COSMIC NUMBER and EGYPT.Giza, the Great Pyramid, and the Sphinx.

Primary sections of the Great Pyramid this section will be considering; The history of the era the pyramids of Egypt were built, from circa 3000 Bce to 300 Bce. The philosophic and religious currents within Egypt and the Near East in these times. The significance and unique nature of the site of Giza, chosen from c.6000Bce as the site for the Sphinx (p.17), and then the pyramids later. Some geometry based theories centred around the complex, and the pyramids at its centre. (p.21); a journey through the inner-structures of the Great Pyramid, as shown in the diagram right.

b – the ENTRANCEWAY. AL-MAMOUN’S / and the Tourist’s entrances.(p.22)
c – the DESCENDING passage – the subterranean passage/ the pit.(p.23)
d – the SUBTERRANEAN CHAMBER, – the Pit, and the Well-Shaft. (p.24)
d – the ASCENDING PASSAGE – the granite plugs/ the girdle-stones.(p.25)
e – the QUEEN’S CHAMBER – the Niche/ E/W axis/ apex. Shafts leading N&S (p.26).
f – the WELL SHAFT, from basement up to floor at Queens Chamber level.
g – the GRAND GALLERY – length, height, sides; base holders. (p.29)
h – the gallery’s walls ; the octave/ law of seven; measurements, alignments.
i – the Great Step.(p.) centre line of pyramid 61.7′ (~φ) base of shaft here crosses Grand Gallery line at mi-fa line on the wall, at the central axis point.
j – the ANTECHAMBER. N.’star-shaft’/ materials/ construction questions (p.33).
k – the KINGS CHAMBER. measurements /proportions of chamber; Kings Coffer (p.35).
l – the ‘STAR-SHAFTS’ upward angled shafts to outside on N & S walls (p.38).
m – the RELIEVING CHAMBERS. Vyse and graffiti.1837 (p.47).

Details and theories – Orion – the Vesica Piscis – Great Pyramid proportions of 7:11, harmonics/ ratios of Pi/ Egyptian Royal Cubits and the hexagon; the modern piano, the human ear and spirals.

The Egyptian site of Gizeh, that is located on a square mile or so of a thin limestone bedrock in the desert besides the city of Cairo, is an ancient and extensively developed complex of archaeological monuments and features. The majority of these were built from between c.3200 Bce, to the time of Christ, with some being a little older than that. So overall Giza and its monuments were built while the Egyptian empire was in the process of becoming the leading power of the Near East, in competition with the many competing civilizations of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon and Assyria, the Elamites of (south-)west Iran, the Hittite empire of Asia Minor, the Greek kingdoms from c.12 century Bce, the Persian Achaemenid empire of the 6th century Bce on, and so on, in the complex political landscape of the Near and Middle East, then as now. This pre-eminence, clearly depicted in many of the references to Egypt in the books of the Old Testament, is reflected in the architecture of ancient Egypt, which was often one of the primary responsibilities of each Pharaoh as soon as power was gained, in terms of creating further examples of gigantic and sophisticated architecture paying homage to the gods as they were worshipped, and to the pharaoh’s personal legacy.

And while in ancient Egypt different ruling dynasties of the empire often changed their capital city’s location, such as at Thebes, or at Heliopolis (On), as well as built their own temples and pyramids, the site at Giza, believed to have been built during the period classed as the Old Kingdom of the 4th dynasty or so onwards at least, has remained unsurpassed in its glory, in the construction which defines the heart of Giza; the Great Pyramid. It is said to be the product of the 4th Dynasty pharaoh Khafre, also called Cheops, although there is effectively no evidence either within its walls or anywhere else that proves this. So it is a convention rather than a fact, in actuality, to say who this edifice was built by, or when.

And as in the other great societies in the Near East, each civilization did not just record the achievements of the sovereign, but ascribed the design, and placement of these unique buildings to the ‘gods’ of the heavens, as part of their role as they guided civilization. So the roots of ancient Egypt, and its most accomplished and long-lasting achievements, of pyramids, temples and so forth, lay not just in the fertile earth of the Nile Valley, but in the stars overhead. Something which held much in common with the civilization of Sumer, as well as further East, with India and in China, among the greatest philosophic and cultural contributors to humanity at these times.

(left) The Pyramids of Giza.
Wikimedia; the digital artist. Public Domain.

(right) View from the base of the Great Pyramid,
photo by G.Maston, 1909. Wikimedia, PD.

As can be seen on the map of the site below, the overall impression is of numerous buildings placed in considerable good order around the central area – the three great pyramids, named in modernity after three Pharaohs ‘estimated’ to be their builders; Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. But there is no evidence or markings within any of these enigmatic buildings to provide the information of who built them. Other structures located around the site of Giza (in the modern spelling) include besides the three pyramids; numerous ‘satellite’ pyramids, the Sphinx, causeways linking the pyramids with the Valley Temples of Khafre, Menkaure and the Sphinx, fields of rock-cut tombs, mastabas (ancient burial areas) and caves (where Sir Flinders Petrie sheltered in 1880 when conducting his definitive survey of the complex) boat pits where the Egyptians buried full sized boats – solar barques – such as the buried Khufu ship measuring 140 feet long and 20 feet wide, symbolically necessary for the after-life when the pharaoh would need for a boat when traversing the skies to the ‘cosmic river’, the Milky Way. Also present at Giza are quarries, stone-worker’s rubbish tips dating to when the site was being built, and thus archaeological sites in themselves; and so on. While this section mainly looks at the Great Pyramid, the temples at Giza are edifices of fantastic construction skills and design.

So as the diagram shows, it is an extensive site, and yet shows how well-organised and maintained it has always been, since the millennia when work was being done there between say 4000 – 500 Bce. Theories on the age of the Sphinx have enough validity to warrant consideration, with some researchers (such as Robert Schoch and John Anthony West) arguing the rain erosion patterns apparent on the monument indicate it was already built by c.7000 Bce when the area was a light rainfall ecosystem rather than the semi-arid desert it has been for the last eight thousand years or so.

Giza is located within Egypt besides the great river Nile, Africa’s longest river and one of the world’s most important, and historic waterways. Giza, and the capital city of Egypt Cairo which has grown up beside the pyramids a handful of miles away, are to be found at the northern end of the Nile’s length. The Nile actually has two tributaries; the White Nile starting in the Great Lakes region of Uganda, and slightly nearer to Egypt, the Blue Nile beginning at lake Tana in the uplands of Ethiopia, in mountain regions which reach heights of up to 14,500 feet ! The Blue Nile contributes around 80% of the Nile’s waters, and the bulk (estimated 95%) of the sediment which fertilizes the entirety of its course lower down.
Artificial interventions such as dams built to enable hydro-electric power creation have significantly altered the nature of the river in modern times, the Merowe dam in northern Sudan, and the Aswan dam in Egypt (built between 1960 and 1970) being some of the foremost examples of this. Similarly places such as Lake Nasser have been used as water reserves to ensure drought is avoided in the dry season; whereas from 1901 – 2012, 55 droughts occurred in Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya and Tanzania.
As would be expected of a natural resource in limited supply, there are several nations in dispute over how the Nile is used and treated, including Egypt and Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania, prompting several (political) initiatives aimed at resolving disputes, and ensuring equitable use of the river’s resources.

The two rivers join at Khartoum in Sudan, 850 miles from the Blue Nile’s source, from there flowing through the Nubian Desert (the eastern Sahara desert in Sudan and Eritrea) and Egypt northwards until it reaches Alexandria at the Mediterranean, a distance of around 3250 miles for the Blue Nile from ‘source to sea’. As well as being the source of virtually all agriculture in ancient (and modern) Egypt the Nile always played an important role in the state religion’s symbolism, being considered an earthly mirror of the celestial ‘river’, the Milky Way. Virtually all of the pyramids in Egypt (and the historic kingdom of Kush, now Sudan) were built near to or besides the Nile valley on the west side of the river, as this side held symbolic meanings, relating conceptually in some way the journey of the spirit to the heavens with the ‘setting of the sun’.
Many of Egypt’s most important and revered pyramid and temple sites are thus located along the Nile valley between Aswan in the south and Giza at Cairo; sites such as Abu Simbel, Luxor (ancient Thebes), Edfu, Kom Ombo. Here is a selection of photographs of a few other religious sites of the Nile valley in Egypt, to illustrate the sophistication and different styles of Egyptian architecture throughout the many dynasties and millennia;

a. Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Khnum, at Esna, Wikimedia, M.Ryckaert,CC-by-SA 4.0.
b. Abu Simbel, Nubia, photograph by Pascal Sebah,1875 Wikimedia, Public Domain.
c. Temple of Seti I, Abydos. Wikimedia, Public Domain.

One explorer in history who helped trace the source of the Blue Nile to its origin there was the Scottish earl and explorer James Bruce in 1774. It was while he traced the Nile into the mountains of Ethiopia that he discovered not one historical text of world importance, but two – firstly the (Ethiopic) Book of Enoch, providing the western Christian world with its first glimpse of the legendary and apocryphal book of Hebrew scriptural from at least the 2nd century Bce, a book so well regarded within ancient Israel that it was named (and had many examples of its distinctive phrases and language being used) in the Bible scores of times; not a fully conclusive indicator of its influence, but still a sign-post to it having been a widely read text within Israel, in the centuries before Christ. Indeed some writers point to over a hundred linguistic usages in Enoch which are also in the Bible. Of course separating the dates each book of the Bible and then surviving versions of Enoch were written is an extremely difficult matter. . .but the point remains that even in the Bible reference was made to both Enoch the person, as someone who was taken by angels up to heaven, so that uniquely of the generations of the time listed no length of life is given for him; only that he was 365 years old when taken still alive to heaven… and likewise to the Book of Enoch, directly and indirectly, highlighting his almost unequalled role as a patriarch and prophet of Israel.

Western Europe had only heard reports of the existence of the Book of Enoch from the Middle Ages, but had no access to any versions existing until the early 19th century when Bruce’s copies were translated.
And secondly the Ethiopian Book of the Glory of Kings, the Kebra Nagast; the book of the marriage and lineage of King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba, the queen of Ethiopia, and the story of how the Ark of the Covenant, the wooden, wheeled container of the Tablets of the Covenant Moses brought down from the top of mount Sinai, came to be brought to the care of the church in Ethiopia. This book was written at a much more recent date than Enoch, dating from around the 14th century, but is still obviously of great historical import. . .Bruce donated his copies of both the Book of Enoch and the Kebra Nagast to the Bodleian Library in Oxford, England, home to the Magna Carta, the Song of Roland and numerous other precious manuscripts from antiquity onwards.

As the Nile descends from the mountain regions it enters the flood plain of the Nile along which Egyptian agriculture and society have depended since the earliest of times. Especially important is the Inundation, a yearly occurrence which has always taken place in the second half of August, following the yearly monsoons of July and August. Vast amounts of fertile sedimentation have ‘inundated’ the entire river lengths along the flood plains, providing one of the most reliable and potent factors in the growing of crops since society began in Egypt, from at least 8000 Bce (until 1970 when the building of the Aswan dam for hydro-electric purposes radically affected the process).
One feature of this event in the times of the Egyptian eras of pyramids was the conjunction of the beginning of the Inundation with the appearance of Sirius on the horizon at dawn at this time of year. Thus the heliacal rising of Sirius became the key calendrical event of the Egyptian (ritual) year, bringing as it did the association of the celestial blessing of the waters of the Nile as they deposited millions of tonnes of fertile sediment in the nation’s fields, and signalled the beginning of the sowing cycle of crops (around 45 days later). The Inundation at this time also led to the development of complex schemes of irrigation being constructed, including for example storage basins or ‘reservoirs’, dams, dykes, and intake and exit canals.

So from the earliest of times Egypt was ‘blessed’ with a yearly event which enabled agricultural development, technological progress, societal cohesiveness, and was linked to the cycles of the year and the stars.

From Giza and Cairo the Nile enters its ‘delta‘ stage, for the last 100 miles of its journey to the Mediterranean. (In recognition of the dual character of the path of the Nile through Egypt, in its being split between the upper grounds of mountains and lower river plains from there to ocean the Pharaoh in ancient Egypt was called the Ruler of the Two Kingdoms; ostensibly in recognition of this divide but in keeping with the sophisticated symbolism, geometry and metaphor of Egypt, this division may have been a reference to the duality of the spiritual and material worlds, concerned with both as the religious and political leaderships were. . . for throughout Egypt of antiquity much of the culture and religion was a reflection of the priest-astronomer class’s emphasis on the aspirant needing to prepare himself (primarily at that time) for spiritual evolution to overcome the tests and obstacles of material life and ready the ‘spirit’ within for its journey to the ‘heavens’ when he or she died. If Egyptian religion is seen as a ‘funerary culture, this is the reason why; it was the moment when the life’s work came to fruition, and the spirit of the aspirant rose from the body to travel to the stars, be ‘weighed’ in the scales of justice, and hopefully travel onward to ‘heaven’…

The course of the White and Blue Nile.

The civilization of Sumer was matched by three other similarly advanced ‘nations’ or ‘civilizations’ at a marginally later date, namely Egypt, India and China. And curiously enough there are many layers of connections between Sumer and each of these civilizations, which between them and individually provided mankind with philosophically coherent belief systems centred around an ordered cosmos.

