’. . .

‘(and further, that). . .upon you he will rain down abundance,
a profusion of fowl, myriad fishes,
In the morning he will let loaves of bread shower down,
and in the evening a rain of wheat!’

Utnapishtim and his family and friends set about building the Ark.
(Of interest, as well as the cubic definitions of the ‘ark’, are
the quantities of goods used; it’s walls are 10 x 12 cubits in height

  • it has six decks, thus is divided into seven levels. The inside of
    each level is divided into 9 compartments. Then –

“Three times 3,600 units of bitumen I poured into the. . .kiln
Three times 3,600 porters of casks who carried (vegetable) oil,
apart from the 3,600 units of oil which they consumed
and two times 3,600 units of oil which the boatman stored away. . .”

So considering the base-60 units of the sexagesimal system introduced
by the Sumerians, examined in other sections, the boat and it’s (cube-like)
dimensions would appear to be harmonically related to the measurements of
time and space of the sexagesimal system…thus the measures would seem to
be used symbolically in some sense, in one of the oldest works of art ever
known to mankind. . .

When the boat is finally built, Utnapishtim and all, load all the silver
and gold they possess (!), all the living beings are loaded on, all his
‘kith and kin’, followed by all the beasts and animals of the field, as
well as all the craftsmen go up into it.

“Shamash had set a stated time:
‘In the morning I will let loaves of bread shower down,
and in the evening a rain of wheat!
Go inside the boat, seal the entry!’

The stated time had arrived. . .

I watched the appearance of the weather–
the weather was frightful to behold!
Just as dawn began to glow
there arose from the horizon a black cloud
Adad rumbled inside of it
before him went Shullat and Hanish,
heralds going over mountain and land.

The Anunnaki lifted up the torches,
setting the land ablaze with their flare,
Stunned shock over Adad’s deeds overtook the heavens,
and turned to blackness all that had been light.
The . . .land shattered like a. . .pot
All day long the South Wind blew. . .
blowing fast, submerging the mountain in water,
overwhelming the people like an attack.

No one could see his fellow,
they could not recognise each other in the torrent
The Gods were frightened by the Flood,
and retreated, ascending to the heaven of Anu.
The gods were cowering like dogs, crouching by the outer wall.
Ishtar shrieked like a woman in childbirth,
the sweet-voiced Mistress of the Gods wailed:
“Alas, the olden days have turned to clay,
because I said evil things in the Assembly of the Gods!
How could I. . .order a catastrophe to destroy my people!!
No sooner have I given birth to my dear people
than they fill the sea like so many fish!”

The gods – those of the Anunnaki – were weeping with her,
the gods humbly sat weeping, sobbing with grief,
their lips burning, parched with thirst.
Six days and seven nights
came the wind and flood, the storm flattening the land.
When the seventh day arrived, the storm was pounding,
the flood was a war, struggling with itself like a woman
in labour. . .

  • * * *

The sea calmed, fell still, the whirlwind and flood stopped up.
I looked around all day long–quiet had set in
and all the human beings had turned to clay!
The terrain was flat as a roof.
I opened a vent and fresh air fell upon the side of my nose.
I looked around for coastlines in the expanse of sea,
and at twelve leagues there emerged a region of land.
Mt Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway.

One day and a second. . .a third, fourth Mt Nimush held the boat
A fifth day, a sixth. . .when the seventh day arrived
I sent forth a dove and released it. . .”

The dove returns though, finding nowhere to land. Utnapishtim sends
off a swallow, which returns likewise He sends off a raven;

“The raven went off, and saw the waters slither back
It eats, it scratches, but does not circle back to me.
Then I sent out everything in all directions and sacrificed
a sheep.
I offered incense in front of the mountain-ziggurat.”*

  • This poem is undoubtedly the template for the biblical story
    of Noah ,and the Ark. Whether this ‘invalidates’ the bible is
    less clear than it would seem. The different possibilities are
    examined in the Gilgamesh chapter.

The Flood is over, although its consequences remain.
Utnapishtim burns more herbs, reeds, cedar and myrtle, in

“The gods smelled the savour,
the gods smelled the sweet savour,
and collected like flies over a (sheep) sacrifice.
Just then Beletili arrived,
. . .You gods, as surely as I shall not forget this lapis-lazuli
around my neck,
may I be mindful of these days, and never forget them!
The gods may come to the incense offering,
but Enlil may not come to the incense offering,
because without considering he brought about the Flood,
and consigned my people to annihilation.

Just then Enlil arrived.
He saw the boat and became furious (knowing nothing
of mankind’s survival.)
“Where did a living being escape?
No man was to survive the annihilation!”

. . .Enki spoke to Valiant Enlil, saying:
‘It is yours, O Valiant One, who is the Sage of the Gods
How, how could you bring about a Flood without consideration
. . .charge the offense to the offender
but be compassionate lest (mankind) be cut off,
be patient lest they be killed. . .
Instead of your bringing on the Flood,
. . .would that (Pestilent) Erra had appeared to ravage the land!
It was not I who revealed the secret of the Great Gods,
I (only) made a dream appear to Utnapishtim, and thus he heard
the secret of the gods.
Now then! The deliberation should be about him!” (!)