Each one of these original cultures therefore had religious myths of the visitors from the depths of space/ the ‘higher realms’ who created mankind. All four cultures, among the most sophisticated intellectual and philosophic/ religious influences known, shared similar cosmologies, religious notions and narratives – and some believe the Sumerian deities – the Anunnaki – were the motive-force in the development of all four of these civilizations. So both Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations developed systems of agriculture which enabled the growth of a diversely employed and structured society; both were amongst the first cultures to develop systems of writing (used to encapsulate the wisdom and myths of the gods who ‘created’ both civilizations, and to enable progress of learning, science, trade and so on). And both languages took the written form of symbols; cuneiform in Sumer and hieroglyphics in Egypt (as cuneiform written language was developed in China too). Both societies built religious edifices which combined architectural and building skills with extensive symbolic meanings (often allied to that of the ‘sacred mountain’) – namely, ziggurat pyramids, or ‘step-pyramids’ as they are called, consisting as they do of several layers of bricks or stone work which rise in graded steps. China too had an extensive collection of ‘pyramids’ dating from the earliest eras of antiquity, around the 3000 Bce mark, but these were often burial mounds of 30 feet or so rather than architecturally designed stonework edifices. More akin to Silbury Hill, the Neolithic era man-made hill (of 120 feet height) in Wiltshire, England – which is still an unusual / unique ‘monument’ located at a highly significant point in the English landscape, close to Avebury Circle and other sites thereabouts, Stonehenge and Glastonbury. (See the Ley-Lines of England for much more on this. Incidentally, the pyramidal hill at Silbury is at an angle of 30° and a latitude of 51.41°N, whereas the Great Pyramid is at an angle of 51.74° and a latitude of 30° North).

⇦ Model of Etemenanki ziggurat of Babylon; Schmid.

Step-pyramid of Djoser, at Saqqara, Egypt ⇨
Both, Wikimedia, Public Domain.

The Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian civilizations built around thirty ziggurat step-pyramids, from around the beginning of the 3rd millennium Bce, at ‘sacred’ centres/ cities such as Ur (also called Erech/Uruk) circa 2100 Bce. But with the demise of the ‘neo-Sumerian’ Ur-III civilization extant from 2200-1700 Bce (caused by a combination of circumstances, such as extensive problems of soil-salination, defeat in war with the Persian Elamites, and so on as described in the Lamentations of Ur, quoted from extensively in the Gilgamesh /Sumer section), the spoken Sumerian language became henceforth obsolete, and the design of step pyramids remained as it was in Mesopotamia throughout antiquity. One example of a developed ziggurat which was built between the 14th and 9th centuries Bce in Babylon was called the Etemenanki, the ‘temple of the foundation of heaven and earth’, a sacred site which saw several stages of building upon it over the centuries. In general it is estimated to have been around 150-200 feet tall, slightly less than the 300 feet (91m) height and length described in the Enuma Elish, according to researchers who doubt the structure could have reached such a height with the materials that were used in its construction.

(right) The ETEMENANKI ziggurat, Babylon; illustration W.Simpson 19thc. Wikimedia / PD.

In the Babylonian creation epic the ‘Enuma Elish’ it is referred to by the epithet given, and described as the ‘upper ziggurat of the Apsu’; the ‘abyss’ from Sumerian mythology and artworks such as Gilgamesh. The similarity of the names and concept of this is surely the origin of the Hebrew concept of the Temple of Jerusalem on the Temple Mount, which was said to be built over the ‘navel-point of the world’, and had a ‘foundation stone’ in the basement placed directly over the ‘abyss’, keeping the life-giving energies of the Ap-Su in balance. Ziggurats in Sumer were often called ‘e-kur’ in texts, meaning the ‘mountain house’, containing symbolism linking to the underground waters of Life.
But the Babylonian ‘ziggurat of the Apsu’ was destroyed by the invading forces of the Assyrians in 689 Bce, under the sovereignty of king Sennacherib, son of Sargon II. Some restoration work and rebuilding was done a century later by Esarhaddon, his son Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar II, so that the building was re-dedicated. Some academics have compared its history of cycles of growth, destruction and rebuilding to the Tower of Babel, considering its central location within Babylon and societal importance. In its final history, Alexander the Great captured Babylon in 331 Bce and ordered the temple repaired; but seven years later when he returned to the city he ordered its complete destruction to prepare for a new building; one which never came about due to his own death just a year later. One weakness of this and other ziggurats compared to the pyramids and temples of Egypt might possibly be the use of baked bricks rather than dressed stones; such materials would limit the load-bearing capacities of such large structures, and lend themselves to quicker deterioration; in the Bible the description of the Tower of Babylon is thus;

And they said to one another, Go to, let us make brick and burn them throughly. And they
had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar.
And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower , whose top may reach unto heaven;
and let us make a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.
And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded.
And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they
begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.
Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one
another’s speech.
So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of the earth; and they left off to
build the city.
(Genesis 11.3-8)

So in what is a complex tale of clearly metaphorical as well as historical nature, the narrative does mention the use of bricks rather than dressed stones. Incidentally, the only other time the word used for ‘slime’ is used in the Bible is when Moses is floated in his ‘box’ on the Nile when a new-born…! What this indicates in metaphoric terms is examined in the study of depictions of Moses with horns, in the Bible section.
This difference noted in the biblical tale of Babel may actually be a good example of the differences existing between ‘celestial-based’ and human inspired efforts – albeit in exaggerated fashion, showing the inadequacies of baked bricks compared to dressed stone – especially stones weighing from between 20 to 200 tonnes as exist within the Great Pyramid, and many other buildings. (Let alone such gigantic blocks of between 450 and 900 tonnes as exist within the foundations of Jerusalem, and at the Trilithon in the Temple of Jupiter-Baal at Baalbek, Lebanon – both central sacred sites in antiquity). So the more ‘difficult to work’ materials of dressed stone repaid the effort taken with incredible longevity. Examples of such temples in Egypt include Abu Simbel, situated in Aswan Governate on the Nile near to Sudan – the twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside somewhere around 1300Bce, in the 19th Dynasty. Some idea of the size and skill of the Egyptian architects and builders can be gained from a view of it ;

Temple of Abu-Simbel, lithograph,1825.

⦁ Temple of Seti I at Abydos, dedicated to Isis and Osiris.
⦁ Thebes, the pavilion of Medinet-Abou.
⦁ The Pyramid of Teti V at Saqqara.

Biblical and Jewish texts place the kingship of Babylon with the ‘great hunter Nimrod’ at the time of the Tower (Genesis 10.8-12), thus closely linking the descendants of Noah and Shem who arose after the Flood in Sumer (the people ‘of the Shem’) with the bloodlines of the Anunnaki, and the Nephilim. So Nimrod is ‘semi-divine’, as a ‘mighty man’, or ‘hero’ or ‘man of renown’ (Gen6.4); and is linked by many researchers to Ninurta, the Anunnaki deity referred to as the ‘Wild Bull of Heaven’ in Sumerian myths such as ‘Ninurta returns to Niburu’. . .

so, as may be seen, many complex lines of meaning are woven into the stories of the Old Testament and antiquity, as we examine in the relevant sections. Note the switch of language in the passage above to ‘let us go down and there…’ etc – as with the words of Genesis 1.26 “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness… “pointing to the Sumerian narrative of the creation of mankind by the deities of the Anunnaki. This was achieved using genetic procedures to join their own celestial substance with the ‘clay’ of early-humans, to create the first full ‘homo sapiens’, the ‘Adama’ and his spouse, Eve.

To return to Giza, the Egyptians not only developed various other types of religious edifice, such as the temples at Luxor or Thebes along the Nile Valley; the Egyptian era also saw the development of regular or smooth-sided pyramids, such as the Great Pyramid and its two companion pyramids. (Although the advanced nature of the Great Pyramid in particular could mean it was designed and built before the earliest ‘human’-built or designed examples. In this theory the first human efforts instituted by the Pharaohs in ‘homage’ to the sacred edifices of ‘celestial origin’ were necessarily built as step-pyramids as they learnt the mathematics of pyramid building at an angle which wasn’t liable to collapse, as some early examples did. Maidum, for instance, one of the earliest straight-sided pyramids, built at an angle of 52 degrees experienced catastrophic collapse, along the sides, and the inner core.

This possibility is reflected in the narrative that the most impressive pyramids of Egypt nearly all belong to the Old Kingdom, between the third and sixth dynasties, circa 2700- 2100 Bce. And yet the third and fourth dynasty pyramids – including the main ones at Giza – are far superior structures to the later ones. As Sitchin writes, “the older, and first-ever pyramids. . .are much grander, more solid, more accurate, more perfect than all those that followed them. They are also the more mysterious, – for they contain not a clue to reveal the secret of their construction” (unlike the fifth and sixth dynasty pyramids, which are decorated with the Pyramid Texts hieroglyphs). (from ‘The Stairway to Heaven’, p235). And there are more theories placing the building of several of Giza’s temples and pyramids to a pre-Dynastic period, as Hancock writes in Fingerprints of the Gods, p.152. “(Tests on the stone samples were taken) from the smallest of the three pyramids, which Egyptology attributes to Menkaure. Taken from the granite facing stones of the pyramid, and not from its core-masonry, this sample produced yet another strikingly anomalous date – 3450Bce, +/- 950 years.” While this could potentially place construction near to the time of Menkaure, “what is more disturbing are the other possibilities raised by the dating, ie the facing stones could have been put in place as early as 3450Bce, if not even at 4400Bce… thus almost two thousand years prior to the Old Kingdom” (ie the 3rd and 4th Dynasties).

(left) another example of Egyptian architecture, from c.180 Bce, at Kom Ombo, the temple of Horus and Sobek; one which shows that later dynasties continued the Egyptian traditions of highly sophisticated architecture and building skills.

But the inability of human rulers and architects to re-produce the wonders of the celestial sources responsible for the greatest examples of temple building in Egypt and elsewhere is considered to be responsible for the change in angle of the pyramid built by the Pharaoh Sneferu at Dashur, the Bent Pyramid as it is called, which changes from a steep angle close to 52° of the Great Pyramid to a more manageable 43° from halfway up. . .) Sitchin for example believes the original angle was found to be unstable, as was shown by the collapse of a 52° pyramid at Maidum; so mid-construction the angle was changed to a less glorious, but safer, 43°.

And a great many pyramids and temples were indeed built during the extensive period of time from c.2700 Bce – 300 Bce, there being an estimated 110 or so pyramids, around 80 within the boundaries of Egypt today, the rest being in the kingdom of Kush, or Sudan as it is. Many of these edifices used stones of limestone, sandstone or granite in blocks of up to 200 tonnes weight ! Incredible for any period, let alone in 2000 Bce or thereabouts. The Great Pyramid too has stone blocks of such weight, in internal structures such as the roof of the King’s Chamber, approximately 250 feet above pavement level. . .as we shall examine later on.
The earliest pyramids of Egypt are predominantly step-pyramids, such as the one built at Saqqara circa 2600Bce in the ‘First Dynasty’ period, which leads some observers to assess that Egypt’s first pyramids were inspired by the Sumerian examples dating from as early as 2800Bce, as we have seen. Whether the Great Pyramid at Giza was built in the Third or Fourth or Fifth Dynasty periods when Egyptian pyramid architecture began to develop in the building of smooth sided structures is by no means clear. But it is believed by some to have been not so much the result of gradual human improvements, but the originator of the style which then created the later ones (although the Great Pyramid structure itself is partially a ‘step-pyramid’ with the limestone casing that originally covered it making the sides smooth. But all pyramids are built upon the form of the stepped triangle, or ‘mountain’, with the incredible structural strengths the tetrahedral shape brings).

And this section will examine some of the many incredibly advanced features of the Great Pyramid, the Sphinx, and the complex of pyramids and temples which make Giza one of the most significant architectural and archaeological sites in the world’s history. And further to this, look into the widely held belief that the consciousness which brought about such creations was ‘celestial’ in nature.

(left) Hieroglyphic inscriptions, the Temple of Amon-Ra, Karnak. Wikimedia, M.Ryckaert, CC-by-SA 4.0

One example of a shared concept, or (highly) significant symbol, at the heart of both cultures’ representations of the gods, for example, is what is called in Sumer stelae the ‘rod and ring’ symbol, much like a coiled short piece of cord held by the deity as a symbol of authority and protection; in essence the meaning is of the protection given to the Creation by the Maker by extending a cord around it to define the boundary between that and the formless abyss outside.
Many Sumerian gods were pictured holding the symbol; Inanna in her descent to the Underworld dressed herself in full regalia, the poem stating ‘She held her lapis-lazuli (sacred) measuring rod and measuring line in her hand’. Marduk in the Enuma Elish has bestowed upon him the sceptre and the throne, and the ring’. The ruler Hammurabi, one of the most famous kings of antiquity, was depicted with the symbol of authority c.1750Bce in Babylon showing its transferral from mark of divinity to totem of earthly sovereignty and protection.

Left; the Anunnaki deity Shamash with ‘rod and ring’ symbol. Assyrian empire, Sippar
c.888-855 Bce. Wikimedia – Public Domain. It is noteworthy that both the Sumerian and Egyptian measuring rods/ symbols bear close resemblance to the Phi – or Golden Section – symbol, which in accordance with its inner significances consists of a line and a circle; or a 1 and a 0…

In the Book of Enoch (ch.61) a similarly symbolically meaningful tool was given to the angels;

“¹In those days I beheld long ropes given to those angels; who took to their wings, and fled, advancing to the north. ²And I inquired of the angel, saying, Wherefore have they taken those long ropes, and gone forth? And he said, They are gone forth to measure. ³The angel, who proceeded with me, said, These are the measures of the righteous; and cords shall the righteous bring, that they may trust in the name of the Lord of spirits for ever and ever. ⁶. . . these measures shall reveal all the secrets in the depth of the earth.

The Bible shows in the Book of Revelation Saint John the Divine being given a similar cord;

‘And there was given me a reed like unto a rod; and the angel stood, saying Rise, and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that worship therein’. (Rev 11.1).

(left) The SHEN ring, or circle of protection.

And in Egyptian hieroglyphs the Shen ring was depicted as a similar symbol of authority of the gods, being a line coiled into a circle, as a stylised loop of cord. The word ‘shen’ itself means eternal protection, so with exactly the same meaning as the Sumerian symbol. It is possible there was entirely normal cross-cultural ‘pollination’ of this symbol; yet these cultures tended to be designed single-mindedly and coherently from the start, by their founding ‘deities’. If this is accepted, the sharing of symbols between Sumer and Egypt in this respect might support theories concerning a single source, whether physically or otherwise…
Even more curiously, the Egyptian sacred symbol the Ankh, as depicted in the hand of the figure on the right-hand side in the figure, may have evolved from such depictions as the shen or rod-and-ring symbols, as a stylised refinement or development of symbolic meanings across a long period of time. With the proviso that it also incorporates symbolism related to the cross, a central theme across early civilizations particularly in terms of dividing the circle. Certainly this potential symbolic relationship is a possibility – additionally, it is commonly assessed that the Royal Cartouche, the enclosed symbol of the earthly sovereign, (as depicted in the lower right-hand corner of the figure above) likewise developed originally as an expression of the same concept of divine encirclement and protection. . .
In the two artworks below are Egyptian and Sumerian versions of pairs of ‘celestial beings’/ ‘angels’ holding ‘measuring rods’ or lines, attached to a star*, (possibly the Sun, or a planet, such as the Earth); as such signifying the higher dimensional forces arrayed at geometric points around the world’s surface, creating sacred ‘navel’ or ‘omphalos’ sites in the process. Places which are joined by ‘serpent-lines’, or ‘leylines’, as the modern term is. (If the planet indicated is interpreted to be the Sun, this would emphasize the solar nature of the energies distributed throughout the world in telluric pathways, in geometrically harmonic patterns, related to the wavelength of light etc, where major ‘node-points’ are marked by omphalos stones).

(left) Papyrus of Queen Nejmet, depicting the Pharaoh in the Duat, the afterlife…

(right); the Tablet of Shamash.

*one note of interest comes from the James Webb Space Telescope, (below); as well as being similar in appearance especially to both Egyptian and Assyrian images shown (of two ‘angels’/ ‘celestial beings’ placing their ‘measuring cords’ around a star or planet), there is further synchronicity. For as articles at the NASA website concerned with the Webb telescope explain, the presence in the pictures obtained of stars’ diffraction-spikes, (ie how stars appear to shine) results from the shapes of the support struts connecting the primary mirror to the reflecting mirror (see centre image diagram, and for article).

Webb has three struts, with two at angles of 150° from its vertical strut, while its primary mirror is composed of hexagonal segments that each contain edges for light to diffract against. So Webb’s struts are designed to overlap with the lines created by the mirrors, leading to the telescope’s eight-pointed stars (above right). The Hubble telescope images have four lines, whereas the Webb telescope creates images with eight diffraction lines, (six large and two small combined); overall the effect is very much like the overlaid symmetries of the rayed ‘star’ symbol within the circle on the ‘foot-stool’ in the stela. And as we see later, the telescope has been positioned at a LaGrange point in space, which closely matches the geometries of the Vesica Piscis – another coincidence between old and new.

**if the reader wishes to look at some of the numerous Egyptian hieroglyphic symbols, the Gardiner’s Sign List is an excellent catalogue. The Shen ring/ cord is V9, one of forty symbols designed to represent ropes, fibres, baskets etc !)

The same familial structures of the gods existed from culture to culture, the same relationships between gods, goddesses and humans over the millennia. Thus the pantheons of Sumer, Egypt and India are comparable with each other, as the extended family and generations of the Anunnaki. China had fewer gods and goddesses, for some reason perhaps of philosophy, although the ones that were prevalent such as FuHsi and Nuwua (or Nakua) bore all the hallmarks of the Anuna; gods who gave of their own essence to create human man and woman, and then introduced them to the arts of civilization.

This section studies some of the beliefs, philosophy and achievements of the Egyptian civilization while focussing predominantly on the key site of Giza, home of the Great Pyramid and the adjoining ones of Khafre and Menkaure, the enigmatic keeper of secrets the Sphinx, and other buildings and structures such as the valley temple, the Sphinx temple, mortuary temple, causeway, satellite pyramids and boat-pits…

The Egyptian philosophy, religion, science/ mathematics, were widely influential throughout the Middle and Near East at that time; so that the Hebrew civilization (curtailed as a physical nation in 70Ad by the loss of Jerusalem to the Roman empire), as well as the Greek civilization which rose to prominence in the 1st millennium Bce owed much to the inner-secrets of the Egyptian astronomers, architects and priests.

In the Bible though, Egypt is mostly depicted in negative terms, as an example – or archetype, or avatar – of human pride in material power and wealth.
It is only when the life-stories of so many of the central ‘fathers’ of the Old Testament are seen to have their foundation or fulfilment in Egypt that some sense of its mysteries can be gleaned.
This finds clear expression in the life stories of some of the most important figures in the Bible in the forefathers of the Hebrew faith, in particular Moses. Moses was brought up within the royal court of the Pharaoh, before obeying God’s order to rebuke the Pharaoh and his magicians, then lead the Hebrews out of captivity to the promised land of Israel. One strange detail of the flight of the Hebrews from Egypt is the gold which Moses tells the Israelites to take from their Egyptian masters the day before fleeing, (Exo12.35-6) considering that theft breaks the Eighth Commandment YHVH gives to Moses (later) on Mount Sinai; ‘thou shalt not steal’. . . although the text says the Egyptians ‘lent unto’ the Hebrews ‘such as they required’, including gold (!), knowing they were going to leave. . . it is all very contradictory. The narrative concerning gold may thus be a metaphor of the stored cosmic (solar) wisdom of the Egyptian religion which has until then furthered the growth of the Hebrews even though in slavery, as personified by Moses. As such, this is a small anomaly. Supporting the metaphorical interpretation of this event is the repeated assertion throughout the Bible, as in Proverbs 2.3/4/5, that; “If thou criest after knowledge, and lifteth up thy voice for understanding; If thou seekest her as silver, and search for her as for hidden treasures; Then shalt thou . . .find the knowledge of God”. Proverbs 3.14/15 likewise states “For the merchandise of it is better than the merchandise of silver…and gold. She (Sophia /wisdom) is more precious than rubies. . .”

This ambiguous narrative concerning Egypt was perhaps born from the (cosmic) consciousness present within the society’s highest expressions, and yet widespread prevalence of slavery or enforced-servitude within Egyptian, and other societies of the 1st and 2nd millennium Bce.
This is reflected similarly in the (sub)- text of the Bible’s depiction of the influence of the Sumerian-related cultures of the Assyrians and Babylonians, who are shown to regularly invade Israel and threaten the survival of the nations of Israel and Judah, as well as lay siege to Israelite towns and cities, and enslave the population. Examples include the Assyrian invasion of the north kingdom of Israel in 854Bce where the Lord ‘stirred up the spirit’ of the kings Pul and Tiglath-Pilneser (1Chron 5.26), taking tribes-peoples into captivity in Assyrian cities including Hala, Habor, and Haran, (the homeland of Abraham, Nahor and family) ‘even unto this day’. A few centuries later the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V overthrew Samaria in 722Bce, after a three year siege (!), taking several tribes into captivity back to Assyria (2Kings 17.5-6). As verse 18 notes, this was in punishment for the Israelites failure to follow YHVH’s statutes and so on, leading to the situation; “The Lord was angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight. None was left but the tribe of Judah only.” Many thousands were taken into captivity by the Assyrians. And incidentally, the bible then states that the Assyrians populated Israel with their own people, (2Kings 17.18) – of significance because the Assyrians were of the ‘celestial’ bloodlines of the Sumerians, as evidenced by their cities such as Nineveh being established with temples dedicated to Ninurta, the Anuna deity of Sumer later associated with Nimrud, the ‘mighty hunter before the Lord’ of Genesis) associated essentially with towns of Mesopotamia at Genesis 10.
Likewise 2Kings18.34 and 17.24 refer to the groups imported into Israel; “And the king of Assyria brought people from Babylon, Cuthath, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the people of Israel. And they took possession of Samaria and lived in its cities” . . .

(The Egyptian capital city of Heliopolis was traditionally named Iunu/ Awen/ Annu – or ‘On’ in the Bible – which may well have stemmed from the Sumerian Anu, meaning the ‘the heavens’…as Orion was later named in Greek Ur-anna, the ‘light of the heavens’. The solar references contained within Awen are found in Hebrew texts such as the Book of Jubilees, in the name of the eldest daughter of Adam and Eve, and Cain’s sister and wife (!) Awan/ Avan/ Aven. Thus indicating the links which existed between the solar genetics of the ‘gods’, with the ‘lines of Cain’ and the ‘mighty men of old’. Something which is confirmed at 2Kings17.31, in which it states the Sepharvaim ‘burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech’, ie the Canaanite deity ‘Molech’… although it is well-known that Mesopotamian religious practices never included human sacrifice, unlike the Canaanite or Syrian religions of the first millennium Bce.

It was the Babylonian invasion in 605Bce of Judah and Israel, by king Nebuchadnezzar II that led to the defeat and exile to Babylon of King Jehoiakim and the elite of Jerusalem in 598, and the destruction of the city in 587Bce, including Solomon’s Temple… and the conjoining of Israelite and Babylonian/ foreign bloodlines by marriage whilst in Babylon; this is acknowledged in the book of Ezra in the Old Testament, as well as in many details of other books of the Bible.
And the narratives of Genesis likewise point to the Sumerian heritage in the city of Haran of figures such as Abraham and his family, the ‘father of nations’, while Jacob is sent back to the homeland of his family – to ‘flee’ the wrath of his brother Esau, and to find a wife, from the extended family still living there rather than from among the Canaanites. In other words pointing to the importance of the Sumerian lineages within the Israelites’ culture; and in conjunction with this theme is that of the significance of the higher levels of Egypt to the founding fathers of Israel – so it is that Abraham, Jacob, Isaac, Joseph, Moses and other patriarchs have extensive connections with either Sumer, Egypt, or both. This from the time of Abraham c.1800Bce, to Moses c.1400 Bce, to David and Solomon at 1000Bce.
That this contact was of primary importance even at the time of Solomon is made clear in 1Kings 3.1; “And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh’s daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem thereabout” – ie. he took the daughter of the Pharaoh as a wife, a fact confirmed at 1Kings 7.8. As the next verses of 1Kings 3 show, Solomon worshipped pagan gods also at this time; “And Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of his father David, only he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places” (1Kings 3.3). So this is the encapsulation of several related themes existing within the Old Testament…

One biblical reference connected to Israel’s ‘debt’ to Egypt is in Acts7.22 which states the Hebrew patriarch and author of the Pentateuch, Moses, was “educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians”, while Hosea11.1 states; “When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt”.

This refers to the time of the Israelites escape from Egypt with Moses; but Matthew the apostle states it to have been a prophecy also, of the time in Jesus’ life as a baby, when his parents fled Herod by going to Egypt, and then returned when it was safe.
But it is possible to interpret Hosea’s further as a tacit admission that Egypt was one of the ‘parents’ of Israel’s civilization, in its formative stages. And Gurdjieff himself stated his understanding that the inner wisdom of Egypt’s religious orders in antiquity was passed to Jesus, and moreover, was influential in the creation of quite a few aspects of the fledgling Christian church; for example in the shape and form of churches, the language and form of prayers etcetera, and religious practices. Gurdjieff said the following, as quoted by Ouspensky in his book ‘In Search of the Miraculous’;

Generally speaking we know very little about Christianity and the form of Christian worship; we know nothing at all of the history and origin of things. For instance, the temple, in which gather the faithful, and in which services are carried out according to special rites. Where was this taken from? Many people think that the outward form of worship, the rites, the singing of canticles and so on, were invented by the fathers of the church. Others think that this outward form has been taken partly from pagan religions and partly from the Hebrews. But all of it is untrue. The Christian church, the Christian form of worship was not invented by the fathers of the church. It was all taken in ready-made form from Egypt, only not from the Egypt we know, but from one which we do not know. This Egypt was in the same place as the other but it existed much earlier. Only small bits of it survived in historical times, and these bits have been preserved in secret, and so well that we do not even know they have been preserved”.

So this judges Egypt not by its lowest standards of autocracy and slavery, but by its highest – by the cosmic consciousness that was the source of inner wisdom traditions in Egypt, as in other nations. And indicates the existence of longstanding esoteric organisation(s) within ancient Egypt that few students of such matters will be surprised by.
Support for this comes from Graham Hancock, in his book ‘The Fingerprints of the Gods’, p192; “Amongst other peoples such as the Romans and the Greeks . . . it was held to be axiomatic that the Pharaohs and their priests were the guardians of accurate records concerning highly significant events that had taken place long ago. Indeed, these records were actually seen and studied at Heliopolis by such distinguished visitors as Herodotus (5th century Bce), the Greek lawmaker Solon (640-560Bce), and his fellow countryman Pythagoras (6th century Bce)… ” The link with Pythagoras is especially interesting considering the mathematic and philosophic influence he had on western civilization through the millennia. The Greek statesman Solon, was said to have accessed the inner orders within Egypt according to the writings of Herodotus, Plutarch, and most famously Plato, who wrote a dialogue between Solon and an Egyptian priest at Neith’s temple at Sais in two of his dialogues, Timaeus and Critias;

Egypt has recorded and kept eternally the wisdom of the old times. The walls of its temples are covered with inscriptions, and the priests have always under their own eyes that divine heritage… The generations continue to transmit to successive generations these sacred things unchanged; songs, dances, rhythms, rituals, music, paintings, all coming from time immemorial when gods governed the earth in the dawn of civilization”. . .