Enlil went up inside the boat
and grasping my hand, made me go up.
He had my wife go up and kneel by my side.
He touched our forehead and, standing between us, he blessed us:
‘Previously Utnapishtim was a human being
But now let Utnapishtim and his wife become like us, the gods!
Let Utnapishtim reside faraway, at the Mouth of the Rivers’
They took us faraway and settled us at the Mouth of the Rivers”.

Thus ends Utnapishtim’s account of the Flood, and his part in it. . .
From this he turns his attention to Gilgamesh, and his quest;

“Now then, who will convene the gods on your behalf,
that you may find the life you are seeking!
Wait! You must not lie down for six days and seven nights”.

This is the chance for Gilgamesh, to achieve his quest,
all that he asked for and sought. But he cannot fulfil his task;

“soon as he sat down (with his head) between his legs

Sleep, like a fog, blew over him.”
Utnapishtim said to his wife:
“Look there! The man, the youth, who wanted (eternal) life!
Sleep, like a fog, blew over him!”

Utnapishtim’s wife says to touch him, awaken him, that he
may return to his home safely the way he came. . .

“Utnapishtim said to his wife:
Mankind is deceptive, and will deceive you.
Come, bake loaves for him, and keep setting them by his head
and draw on the wall each day that he lay down.”

They do this each day baking a cake of bread, and marking on
the wall how many days it is he has slept…
Each day’s loaf becomes desiccated, stale, mouldy, and so on…

…”the fifth sprouted grey (mould), the sixth is still fresh.
the seventh – suddenly he touched him and the man awoke.
Gilgamesh said to Utnapishtim
‘The very moment sleep was pouring over me
you touched me and alerted me!’
Utnapishtim spoke. . . saying
‘Look over here Gilgamesh, count your loaves!
You should be aware of what is marked on the wall!’. . .

Gilgamesh repeats his claim, and Utnapishtim goes over the
pictures on the wall, and the seven loaves placed beside him
as he slept…
The truth sinks in, leaving Gilgamesh bereft of hope:

“O woe! What shall I do Utnapishtim, where shall I go!
The Snatcher has taken ahold of my flesh,
in my bedroom Death dwells,
And wherever I set foot there too is Death!”

Utnapishtim speaks to the ferryman, Urshanabi, enjoining him
to help clean and dress the matted-hair and bedraggled traveller

…”Let him cast away his animal skin and have the sea carry it off,
let his body be moistened with fine oil,
let the wrap around his head be new
let him wear royal robes worthy of him!
Until he goes off to his city,
until he sets off on his way
let his royal robe not become spotted, let it be perfectly new!”

Gilgamesh boards the boat in his newly cleaned state, with the guide
Urshanabi, but as they leave, the wife of Utnapishtim the Faraway says;

…”(he) came here exhausted and worn out.
What can you give him so that he can return to his land (with honour)!

“Then Gilgamesh raised a punting pole
and drew the boat to shore
Utnapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh saying,
…you came here so exhausted and worn out…
I will disclose to you a thing that is hidden, Gilgamesh,
I will tell you.
There is a plant…like a boxthorn
Whose thorns will prick your hand like a rose.
If your hands reach that plant you will become a young man again”

  • the Plant (or Tree) of Eternal Life as it has been called. . .

“Hearing this, Gilgamesh opened a conduit(!) (to the Apsu – the ‘abyss’)
and attached heavy stones to his feet.
They dragged him down, to the Apsu they pulled him.
He took the plant though it pricked his hand,
and cut the heavy stones from his feet,
letting the waves throw him, onto the shores”.

Gilgamesh explains the plants worth to Urshanabi, saying
“I will bring it to Uruk-Haven,
and have an old man eat the plant to test it.
…Then I will eat it and return to the condition of my youth”(!)

But before their journey back has ended, disaster strikes;

” at thirty leagues they stopped for the night.
Seeing a spring and how cool it’s waters were,
Gilgamesh went down and was bathing in the water.
A snake smelled the fragrance of the plant
silently came up and carried off the plant.
While going back it sloughed off it’s casing”.(ie re-juvenated
immediately. . .)

Gilgamesh is stunned by misfortune, yet again and sits down weeping;
“For whom have my arms laboured Urshanabi !
I have not secured any good deed for myself,
but done a good deed for the ‘lion of the ground’!”

And though his mind turns to re-tracing his steps to the conduit
and repeating his actions there, he quickly realises
“as I was opening the conduit I turned my equipment over into it”. . .
What can I find (to serve) as a marker (?) for me!
I will turn back (from the journey by the sea) and leave the
boat by the shore”. . .

But there is no second chance here, and they continue back to
the home city of Gilgamesh. . .

“They arrived in Uruk-Haven.
Gilgamesh said to Urshanabi, the ferryman,
‘Go up, Urshanabi, onto the wall of Uruk and walk around.
Examine it’s foundation, inspect it’s brickwork thoroughly–
is not (even the core of) the brick structure of kiln-fired brick
and did not the Seven Sages themselves lay out it’s plan!
One league city, one league palm gardens, one league lowlands, the
open area of the Ishtar Temple,
three leagues and the open area (?) of Uruk it encloses.

(Translated by Maureen Gallery Kovacs ;
taken from

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