Pretty much a basic theme of this website… And this list neglects the sacred wisdom contained within the ground-plans of sites, the (unknown/ unexplained) technologies involved in their buildings, the ‘conscious’ architecture and geometric proportions of the temples and pyramids; medical therapies, mathematics, alchemy; the possible derivation of small amounts of electricity (for unknown purposes); and the whole cosmology of the heavens and the stars pertaining to both astronomy and the spirit written into their extensive religious myths and practices.
It is possible though that the reason for the Hebrew stance in regard to the stark depictions of Sumer, Assyria, Babylon and Egypt may well have been the shift from the era of the powers of authoritarian rulers to that of every person being considered potentially ‘divine’ –
in what might be termed ‘universalism’ – and of the shift from polytheism to monotheism which the Hebrew religion represented. Also the wish to establish their own religion’s essential identity. This gradual but clear separation from the (Anunnaki-sourced) religions of the earlier millennia may have been considered as optimal, considering the complex, interwoven narratives of the pantheon of the gods, and their descended bloodlines of kings and rulers* (*while these narratives are written into the Bible extensively, only with both positive and negative implications; see the Bible section for more on this). Moreover, it is clear the Anunnaki had a conscious plan to establish civilization across the world for several millennia, and then separate themselves from the material world as humanity grew.
The texts of many cultures reflect the Old Testament Psalms for example, which lament the withdrawal or disappearance of the gods from their world. Sometimes the religious leaders blamed their own ‘lack of righteousness’, but in reality it looks to have been a decided agenda for reasons of discretion, and of humanity’s self-will, or -determination.
So as civilization progressed through the 1st millennium Bce, and the Piscean Age, a new dispensation or world-view arose naturally; this change was symbolized by Jesus, as his words in The Sermon on the Mount foretell; ”Blessed are those who are poor in spirit, who mourn. . . are meek. . . hunger and thirst for righteousness . . . are merciful. . . pure in heart. . . peacemakers. . . persecuted for righteousness sake” . (See G.Strachan, The Bible’s Hidden Cosmology, p146-50 for more on this).
And the Egyptian pharaohs were exemplars of the ‘outward’, Aries-based worldly/ political/ military template of rulership. Judaism and Christianity both heralded a new era of worship for the Creator in the highest dimension Heaven, rather than the pantheon of the ‘gods’ of Egypt, or ‘the sons of God’, as the Anunnaki were viewed in Sumer, Babylon, Assyria and so on.

And as J.G.Bennett notes, the last third of the Age of Aries circa 600 Bce saw the beginning of the changes in human consciousness which mirrored the change in how mankind viewed ‘God’; “ The new idea… arose in China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome about the sixth century Bce, with names such as Lao Tzu, Confucius, Gautama the Buddha, the Mahavira, the Jain, Zoroaster, the Hebrew prophets of the Exile, Solon, Pythagoras and other Greek philosophers, and so on. This extraordinary set of men preached the right of every man to find his own salvation. . . It was implied that the possibility of completion and liberation was inherent in every human soul.” (p.57).

While this was a major step in human history and evolution, the zodiacal era of Aries beforehand from c.2100 Bce to the time of Christ was perhaps a preparatory one for the youngest societies of the historic era. It was also the expression of evolving cosmic energies, being the sign of male, ‘fire’-based energies which created the physical world structures from which further growth then came.

(Taurus was the sign representing the era of 4-2000Bce, in which developments were made to basic agriculture, involving advanced techniques of irrigation and land reclamation. Cities first began to grow in size and complexity during this period, and many building projects were thus begun. The sturdy material nature of Taurus thus oversaw this era’s developments. From 2000 Bce was the era of Aries, and that of heroic rulers and mighty warriors; not only an era of ‘conquest’ and war but also of practical advances in mathematics, writing, engineering and so on. Fittingly three of the main cultures of the period venerated the ram, the symbol of Aries; the Hebrews, Egyptian, and Romans. (see left, a row of carved ram-headed sphinxes, from Karnak Temple, Luxor, built c.1800-1500Bce) As a natural reaction and evolution to the era of Aries, the following Age of Pisces saw the increase of forgiveness, compassion, and the rights of all. Also faith, belief and religion grew in this time-frame).

So every era has its own attributes and characteristics, which continue from the previous epochs consecutively, and connect the turning of the ‘wheels’ of the world (the growth of nations and civilizations) to those of the ‘heavens’ (celestial influences/ the Zodiac). The dodecahedral (twelve-fold) nature of the zodiac, the sexagesimal system, the months of the year, and the hours of the day are a part of these connections between the dimensions. And it was in Sumer from effectively the start that the heavenly beings’ (of the Twelfth Planet) introduced these measures to mankind, the sexagesimal system of 24 hours (making one day 86,400 seconds) being one of the clearest examples; relating time to one of the key measures (or ‘harmonics’) of the solar system, the Sun’s diameter of 864,000 miles.

As an example, the night journey of Gilgamesh (written circa 2700Bce) through the terrors of his attempt to reach the sacred Mt Mashu where he looks to find Utnapishtim (Noah) takes him 12 hours, one by one, as tests and terrors are ascribed to each of the night-journey’s hours. (The Egyptians too had the concept of a sacred mountain, the ‘djew’ which was an image of a universal mountain whose two peaks were said to ‘uphold the sky’. The horns of some deities headwear (as found in Sumerian depictions of the gods) were stylised further sometimes as those of a bull or cow to represent this dual peaked foundation of the world or the cosmos, very often with a sun between them). Some writers have equated this double-horned celestial theme with the ‘outstretched arms’ symbol of Saturn…

(left) Hathor welcoming Seti I into the afterlife, 1300 Bce,
Louvre, Paris. Attribution; Wikimedia, Sailko; Public Domain.

The nature of the night-journey of Gilgamesh is clearly indicated to be cosmic/ higher-dimensional/ spiritual in nature. And this matches exactly the concurrent (or possibly slightly later) Egyptian ritual read to the spirit of the Pharaoh the night of his death, which described the passing of each of the twelve hours as ‘way-stations’ in his journey from the Earth through the Duat on into the afterlife and the heavens. This is in the Egyptian Book of Coming Forth by Day, or The Book of The Dead as sometimes termed, a text dating in early forms from around 2200Bce. By the end of the Old Kingdom circa 2000Bce the Pyramid Texts ceased to be an exclusively royal privilege, and became widely available, as the Coffin Texts throughout the political elite, and the religious orders also. The Book of the Dead first developed in Thebes circa 1700Bce, in the cultic centre of Egypt, and temple complex containing the highest standards of esoteric/ sacred architecture. (See Schwaller de Lubiscz’ works for more on the inner philosophies concerning the human form and ‘alchemy’ of metabolism encoded into the architecture of Thebes). Thus, at that time indicating also the gradual change from serving the gods to self-fulfilment also during these periods.

(left) Details of the Book of Dead, from The Papyrus of Ani. (wikimedia, Public Domain).
From these questions of the tides and currents flowing through the ancient world in the 3rd or 4th millennium Bce, we shall move on to the immediate construction of the incredible complex sited within Egypt at Giza, just a few miles outside of Cairo city; the capital city of Egypt, which has grown over the centuries as a neighbour to where the pyramids were built over 4000 years ago.
If the map of Egypt is studied, the most obvious feature is the path of the Nile, following the main S-N axis of the country in its journey from the highlands of Ethiopia and Southern Egypt down to the flood-plains of the Nile valley as it works its way towards the Mediterranean Sea. The nature of the Nile each year in bringing heavy alluvial deposits of land-enriching silt from the upper reaches used to dictate the rhythms of the year with regard to the growing of crops; state-religion ceremonies celebrated the influx of life-enhancing forces at regular times of the year. The main marker point in the year was the beginning of the New Year near to each summer solstice, signalled by the appearance at dawn (the heliacal rising) of the star Sirius (Sothis) on the eastern horizon in the yearly turning of the stars and sun and planets. This point in the year was also marked by the Inundation, the annual flooding of the river Nile, and this signalled the start of the yearly bringing of fertility to the fields and channels of lower Egypt from its source in the mountain lands of Ethiopia. This correspondence was one of the reasons for the significance accorded to the star. But complex mythologies were attached to the stars too, as Sirius was the star representative of the deity Isis, and the constellation of Orion was the deity Osiris. The myths and legends around these and many other deities held a network of meanings concerned with abstract cosmology as such.

Of the 100 or so pyramids of Egypt virtually all of them are sited on the west bank of the Nile along its lower half, in small ‘fields’ or clusters, showing the river’s practical and symbolic importance to the ancient Egyptians. In religious texts the Nile was compared to the celestial river overhead, the Milky Way, thus the two were seen as connected in essence, as ‘the way of life’. The sun god Ra thus drove his ship across it each day, bringing such energies to the earth and Egypt. The boat-pits – such as the one alongside the Great Pyramid (the largest of the three, named nowadays as that of Khufu, according to convention) – likewise held boats considered to be ‘sky-boats’ or ‘solar barques’, buried at the site to take the spirit of the Pharaoh home to the stars… the wooden-made boat next to the Great Pyramid had been disassembled into 1224 pieces then buried behind double lined rock walls within pits, to protect them historically from disturbance. The barque was reassembled after the pit was discovered in 1954; when opened for the first time in thousands of years the distinctive smell of cedar wood was evident; the cedar tree was held to be sacred throughout the Sumerian, Hebrew and Phoenician cultures, as the Bible and Epic of Gilgamesh both show. One reference of antiquity is to Al-Khidr, the ‘evergreen’; he is a figure linked to Moses in the Quran, as well as elsewhere; and the name does connect to the cedars of Lebanon. For these trees (cedrus libani) are evergreens, as well as producing pine-cones (a symbol within the Tree of Life stelae as we have shall examine shortly). The Cedars of Lebanon are also mentioned numerous times in the Old Testament as being a metaphor for the strength of the heavens; indeed Solomon not only arranges that most of the wood used in the Temple of Jerusalem is cedar wood from Lebanon, but also calls his palace the House of the Forest of Lebanon (!) ; 1King10.17, 2Chron.9.20 – what appears a clear link to the Cedar Forest of the Gods in the Epic of Gilgamesh, located in Lebanon.

Thus there is a long and extensive association in antiquity between these immense trees and their forests in Lebanon, (long since depredated by mankind), with both the gods, and the heavens.

So the many references to the Cedars (of Lebanon) within these works (the journey to the Cedar Forest to fight the Enlil-appointed ‘guardian of the forest’ Humbaba, then later Mt Mashu, mountain of cedar-felling in Tablet IX, where Gilgamesh journeys through the night to reach the ‘gateway to the gods’) connects them to the region of the Lebanon mountain ranges, home to Mt Hermon and Mt Lebanon as well as possibly providing a link therefore to the massive Temple of Baal-Jupiter at Baalbek.
The site of Baalbek incidentally, is considered by Sitchin speculatively as the ‘Landing Place of the Gods’, due to reverence it was held in, plus the immensity of the site, and its design. The entire complex is massive, and houses various edifices in near proximity. But the main Temple is what interests many students of the religions of the Near East in antiquity. And despite the mainstream opinion that the Temple was built by the Romans in the first century Ad or so, some writers believe this to be a mistaken assumption, brought about by the name of Baal-Jupiter that the building was given by historians in antiquity. In other words, just because it is part named after a Roman deity, this does not prove who built it; much as some argue that the Great Pyramid’s origins are to be found long before the reign of the 4th dynasty Pharaoh Khafre, after whom the pyramid is named with only the thinnest of evidence.

And yet there is no extant historical record from antiquity of who exactly built this enigmatic edifice. More puzzling than this are some of the features of this immensely sized building; one section of the temple has three large rectangular dressed blocks of stone weighing around 750-800 tonnes each! More than the weight of a 747 aircraft. Moreover, these have not only been placed on a level 6 or so feet off the ground, but have been brought from a quarry around a kilometre away, somehow.

At the quarry itself are more dressed stones thought to have been prepared for the temple of Jupiter but never moved. These weigh 1000, 1240, and 1650 tonnes each, making them the largest stones ever quarried. Mysteries such as the Trilithon – are close to being inexplicable without positing some form of extra-human consciousness bearing responsibility. . . even the strongest all-terrain crane in operation today, five thousand years later, is at its limit at around 600 tonnes! This subject crops up quite frequently with regard to Egyptian edifice-building, where pyramids and temples such as The Sphinx Temple at Giza have stone blocks weighing up to 200 tonnes within their structures. Whatever the source of the ability to achieve this was, it is one indication of the incredible sophistication of the builders of the pyramids; other signposts to this come from the siting of Giza within both the world, and Egypt.

With regard to the geography of Egypt and the pyramids, the shape of the Nile and its delta, where the river branches outwards in a fan-shape in to a delta-region of small rivers and marshes, has itself been viewed as holding meaning within a metaphor; the shape of the Nile was compared in its overall shape to that of a Lotus plant, which grow along the edges of the river;

The metaphor proposed of the Egyptian lotus-plant was as follows; the roots of the plant lay in the muddy earth of the Nile estuary. Then it grew through the water; next through the air where it flowered; and then finally seeking (the ‘fire’/ heat of) the sun… thus clearly a metaphor for the material to energetic divisions of reality (earth – water – air – fire), as well as the growth of genuine self, or spirit, toward the higher dimensions. . . from the low to the high.
And while the metaphor of the Lotus held meaning, a different concept was suggested from the shape of the Nile; that of the human body, ie. the spine (or brainstem), and head (or brain). When this was first proposed is not certain, possibly through the concepts of freemasonry in Europe in the 18/19th centuries – but it is well known that the designers/builders of pharaonic Egypt did base their cities/ temples’ alignments with celestial geometries in mind ie. viewed the earth as a (tessellated) board upon which heavenly points could be placed/ mirrored. So the Nile was a mirror of the ‘celestial river’, the line of the disc of the ecliptic of the Milky Way through the night sky. Accordingly it is proposed, the three pyramids of Giza were terrestrial mirrors of the three stars of Orion’s Belt, within the wider constellation, the Sphinx a symbol of the constellation of Leo, and so on.

As can be seen from the figures above, Giza and the pyramids are located precisely at the point on the ‘neck’ where head and body meet…
And there is some support for the body/ head analogy, in that Giza is placed precisely at the mid-point between the two spheres of matter and energy; at the neck-point, called in medical terms the Occiput, or in Tai Chi the Occipital Gate. This point is crucial in human physiology and esotericism for precisely this reason; and its name reflects the cos# nature of the location; the octave embodies the conjunction of energy with matter, or the process of the doubling or halving of vibrational frequencies of energies within matter. Appropriately, the number eight occupies the midpoint between the heavens (12) and earth (4) – as the octagon has been used in architecture to conjoin the dome (representing the sphere of the heavens) and the square (the material earth), at St Paul’s Cathedral for one, the Islamic Dome on the Rock mosque at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem for another. (With the latter being one of the most important religious sites in the world).
Etymologically, there is good reason to believe the words for oak, axis, octave, ox, and so on stem from the original meaning of World-Tree, or heaven-earth axis. Even Latin ‘oss’ may have come from Hebrew words linked to bone, such as ‘osem‘ (or variations) meaning strength, or foundation; linking to Shechem in the Bible, as we have seen. Thus the basis of the cognate group appears to be of a conceptual and highly significant nature. That oak trees were a metaphor for the same World Tree concept is clear from the number of biblical passages where an angel appears at the site of an oak; such as Beersheba, the Well of Seven, a higher dimensional gateway or axis (see the Bible section on Jacob’s Ladder and sacred sites for more on this).

And in confirmation of this point regarding the Well of Seven, the previous name for the site was ‘Luz’, meaning neck point, or bone, or shoulder; mentioned twice at different places. When the inner-meaning is considered of the ladder between heaven and earth which Jacob sees at Luz/ the Well of Seven, the metaphor of the World Tree, or Axis Mundi mirrors the role of the spine within the human body likewise, (along which are placed the seven chakras (from PIE keklos, circle) or energy-centres, from crown of the head to the bottom of the spine – each chakra may be compared to a string of an instrument tuned to a particular frequency – making the working of all seven able to receive – and play – all notes from a complete octave of the ‘tonal vibrations’ of the cosmos, and as such the human body to contain all cosmic energies. As can be seen from the figure below, the chakras are not located upon the spine – or the front of the body, but are linked to the spine).

In further support of this perspective of the importance of the neck-point the Qur’an states; “Each man’s fate have we tied around his neck”; a statement which contains many possible interpretations but is still of interest in highlighting meanings linked with the (often overlooked) spine and the neck.
(Also in the mention of ‘fate’ the level of Fa (fatae) in the octave of the Ray of Creation is indicated. The interval between mi and fa – or between Earth and the Planets – is the crucial place on the Octave where energy is unable to progress further higher without a conscious effort; in the Ray, Gurdjieff and Ouspensky stated that the gap was bridged originally by the creation of Organic Life, as a mid-point between the two levels fully able to bridge the vibrational interval and produce the energies of the requisite sensitivity. This places the ‘health’, or quality of the vibrations produced by Nature, and by mankind, at the centre of the ‘growing’ octave of the Ray, at least for the level up to the solar system – how a change in the energies produced might affect the galaxy we live in is unclear. But as Gurdjieff often stated, mankind cannot survive or evolve without regard to Nature – the ties between the two are too innate and essential to be otherwise).
Ouspensky also quoted Gurdjieff as likewise stating the importance of this point of the body to ‘esoteric science’, as a place where the material and energetic bodies are conjoined, at the point of the neck-bone. (See ‘In Search of the Miraculous’ by Ouspensky). Effectively at the back of the neck at the point termed the ‘Occipital gate’ in Chinese TCMA.

And from antiquity indeed, as we have already seen in the Sumerian/ Assyrian stelae; is the widespread image of the Tree of Life, shown below (examined in the Sumer and Bible sections) in which on both sides of the stela a deity/ cosmic-being Shamash/’apkallu’ (?) is inserting a ‘Pine-cone’ (phi-pattern?) symbol (in what may be called a tetractys or pyramid shape) into a man’s neck / occiput, towards the pineal gland located at the centre/ rear of the head. This is said to be the ‘parietal eye’; or the ‘third eye’ in eastern mythology, and is called the ‘seat of the soul’ by the 17th century French philosopher Rene Descartes – and did indeed get its name in the 18th century from its resemblance to a pine-cone…

(above) The seven chakras of the body (Wikimedia).
(left) diagram of the head/ brain included in Schwaller de Lubizc’s work The Temple in Man, 1949.

We have already seen the considerable number of words related to the stems of ox/ octave/ occiput/ axis/ oak/ oss (bone) in Akkadian, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, PIE, and all European languages evolved from the roots. All senses of the words are concerned with strength, foundation, world-tree/ axial points between the heavens and the earth, and so on. . .
This multi-levelled symbolism is reflective of the cosmic consciousness which created such rich metaphors as the Tree of Life tableau. And as we see in the Vesica Piscis section, the Tree of Life itself is actually the same as a table of the mathematical relationships between the fractal inner patterns of triangles within the central region of the vesica – ie. the Tree of Life describes geometric harmonic relationships within its central area – the ‘Way of Life’. Something we shall see later is reproduced accurately in the inner structure of the Great Pyramid too. . !

Tree of Life stela, from Assyria, c.850Bce. British Museum. Cos# contributor. Note similarity between the head dress ‘band’ of the man to the brain-stem of the figure above ; a symbolic reference perhaps, therefore, again placing the point of intervention directly at the occiput and neck.

The pineal gland is no. 9 in the diagram, just to the rear of the point where the brainstem fully enters the brain.
The pineal gland is the only part of the brain which receives blood supply directly, being outside of the blood-brain barrier, while it is also sited between the two hemispheres of the brain. The gland has been called the ‘third eye’, stemming from pineal glands in man and also many mammals and reptiles developing originally from photo-receptive cells. This sensitivity to light is related to the gland’s functions including the production of melatonin, a serotonin relative which modulates sleep patterns, and is connected with the regulation of circadian rhythms.

It was considered by Descartes to be the ‘gateway’ in the body to the higher dimensions of the heavens, leading him to call it the ‘seat of the soul’; an understanding rooted in antiquity in the writings of people such as Galen in the 2nd century Ad. These make clear the significance of the Sumerian Tree of Life stela, which was depicted through all the civilizations following on from Sumer, when it was first depicted circa 2400 Bce at least. Making it one of the most significant and widely repeated images of the ancient world. The example below is from a British Museum gallery showing Assyrian stelae dating from around the 9th century Bce. Both figures at each side are celestial beings, as indicated by their headwear, and other symbols.

⇦ close-up of ‘Apkallu’ winged deity of Assyrian version of the Tree of Life tableau with pine-cone. Concomitant with Anuna placing the pinecone in the human’s neck were versions of eagle-headed ‘human’ with wings, still regarded as ‘apkallu’, with more emphasis on their ‘celestial’ being…

This concept of a central point in material reality through which the creative energies flow is parallel to the Hindu and Buddhist concepts of the ‘bindu point’ – on the human body located at the back of the head; it is said to be the point around which the energies of the cosmos form, like a pearl effectively. The Bindu point is said to be the central point of the mandala, the geometric configuration of symbols (which combine the circle and the square) symbolic of reality. . .

(left) Manjuvajra Mandala, from Tibet, c.1400-1500 Ad. PD

Two further facts about the siting of Giza can be added in respect of the geographic and geometric awareness of the builders of Giza – firstly is that if the map of the continents of the globe is examined, it can be seen that if a three-lined broadly hexagonal division (as of the cube) is made, (or alternatively as a central axis with two crossing sine-waves) Giza is at the centre of the landmasses of the earth.* No other site on earth has as central a position, as this basic image from ‘Calcmaps’ on Google centred at Giza shows. . .

This point is mentioned by Graham Hancock in his writings, and in greater detail by Colin Wilson, in his book ‘The Atlantis Blueprint’. Wilson and his co-author took the geometric point further by examining significant sites around the globe compared to the Longitude of Giza (at 31.13° East); in effect replacing the role of Greenwich as the Prime Meridian with that of the longitude of Giza.

Having done so, a welter of ‘sacred’ sites across the world stood out as being in geometric relation to Giza/ the Prime Meridian. Wilson maintains that this point, and line of longitude at Giza is something which is therefore central to the world and its energy fields, even bearing in mind the existence of numerous other sites of the highest (inter-dimensional) energies such as Jerusalem, Lhasa, Mecca, Angkor Wat, Glastonbury, Teotihuacan, Ollantaytambo, Machu Piccu and so on.
As we shall see later on, this geometry is not coincidental, but stems from the nature of the three axes of the cube, as they form a hexagon; and this cubic geometry is reflected in many sacred sites and buildings, and in sacred architecture and art.

*SIDE-BAR; Jared Diamond makes a good argument that one of the foremost reasons for Middle Eastern then European advances in ‘civilization were made because of the broad orientation of the Asiatic/European continent along the axis of west-east, (which is broadly along the axis of the 30th parallel); as the key seven or eight domesticated/able crops of the 8 or 9th millennium Bce which arose within the Fertile Crescent (located in a semi-circle just north and east of the centre-point of Giza on the map above) spread through the settlements of mankind in that era, the valuable crops – wheat, emmer, barley, rye etc – were able to be exported to essentially identical types of ecological environment at similar latitudes across 3000 miles of land. For where the climate, and patterns of weather through the year were similar, the crops were able to survive, and then thrive. . . in areas of different latitude, where the weather patterns, seasons, soil-types and micro-climates differed significantly, such gradual crop-transference was made difficult.
The example given is the spread of crops such as the squash, potato, corn and tomatoes of South America. Being largely vertical, a distance of 600 miles between say, Guatemala and Mexico could make exporting crops from region to region impossible, due to vastly different environments, growing seasons, and so forth. A six hundred mile change in latitude can see a move from equatorial tropical jungle to arid desertified scrubland, and so on. Additionally the crops of South America mentioned did not include legumes such as lentils or chick-peas, a dietary necessity for wheat-based diets to enable optimal nutritional derivation and thus health. As societies in South America were unable to grow imported crops or diffuse their own established staples throughout the continent with such speed as in Asia and Europe; and throughout history, all advances of civilization have rested upon a surplus of agriculturally grown crops, which could feed a growing population, and encourage the division of labour within the society.
(And indeed, not only are the four major civilizations of antiquity – Sumer, Egypt, India and China – all part of the continent of Asia and on broadly the same lines of latitude 20-35 degrees north of the Equator; but all the major religions of the world in the past 2000 years have arisen within the same broad zone – namely Buddhism (India/ Eastern Asia), Judaism (Israel), Christianity (Israel/ Asia minor/ Europe), Islam (western Asia/ Middle East) and Hindu/ Sikh/ Jainite religions (India).
This is simply to highlight the uniquely central and significant situation of the site of Giza, (and thus too, the potential consciousness of the builders who placed it there) – and potentially also the geometric nature of (cosmic) energy diffusal throughout the world.

So, to the complex of major, and satellite pyramids, temples, dressed causeways reaching down to the Nile, monumental statuary such as the Sphinx, and so on, that in toto constitute the site called Giza.

The oldest part of all the complex, barring ancient mastabas of burial chambers carved into the walls of surrounding hills, is very likely the two hundred foot long Sphinx, carved from the bedrock, so that it is based in its own compound with 30 feet high walls around it.
Especially as the antiquity of the Sphinx – based upon geological weathering (vertical erosions) of the stonework surfaces of the figure – would appear to date so many millennia back before the pyramids of Giza that it is theorised that the micro-climate when it was made was a temperate, rainy, fertile green-zone. ie virtually c.7000 Bce at the least. The pyramids dating from around 3500-2500 Bce in the estimated time-span of the civilizations which saw the dynasties of the Pharaohs.

The three pyramids of Giza – from smallest to largest are the Pyramids of Menkaure – Khafre – Khufu, arrayed in a diagonal manner, as shown;

Throughout the excavations of the history through to those of the archaeologists in the 1920s, few theories were proposed for the pattern of the complex. But in 1994 two English researchers, Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert published ‘The Orion Mystery’ in which they connected the Egyptian reverence for Isis and Osiris to the constellations of Sirius and Orion; and using computer programs estimated that the shafts built pointing skywards from inside the King’s and Queen’s Chambers were aligned at the time of building to these two ‘key’ points of the celestial sphere; thus acting as a kind of ‘star-clock’ to indicate the time of design and construction when both constellations occupied the correct position in the heavens on the Spring Equinox. This is in keeping with the broad outlines of ‘archeoastronomy’, as conceptualized by early proponents such as Sir Norman Lockyer, around 1900. (With some aptness Lockyer actually discovered and named the element Helium in 1868, after hydrogen the second lightest and most abundant element in the universe, and central to the nuclear processes at the heart of the sun).

Foremost in their arguments was the shape of Orion’s Belt – the central 3 stars – seen to be sloping on a diagonal 45° bearing, or thereabouts. In particular, the alignment of smallest of the 3 stars – Mintaka – matches the slightly off-set alignment of the smallest pyramid – Menkaure…

Orion’s Pattern compared to the three Pyramids of Giza/ Orion, ‘the great hunter’/ Orion with ‘sword’ ‘hanging from the belt’, an area containing ‘star-making’ nebulae.
And it may well be that Orion’s ‘central’ position upon the Celestial Equator, as well as the line of the Milky Way, may be said to be a point of great significance, as we shall examine later.

The theory of the pyramids’ alignment with that of Orion in the 1990’s caused a considerable degree of uproar at the time in both mainstream literature, and Egyptology circles, and led to BBC documentaries, accusations of inaccuracy, counter-accusations of injustice, and so on; Bauval, Gilbert and supporters were labelled by some academics as pseudo-science or dismissed as unacademic archeoastronomy, primarily because the position of the constellation in the sky has to be turned upside down for Mintaka to match the position of Menkaure’s pyramid at bottom-left. Nevertheless, there was much support for the new theories which came to prominence in the 90’s. And considering the associations between Orion and the Great Pyramid which indicate a significance existed to the pyramid builders, this correlation should not be rejected out of hand for what may after all turn out to be an insignificant detail.

(left) Orion on the celestial equator beside the Milky Way.

As we shall see later in more detail, Orion and the Great Pyramid are both closely connected to the (hexagonal) inner-geometries of the Vesica Piscis, itself a central symbol within cosmic number and sacred geometry, being concerned with the square root of 3/ 2 ie 1.732/ 2 = 0.866 along the vertical axis of the central area. Thus connecting these hexagonal geometries to the measures of the sun (c.864,000 miles in diameter), and time (86,400 seconds per day) etcetera which are centred around the value of 864. Any temples or edifices built upon these proportions in some way are therefore much more naturally aligned with the frequencies of the energies of light; something clearly intended by the designers of the best examples of sacred architecture. An excellent example is the basis of the Ad Triangulum geometries of the vesica which were used by the architects of Gothic cathedrals and monasteries in the 12-14th centuries. One line of transmission, as we examine in the Vesica section, was through the organisation linked to the influential Bernard of Clairvaux – the Poor Knights of the Temple of Jerusalem (better known as the Templars) when in Jerusalem as part of the crusader’s armies from 1120 Ad. This consciousness was clearly obtained from Arabic/ Islamic points of contact, which themselves preserved the wisdom of antiquity from the Egyptian, Babylonian, Greek and Roman civilizations.

And as Gilbert mentions in Signs in the Sky p.108 with regard to obelisks, the latitude of Giza at 30° N means that when the sun is directly over the equator ie at 90°, it is therefore at an angle at Giza of 60°; “What this means is that at the equinox the length of the noon shadow and the height of the obelisk (at that latitude) casting it form a precise geometrical relationship of 1: √3”. Moreover, as the diagrams beneath show, the vesica symmetries are faithfully reproduced by the Great Pyramid.

It is a matter of conjecture to link the ‘geometries’ of the shape of Orion to those of the Vesica and the Pyramid. . .but if allowance is made for the elongated shape of the double triangle of Orion, with accompanying ‘inner-triangles’, some similarity may be discerned.
The constellation’s symbolic significance is also indicated by the centrality of Osiris, the deity representative of Orion, to the Egyptian religion of antiquity.

In Gilbert’s book he notes the mythical associations Orion possessed in Greek, Hebrew and Egyptian myths. Describing the parallel nature between Samson and the Near Eastern myth of Abraham standing bound between to pillars in his home city of Edessa, Gilbert equates the symbolism of these stories to the constellation of Orion in antiquity; meaning in other words these aspects of the narrative reveal some connection to the nature of Orion. . .

What is important about this biblical myth (Samson) is that its central figure is the Hebrew version of an archetype which is also identifiable in the Greek myths as Orion; (both ) …were considered to be invincible until (they) fell under the spell of a woman – in his case, Merope. He too was blinded, but unlike Samson his sight was restored. Later out hunting, Orion was accidentally slain by Artemis, the moon goddess; he was then turned into a constellation, forever hunting the wild bull, Taurus, followed by his faithful dogs, Canis major and Canis minor”.
In their brilliant essay Hamlet’s Mill, Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend recognized both the stories of Orion and Samson were meant to be understood as stellar myths. They also identified King Nimrod, who is described in the Bible as ‘a mighty hunter before the Lord’ as another manifestation of the same Orion archetype, indicating that this constellation was an important cultural element in Mesopotamian mythology, as it was in the Egyptian and Greek
“ (p.87-9).

As the Bible section examines, this description of Nimrod is not only a stellar symbol; as a ‘great hunter before the Lord’ it links him to Ninurta, the Sumerian deity called ‘the Wild Bull of Heaven’ or similar in various myths, as well as to bloodlines of the Nephilim, described in Genesis 6.1.-4 as ‘mighty men . . . men of renown’. Nimrod is closely associated with them in passages such as the building of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 10 /11), despite being the great-grandson of Noah.

And as we shall see later, the Bible holds other phrases which may be referring to Orion; for example, the Lord placed at the ‘gate to the east of the garden of Eden’ a ‘flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life” (Genesis 3.24). As any astronomer or watcher of the night skies can confirm, the ‘sword’ of Orion during the night turns a quarter circle clockwise so that between the small hours and daybreak it moves from pointing horizontally to vertically. Incidentally, 360/ 32.4 = 11.1111, a cosmic-number value of relevance to both Orion and the Great Pyramid.

The theme of a person or deity holding two pillars is very widely encountered throughout Egyptian and Mesopotamian artwork and mythology, and appears in the Hebrew Bible too; in Genesis 35.14-15 Jacob sets up a pillar of stone to mark where God spoke to him; ‘And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone; and he poured. . . oil thereon. And Jacob called the name of the place where God spoke with him Bethel’.
As noted already, this passage depicts the entire history of building temples at sacred places, inter-dimensional ‘gateways’ or omphalos-points from where higher (cosmic) energies flow. Many links exist to ‘pylons’ or ‘obelisks’ in Egyptian symbology. Fine examples of such ‘ornamental’ gateways can be found at Karnak, Luxor, and Edfu, all temples assessed by many to be among the best instances of Egyptian ‘sacred architecture’. As gates-, or gateways, one potential reference to such symbolism exists within the (inexplicable) story of Samson when he ‘picks up the city gate posts/arch of Gaza (in Judges16.3) to carry to the top of a hill in Hebron, to aggravate the Philistines! (While in the next verse 16.4 meeting Delilah, the woman who betrays him to captivity, blindness and death).
Adrian Gilbert notes the common myth in northern Mesopotamian religions of Abraham being tied between two pillars, much like Samson in the temple of the Philistines. Cities such as Edessa/Urfu (perhaps from Ur of the Chaldees), which had long traditions of ‘worshipping’ Orion as divine, had a pair of pillars built into the cliff-face overlooking the town; possibly as a means of conducting astronomical observations as well as for symbolic reasons concerning sovereignty. He also notes that in antiquity the Vesica Piscis was often associated with the Virgin Mary (possibly due to the centre-area of the symbol resembling the female yoni. . .) in this way relating names linked with Mary to both the Vesica and Orion.
Relevantly Maris meant ‘sea’ in Roman and other civilizations of antiquity; likewise the older sister of Moses named Miriam, whose name is considered to mean ‘bitter waters’, or ‘waters of strength’, (as well as her name being linked to Egyptian roots by many for related reasons). Orion was undone by his desire for Merope, a water-nymph, in Greek mythology too. In all this female linked meaning may be conjectured to be a possible source for the name of the Orion-related god Marilaha in northern Mesopotamia, a religious strand we will shortly examine, connecting as it does to the central area of the Vesica, and Orion. And a check of the etymological dictionaries shows that the association of ‘mer-‘ words to the sea dates back all the way to the Proto-Indo-European language, in which the word ‘mori’ was used to refer to any ‘body of water’ ie marine-related, after which Latin used ‘marinus’ in the same sense. Proto-Indo-European language is believed to be the origin of many languages, including virtually all those of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and northern India, dating back to the period 4500-2500Bce according to the best estimate of linguistic experts. Even Sanskrit itself, the sacred language of the Hindu religious classics of the era of the Bhagavad-Gita and the Mahabharata, is believed to have its roots in the earlier language.

There are some indications that Orion was not only worshipped as a god – in the form of Osiris – in ancient Egypt. In his section on religions in northern Mesopotamia/ southern Turkey/ Syria, Adrian Gilbert shows that in the area of Harran, birthplace of Abraham and where Jacob was travelling to when he was spoken to by God, a theology existed which worshipped ‘Mari (lord) of his dogs’;(ie Orion, and Canis major and minor) and this was widespread throughout the region up until the 6th century. Indeed, this entire area, in particular Edessa, was the homeland of the Sabeans, who were instrumental in protecting the Corpus Hermeticum and other gnostic and hermetic texts until the 11th century at Harran. Edessa was the home after 363Ad of the ‘School of the Persians’, when the Christian Armenians or Syrians (Aisors) were relocated to the area from Nisibis when taken over by the Persians; this school was likewise a repository of Egyptian and Gnostic wisdom, and was an important source for the transmission of wisdom between East and West, quite appropriately considering the northern Mesopotamian/ eastern Turkish site lay on one of the major trade routes between India, Iran, and the West; Edessa was actually a leading world-centre of learning, having texts concerned with astronomy, mathematics, alchemy and medicine to name the foremost subjects. These were preserved through the 1st millennium Ad and were one of the ways
in which the wisdom of antiquity was passed on to the Arabic world, and hence to the western world between 900 and 1500 Ad.

The significance of Haran in this sense is shown in the uses of the word in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. This is particularly important in the conceptual ‘tri-partite division’ of the world, as noted by various academics*, between Anu, the ‘father of the heavens’, and his two sons Enlil (the ‘Lord of Command’ of the Earth), and Enki (the ‘Lord of the Apsu’, or ‘subterranean waters) *(for example, from Aino Hatinen’s 2021 book ‘The Moon God Sin’…p.136, citing Galter1983).
Concomitantly the night-skies were divided into three ‘Ways’, or ‘bands’ (‘harranu’) in works such as Old Babylonian astronomical treatises of the stars. Also found in various Babylonian prayers, as well as works of astrology, the ‘Ways’ were those of Enlil – Anu – Enki, respectively; from the North Pole > c.17°N / from 17°N >17°S / and from c.17°S > the southern Pole.
It is of significance therefore that in Genesis28.10-19 the Hebrew patriarch Jacob is told by his mother to travel to Haran, an area of northern Mesopotamia linking the family of Abraham to the Akkadians as well as ‘Ur of the Chaldees’ (itself stated to be the birthplace of Abram and his wife Sarai) to go to the family of her father, Bethuel – to find a wife from their Sumerian/ Semitic/ Hebrew lineages arising there after the Deluge (Gen11.1-10). Bethuel means ‘the house of God’, while as we have seen, Haran the town means ‘the road’ or ‘crossroad’, and is linked to the Babylonian ‘haranu’.

Many of the myths of the region around Edessa and Nisibis connected Abraham to their religious reverence for the ‘deity’ of Orion, for some reason. Not only that but they regularly sent groups on pilgrimage to re-connect with the ancient wisdom traditions of Egypt;
These northern Mesopotamians had a similar veneration for that same constellation as being connected with their own god, Marilaha. Since Abraham was believed to come from these parts, it is scarcely surprising that aspects of the ancient Orion religion remain attached to his legends, albeit in disguised form. With the advent of Christianity. . .the belief that the God of Abraham was somehow uniquely connected with Orion was driven underground. However, knowledge concerning Orion continued to be part of the secret teachings of the Sabians of Harran, even up to the 13th century. They also preserved the Hermetica, the writings of Hermes Trismegistus or Thoth, (a source text for Gnostic Christian sects) whom they considered to be the same personage as the biblical Enoch.. This explains why they made regular pilgrimages to Egypt. . .and suggests they knew all about the Orion connection”.
“It seems likely that this ‘lord’ – Marilaha – was the constellation of Orion the Hunter, and that he is to be identified with Marilaha of Edessa (Ur). Thus as in Egypt with the worship of Osiris, Orion would have been seen in the same way, to represent God in stellar form… Throughout the region (of Harran, Nisibis and Urfa) Marilaha, also known as Be’elshamin, or ‘Lord of the heavens’ was worshipped as the supreme god with a status above the planets. His symbol in the sky, or perhaps the place where his heaven was thought to be located, seems to have been the Orion constellation
” (p.90-1).
This conclusion ties in quite neatly with the idea that the ‘star-shafts’ may have been oriented to places in the constellations of stars where the deceased Pharaoh’s soul needed to be guided towards, to find admission to the afterlife. It may well be that the Egyptians – or the sources of Egyptian wisdom – believed Orion (‘upon the Way of Life’) to be the gateway to the heavens. What other abstract reasons may exist for signifying Orion in this way remain unclear…

Along with being related to the ‘waters’ in some (esoteric) way perhaps meaning the Vesica, another relevant point is that the various names of Orion in the civilizations of antiquity (particularly the root of the name ‘Or-’ or ‘Ur-’ in Egyptian, Sumerian, Hebrew and Greek languages) related it to the ‘light of the heavens’, and to the ‘gold’ of light or sunlight. . . from which come further words centred around concepts of organic, organ, organisation, originate, arising, orchestra, orientation; all pertaining to the harmonious and inter-dependent processes of metabolism in any living organism – including in this definition the ‘living’ or interactional systems of energy within the ‘Creation’ such as the Solar System, the galaxy – within which we are located on the Orion arm – and so on. In the Bible Isaiah uses the Hebrew word ‘Or’ to describe God’s light in opposition to the darkness of the heavens in space. Where the Hebrews gained this word from is unclear; but Ur meant the light of the heavens in Sumerian languages; while words relating to the ‘gold’ of sunlight have similar roots leading back to PIE; for example ‘ore’ where the cognate was the PIE ‘aus’ meaning gold, connected to the Latin ‘aureate’, Low German ‘ur’ being ‘iron-containing ore’, Old English ‘ar’ brass/copper/bronze, and so on. Latin ‘oriri’ meaning arising (such as the Sun, as well as ‘origin’) likewise stems from the related PIE root ‘heri-’; indeed, the word ‘earth’ itself has roots which stretch back to the PIE root of ‘er’, meaning earth or ground. As mentioned elsewhere, Ur-aeus itself stems probably from related words meaning the light of the heavens, as does Orion/ Ur-annu.

(One point is that while the research on PIE is incredibly valuable and informative, research on the etymology of words that can be traced back to the (Semitic) languages of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon and Assyria, can be far less easy to find).
All this said, if the Great Pyramid and Giza have fulfilled a role since antiquity in refining the earth’s energies (among other such sites), then it is fair to say this function will be essentially connected to the wavelengths, or frequencies, of sunlight.

This section will look at how the inner construction, and geometric design of the foremost of the pyramids highlight some of the stated ideas and concepts of cosmic #. This of course is the largest of the three pyramids, considered to have been built by the pharaoh Khufu c.2600Bc – the ‘Great Pyramid’.

(left) The Great Pyramid of ‘Khafre’ viewed from the Valley Temple of Khafre. Photo from Brooklyn Museum. PD. Note the massive size of the blocks of the temple, which weigh from between 20 to 100 tonnes …

Firstly, the siting of the overall Giza complex of the three pyramids is arranged on a diagonal line from NE to SW, with the pyramids faces oriented to the exact points of the compass, with the Sphinx looking directly East, along the 30th Parallel. So there is a variance in the Great Pyramid of approximately just one-twentieth of a degree from true North. Whether this accuracy came from measurements from gnomons on the summer and winter solstices, and the spring and autumn equinoxes, or alternatively through close observations of the Northern star, Polaris is not clear.
As the diagram shows, there are three satellite pyramids by both those of Khufu and Menkaure, making nine in total, three major and six minor.
This arrangement can have super-imposed upon it a square and a circle, within which the pyramids fit neatly, with the satellite pyramids and Sphinx being located precisely on the two circles.

Diagram reproduced from online book ‘The Great Pyramid of Giza’ by E.Schmidt.

While it is unclear how accurate the placings of the various edifices of Giza in this diagram are, if it is broadly accurate then some idea of the overall geometric harmony of the site can be appreciated. Similarly the angles between the three satellite pyramids to the lower left, and upper right appear to incorporate one of the values of Phi between D to C ie the shorter length of .6181 + .3819 = 1, while F to A = 45°. Also the inner square around the edges of the pyramids is equalled by a circle which passes through the satellite pyramids, while the outer square which touches the corners of the end-most satellite pyramids is equalled by the circle which passes through the centre of the body of the Sphinx. It would be interesting to know whether the lay-out of the complex in reality fulfils these relationships; if so then some degree of intention would be surely indicated.

The Sphinx with a pyramid in the background, drawn by Philip Schaff in 1878; ‘Through the Bible Lands’. Wikimedia. Public Domain (below) the ‘Dream’ stela, between the paws of the Sphinx, believed to date from Thuthmose IV reign, in the 18th Dynasty, circa 1401Bce.

Although not too clear in the engraving, the Sphinx is cut from the bedrock it is made of, surrounding it on three sides, in a long rectangular shaped enclosure.

After millennia of neglect the Sphinx was uncovered properly of sand, rock and rubble between 1817 and 1887 by various interested Egyptologists. It is 66 feet in height, and 240 feet long, and gazes directly East, oriented to the point on the horizon where the sun rises on the spring equinox.
As can be deduced by the physical appearance of the Sphinx and its enclosure, it is far older than any of the other monuments at Giza; evidence of rain-erosion on the rock faces there was first proposed by the French writer Schwaller de Lubicz in the 1950’s and then in the 1970’s by the American John Anthony West (and later Robert Schoch), to indicate the Sphinx dates back to when Egypt was a land with a climate of rain and resulting extensive vegetation; so that it only gradually became arid desertified land from the 5th millennium Bce, or thereabouts. This places the Sphinx at a date long before the complex was built; researchers such as Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval speculate that it was a symbol of universal consciousness created at Giza by a group of highly conscious individuals to mark where the (eventual) site of the pyramids would be built, a theory in keeping with the esoteric and allegorical writings of Gurdjieff. As the Sphinx was created within its own enclosure with surrounding walls up to thirty feet high, and was effectively buried in the sands up to its head until the 19th century, it may be conjectured as follows; if the Sphinx was a work of ‘objective art’ (as defined by Gurdjieff) created to pass on information to future generations, then as it was probably built well before the 3rd millennia Bce, as degradation of its surfaces indicates, the builders may have designed the ‘walls’ around it precisely for the purpose of protecting the majority of its body from the ravages of time by burying it in the sand. There is certainly no other man made object on earth which can be dated back over 8,000 years or so, and still be recognised as a work of art. . . this might all appear to be fanciful theory, were it not for the fact that the Sphinx of Giza has a greater wealth of mythology attached to it than any object on earth, linking it to some of the oldest, cosmic-wisdom traditions and religious groups within human history – and stretching back as it does completely into the mists of time.

The Sphinx looks East, as mentioned, oriented to a high degree of precision, this time towards where the sun rises on the horizon on the vernal (spring) equinox. As this website has shown, the etymology of Sphinx is related to that of the sine-wave, and sinew /ligature, etc, in their role as coiling, binding ties, or lines-of-force which turn around a central axis. Likewise it has meanings associated with ‘coiling around’, or of ‘squeezing’, as the body has examples of, and the word ‘asphyxiate’ attests. To consider the gaze of the Sphinx along the 30th Parallel which wraps around the world is to see its gaze as delineating an energy-line which ‘squeezes’ around the earth. Exactly as depictions in Egypt and Greece showed the Ouroboros doing. Thus the epithet of the serpent which steals the Plant of Life in Gilgamesh is the ‘lion of the ground’; something several writers have likewise called the Sphinx. Similarly, the (energy)line the Sphinx looks along eastwards towards the rising sun is indicative of what are ‘dragon lines’ (lung mei), or ‘serpent-lines’ in the words of antiquity.
This meaning may explain the connection between Pi (3.1415) and references to the serpent in the Bible, as at Genesis/ John 3.14-15, an encoding among others which the Bible section examines in more depth. In keeping with this geometric understanding of the Sphinx, which is quite separate to the astronomical meanings linking it to the constellation of Leo, (which some archeo-astronomers have argued may point to when the Sphinx was created, circa 10,800Bce), it is a possibility that the first letters of its name, the ‘sph-’ stem connects it to the early roots for words such as ‘sphere’. This may be linked to PIE origins, whereby spiral was ‘sper-ya’. Similarly, according to linguists, PIE ‘*sker’ meant ‘to turn or bend’, from which words like circle arose.

As would be expected, forms of the Sphinx were widely spread throughout Egypt, and the ancient world (or saw repeated variations of lion/ human/ winged hybrids). Some of the best examples of sphinxes are to be seen at Thebes and at Karnak, as mentioned two of the most sophisticated architectural sites of ancient Egypt. That said, the author Robert Temple has proposed an excellent theory that the damage to the face and head of the Sphinx is partly the result of structural damage in antiquity; put simply, the original Sphinx was a representation of the deity Anubis*, in the form of a jackal sat on its stomach looking forwards *(whose epithets as the ‘Lord of the Underworld’ who ushered souls into eternity, included; ‘Lord of the Sacred Land’, He who is upon his Sacred Mountain’, ‘Ruler of the Nine Bows’, ‘The Dog who Swallows Millions’, ‘Master of Secrets, and so on). The illustration Temple provides in his book The Sphinx Mystery is convincing as a possibility, particularly considering the small proportion of the existing (re-modelled) head to the body, as its present form shows. Whether studies on the amount of long-term weathering on different parts of the Sphinx, such as the shoulders, face and so forth have been undertaken is not known to this website, but perhaps would offer the theory some degree of confirmation or otherwise, as well perhaps to the Sphinx as being older than the Pyramids.

⇦ Robert Temple’s Anubis theory of the Sphinx.

So the nature of the Sphinx can be found extending far beyond its boundaries; leading throughout time to men considering it to be one of the most mysterious objects of philosophy and art in mankind’s history. Epithets of it include the ‘God of the Horizons’, the ‘Keeper of Secrets’, the ‘Guardian of Mysteries’, and many more. One aphorism associates it with time in some essential manner. In keeping with the legends throughout history associating the Sphinx with oracles and enigmas, it is clear even after centuries of scientific endeavour that the Sphinx still retains many secrets behind its gaze.

The 30th Parallel has some interesting geodesic features too. One degree at the Equator = 69.12 miles (or 111.21 kilometres; or 365,000 feet !) – also therefore 34.56 miles for half of a degree (ie. 1/ 720 of the circumference of the Earth = 34.56 miles). And equally tidily, one degree of Longitude at 30° North = 59.95 miles. ie 60 miles per degree; and therefore 1 minute of longitude = 1 mile (or 1.61 kilometres!). So the line has some quite significant (cos#) aspects to it at this latitude north of the equator.

Between them, therefore, the Great Pyramid and the primary monuments of Giza are oriented to North with incredible accuracy to within just 1/20th of a degree; occupy, looking North, a key position between Equator and Pole; the Sphinx, oldest monument of all at the site, looks directly East; and Giza stands at the centre-point of all the land-masses of the earth, where the three axial lines are arrayed in the geometries of the hexagon. Also Giza is sited at a key position on the North-South axis of the Nile, at the ‘neck-point’ where the river widens into the delta. And further, the apex of the top of the Great Pyramid has the co-ordinates of 29.9792°N, the exact value of the Speed of Light ie. 299,792 km/second. And this is before the pyramid has been entered…
So it is safe to assume that whoever located and designed Giza and its primary edifices had a high level of (cosmic) consciousness; or perhaps inspired the consciousness of the humans who built the site. And reaffirms the message of Egyptian, Hebrew and Greek cultures among others concerned with such matters, as 1Enoch 61 states; “And I saw in those days how long cords were given to those angels, and they took to themselves wings and flew, and they went towards the north. . . And these measures shall reveal the secrets of the depths of the earth. . . And all who dwell above in the heaven received a command and power and one voice and one light like unto fire.

The English writer on Sacred Geometry and pre-history, John Michell writes in ‘The Sacred Centre; the ancient art of locating sanctuaries’ (2009) of the beliefs and practices of the Druids, the Bronze Age religious and intellectual elite who shaped the land according to cosmic principles and proportions;

From these centres the land was measured out and given fixed borders. One of the traditional ruler’s main duties was to uphold the divisions and landmarks, and that was symbolized by the measuring rod he received at the ceremony of installation. By virtue of this rod he was enabled to mete out justice. Every Celtic chief bore such a rod. Its polar symbolism was emphasized by its length, which if graded by the ancient geodetic units, was a specific fraction of the Earth’s axis.
Once chosen, the king was irradiated with the mystical power of the centre… at the point of mediation between the law of heaven and the will of the people. Its ritual boundaries, defining the spiritual, astrological limits of each section, may have been marked by the straight alignment of stone pillars like those that converge on Boscawen-un and other stone circles
” (p15-17).

Bringing to mind the Egyptian concept of the Shen ring, or protecting boundary cord, later to be changed into the royal cartouche around a sovereign’s hieroglyph or name, as well as the fact that the height of the Great Pyramid is 1/11 of a mile, and 1/43,200 of the Earth’s polar radius. Likewise why such close attention was paid to the importance of measures such as the cubit, and the royal cubit, in Egypt and many other civilizations.

To return to the Squared Circle centred upon the middle pyramid which creates a circle that intersects the Sphinx, as well as each of the two sets of three of satellite pyramids. A curious facet of the 3 large and 6 minor pyramids is the concurrence with the Enneagram, which has 3 main numbers (3 6 and 9) which represent the emotional/mental/physical centres accordingly) and 6 ‘minor numbers’, these being 142857. As can be seen, they follow the series of divisions of 1 by 7, repeating the cycle as .1428571, .2857142, .4285714, and so on.
These are located one either side of 3 6 or 9 related -centres, one either side. This means that each division has 3 sections, the 3 being +/-/= expressions of the division, thus showing the Law of Three to apply to phenomena virtually at all levels; from the atom to the heavens…
In its ability to represent seven notes, plus the two intervals where an extra input of energy, or intention, is required if the cycle is to progress correctly, the Enneagram also shows the Law of Seven, in the workings of the Octave, the doubling of energies between 1 and 2, (as shown in the seven notes of the octave of a piano)… the Mi-Fa, and Do-Si gaps equate to the two places in the octave where there is no semitone, between B and C, and between E and F; these are said to be where deflections to the ‘straight line’ of progression. occur.

So this is a central aspect of cosmic number, and there is good indication the symbolism of the Enneagram is at the source of the design plan for Giza. As well as the progression of notes through the Octaves as shown by the piano keyboard; the energies of ‘sound’ are at the heart of the creative principle in the universe, as all the major religions attest to. The Gospel of John1.1 starts with;

‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God’

Representing this outpouring of energy from the higher dimensions which actually creates the material dimensions, in a mathematically harmonic tone, or frequency, or pulse; so too the statement in Genesis1.1-2 states;

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

Here the word ‘moved’ can be interpreted in the sense of hovered, or vibrated, or resonated –

The universal energies were called by the ancient Egyptians the Word of Word of their Gods; to the Pythagoreans of Greece they were the Music of the Spheres; and the ancient Chinese knew them to be the celestial energies of perfect harmony (the Tao). The Cosmic Tones, as differentiations of the AUM, were the most powerful force in the universe according to the ancients, for these Tones were the universe – the very source of the Creation itself” – David Tame, The Secret Power of Music,1984.

The Hebrew expression of the universal ‘Aum’, or primal ‘cosmic Sound’ is connected to the values of 288,144, and 72, by Strachan, discussing the ‘musical cosmology’ of Ernest McClain. These numbers are ‘encoded’ into the biblical description of the number of singers and musicians present at the opening of the Temple of Solomon (1Chronicles 25.7-), particularly 288, the number of religious musicians trained in ‘the house of the Lord’. That this number may be symbolic is supported by the following verses in Ch25, which list 24 families of 12 musicians each (!), pointing to the mathematical and geometric significances contained within the total. For example within the triangular subdivisions of the hexagon of the Vesica Piscis the 86.6 units of the height of the central axis (to 100 units of height of each circle) sub-divide into six sections of length 14.4(3) units. If each of the two triangles along the horizontal axis equal 43.3 units in height (linking them to the 432 ‘harmonic’, the radius of the sun at 432,000 miles, and so on), the three axes from each corner cross at a point dividing their lines into 28.8(6) /14.4(3) lengths. In the bible the effect of this music and singing, in the geometrically meaningful spaces of the Holy of Holies, causes the occurrence of a dense cloud of smoke (2Chronicles 5.13) which is called ‘the glory of God’, and is the same in nature to the cloud of his ‘glory’ which covered the top of Mount Sinai when God gave the Tablets of the Commandments to Moses; these being contained within the Ark of the Covenant then housed within the Holy of Holies… It is believed by Hebrew commentators that the point in the Temple where this cloud materialized was the ‘quincunx’, or central point of the cube of the room, this being the geometric point of resonance within the temple, at a significant geometric (omphalos) point within the world; thus connecting the temple to the energies created by God and the universe. Such points are symbolized as wells very often in the Bible, through which flow the ‘waters’ of the higher dimensions, or ‘waters of life’ as they may be termed. This gives context to the Hebrew myth in antiquity that the flood waters of the Deluge receded down into the earth through a cavern beneath the site where the Temple of Jerusalem was later built, followed after that by the Dome on the Rock on the Temple Mount. As such the Temple was built over a fount linking the heavens and the earth.

Within the Temple the Holy of Holies space as well as being 20 x 20 x 20 cubits itself ie embodying the perfect unison of the fundamental tone and the octave, is built in the proportion to the two other parts of the Temple, the Outer and Middle areas. The middle section, the ‘Holy Place’ being built in ratios of 40 x 30 x 20 cubits (length:height:width) equal to 4, 3 and 2, incorporates the musical intervals of the octave, fourth and fifth (ie 1:2, 2:3, and 3:4 within the octave). A diagonal from the floor to the roof lengthways in this space gives a 3:4:5 triangle also, the harmonic proportion of a Pythagorean right-angled triangle also to be found in measures within the Great Pyramid, as we shall see.

As G.Strachan writes, “The Holy Place can be said to have expressed, in ratios of architectural proportion, the same musical tones, which were implicit in the unison or fundamental note of the Holy of Holies’. This because the cubic proportions of the inner chamber are the ‘architectural equivalent of the full string-length – the fundamental – and was thus held to contain the whole of the overtone series, ie. all the consonances of the universe’. (Strachan, The Bible’s Hidden Cosmology, p50-1). Another reason why the number 111 is significant, cropping up as it does in so many ways, given the cubic proportions of 1:1:1. (For instance, the word ‘Aleph’ is composed of 3 letters in Hebrew, in this way indicating the three-fold nature of the triune ‘godhead’; Aleph (1), Lamed (30), and Pey (80) – giving the word a sum total in gematria of 111 !) Another instance is in Gilgamesh, where the ‘water-deity’ Enki tells Utnapishtim to build an ark 60 x 60 x 60 cubits in length. As the sexagesimal system of Sumerian and Babylonian cultures etc meant 60 units were also classed as 1 (as 60 minutes equal 1 hour), then it obviously can be seen his instructions for the Ark to survive the Flood was 1 x 1 x 1… equating these ratios to the word used in the bible for the Ark of the Covenant (and that which contained the new-born Moses on the waters of the Nile); a ‘tebar’, or box.

These musical ratios of the notes in the octave between 1 and 2 are at the heart therefore of both the architectural ratios designed into edifices such as the Great Pyramid, and many other works of ‘sacred architecture’, as well as within the energies of the cosmos itself. So architecture is not only ‘music set in stone’, but music is an expression of the mathematical language of the energies of the universe. This central theme of the doubling or halving of frequencies within the range of an octave, in conjunction with the geometries of the values of Pi, Phi etc, as matter becomes energised, or vice-versa, is why the values of √1.23456789 (1.1111), √φ (1.272), √2 (1.4141) Pi/2 (1.5708), and Phi (1.618), among others attain such importance.
Similarly, the values of 433, 288,144 and 72, etc, contained within the values of the sub-sections of the centre of the Vesica Piscis when divided geometrically into sixths – ie, 86.6 /6 = 14.4(3) – make this the basic or defining unit of the Vesica.

Highlighting the relevancy of this symbol further, it is certainly possible to connect the two circles of the Vesica Piscis linked by their centres to the eastern concept of the interacting ‘bindu points’ as studied by Hindu/Sanskrit philosophers – as already noted, the site of the Bindu point’ upon the head is at the rear, where the side and back parts of the skull meet; the Occipital and parietal bones – more corroboration of the significance of the neck point, where energy and matter interact, and are located the ‘occipital gate’ as TCMA calls it, and the ‘parietal eye’ as the pineal gland is termed. Concepts which likewise put forward a representation of the ‘seed from which the whole (building) is generated and manifested (T.Saunders, op.cit, p.225) – ie the outward emanations of ‘sound’ from the creative principle as it resonates upon the face of the ‘waters’, linking the Hebrew and Christian religions cosmology with that of the Hindu and Buddhist. (As indeed the Christian concept of the triune nature of the godhead matches broadly the Hindu triad/ ‘trimurti’ of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva). In their representation of the basic threefold division of atoms into positive, negative and equilibrium they can be seen to show the tenets of the Law of Three.
Saunders mentions also that in examples of sacred architecture such as Chartres Cathedral, ‘from a stick marking the bindu point the geometry of the Vesica Piscis was drawn on the ground to establish the orientation and all other proportions and ratios from which the ‘order’ of the entire building came into being’. At Chartres, this central point was actually designed to be over the subterranean grotto and stream which ran through it, something repeated in many sacred edifices; a circumstance noted by the founder of ‘archeo-astronomy’ Sir Norman Lockyer, in his study of the sacred wells, rivers and streams through history, from the Near East to Europe throughout history. And a point raised in the Bible (and in Nagas mythology) by the sacred (inter-dimensional) nature of many rivers, seas, lakes, brooks and wells, the latter in particular, such as the Well of Seven, Beersheba. As such the life-forces contained within flowing water continually energise the building; itself oriented and placed to ‘conform to the subtle geodetic, subterranean patterns’ – so that ‘they were sited over very ancient shrines in precise alignment, to avoid disturbance to the existing positive earth energies and radiating streams below’. (Saunders p.225) This may help explain why wells were often given the epithet of ‘eye’ in Hebrew culture and the bible. The nature of the Bindu point is reflected in Chartres by both the Great West ‘Rose window’, a ‘cosmic wheel of the spirit’, and the labyrinth of c.40 feet diameter set into the floor of the main nave beneath the Rose (the labyrinth also believed to be symbolic of ‘the journey of the spirit’). Saunders notes again the nature of the labyrinth is that of a mandala, with a six-petalled lotus flower centred around the bindu point core (op.cit, p.229);

The Labyrinth, at the centre of the floor-space of Chartres Cathedral (built 1194-1220Ad)

So it is fair to assess that the subject of ‘cosmic number’, is concerned with the physics (and maths) of the tonal energies at the heart of creation, placing the Octave at the centre of such matters. Much as light, sound, and chemistry show the prevalence of the law of seven in their manifestations. Similarly, it is reasonable to conclude that the Pyramid(s) were created as ‘musical’ instruments, to refine the primal (sound) energies flowing and resonating through the Earth at this key-point on its surface. In other words, the Pyramid was designed to be in resonance through its proportions and inner structures with the primal vibrational energies of the Earth, and the cosmos as they flow through the earth. As such it is fair to opine that if higher dimensional forces – or beings – have been involved in any way with the creation and development of humankind, then this site to a strong degree of probability was designed by such higher beings.

⇦ Tibetan mandala of Vajravahari, from the 14th century. Wikimedia, PD.

To return to our consideration of the possible representation of the Enneagram at Giza with the 3 main and 6 smaller pyramids, students of the ‘psychological enneagram’ will know how completely these 9 sections – three divisions of the 3 main sections – describe all human personalities and individualities, showing how each person’s essence naturally ‘fixates’ in childhood onto one of the 9 divisions as its’ preferred prism through which to perceive reality; we all view things ‘from’ one of our 3 main centres in particular (ie. have individual concerns/ narratives which reflect in which inner-abilities we make the most use of).
All personal development thus aims to make us aware of our predispositions and preoccupations, (existing from before the age of 10 as personality ‘solidifies’ or ‘settles’, from the state of ‘all-centres-balanced essence’ we are mostly born to; a state few can remember in its purest expression, as much due to the gulf between normal and essence-based consciousness as to the difficulty of remembering the earliest years. And as an aid for insight, the Enneagram, hopefully enables the process of (re-)balancing the self, and facilitating positive growth…*See – Helen Palmer et al for an introduction to this fascinating subject.

So, this is one interpretation of the satellite pyramids’ inner symbolism, as a reference to the figure which geometrically outlines the processes of change as they occur in the ratios of the (doubling of the) Octave.

The Great Pyramid’s measures;
To return to the measure of the Great Pyramid, they are (to the nearest exact figure);

  • length of base 230.36metres / 755.77′ (ft)
  • height 146.50m / 480.64′
  • length of slope (apothem) 186.369m / 611.44′

This gives us a Length: apothem ratio of 1.236. More importantly, if a line is drawn from apex to base halving the baseline a right-angled φ triangle is shown (giving a base: hypotenuse ratio of a 3:4:5 R/A triangle, a φ triangle, or a 1: 4/π triangle) – measuring;

The measurements (in feet) are; side length of 755.77′ / 2 = 377.885′ (base of Golden Triangle) from which follows;

Base / height = 377.885’ / 480.64’ = 0.7862 = π /4
Base / slope = 377.885’ / 611.44’ = 0.618 024 = 1/ ϕ
Height / base = 480.64’ / 377.885’ = 1.272 = √ϕ
Height / slope = 480.64’ / 611.44’ = 0.7860 = π /4
Slope / height = 611.44’ / 480.64’ = 1.618 05 = ϕ
Slope / base = 611.44’ / 377.885’ = 1.272 05 = √ϕ

So the sides of the right-angle triangle are in the proportions of base: height: slope of 1 : √φ : φ (1 : 1.272 : 1.618). Accordingly the angles of the triangle are 51.82° and 38.18° as well as 90°. (the change from decimal 100 to 90° of the quarter circle meaning 61.81-10 = 51.81). The Squared Circle section shows the large number of phi-related measurements within the symbol.
Note the proportion of the base: height of 0.786, also the length of the equal perimeter square within a circle of 1 unit – (ie 78.58:100) reflecting the √φ ratios (~1.273) found throughout the squared circle and its progressions.
Likewise a square of diameter 127.2 (√φ) x 4 / π = circle of diameter 161.9 (φ) – and so on.

Of equal note, the base/ height of the pyramid = π/2
755.77 / 480.64 = 1.5724 which doubled = 3.14 4, (~π)

  • ie.755.87 / 1.570795 (π/2) = 481.13,
    this constituting a difference hard to measure precisely, due to the removal of the capstone at some point in time affecting the intended height when built.

So the dimensions of the pyramids structure may be said to be either π or φ derived, or simply related to both as the two cos# values are related themselves; this explains the importance of the squared circle, where both values interact…

Two more points – the height of the pyramid at 480 feet is exactly 1/11th of a mile (5280 feet)*

  • and secondly the height of it is also 1/ 43,200 of the pole-equator radius of the Earth, (ie 3927 miles) something almost certainly intentional, as the ‘432’ value central to the inner geometry/ harmonics of the subject and the pyramid. In fact it is possible to express the measures which follow purely in terms of the ‘generative’ square roots of 2 3 and 5, as well as the fourth and fifth prime numbers, 7 and 11; so the mile is; = 2⁵ x 3 x 5 x 11 = 5280 feet.
    The Earth’s Eq. radius is = 2³ x 3²x 5 x 11 = 3960 miles.
    And the Great Pyramid = 2⁵ x 3 x 5 = 480 feet…

*this is the commonly accepted original height of the Great Pyramid, when it was built, and possessed an outer casing of polished white limestone marble facings. These blocks, which gave the pyramid a glowing bright appearance were removed throughout history, to make other buildings, primarily in Cairo, a few miles distant. Just a few remain, at the base of the edifice; Petrie says the stonework in them is of the highest quality, involving straight-edged grooves and such in order for them to be fitted onto the core-masonry. The actual height of the pyramid now is c.454 feet; but as the intended and original height was 481 feet or thereabouts, this is the accepted height given.

The 27-30 feet difference is not only the marble casing – the summit of the pyramid was built as a Pyramidion, or obelisk/ benben stone. This entire part of the pyramid – the capstone – has likewise been ‘re-purposed’ by acquisitive builders across time. Primarily in the 14th century, when another major earthquake broke through the casing stones, speeding the process of damage to the edifice. Modern studies estimate around 26 feet, and 1000 tonnes of material are thus missing. This characteristic was reported as early as Diodorus Siculus in Ad60., who noted this feature even while the pyramid was fully cloaked in precisely cut, polished and reflective marble limestone casing-stones. What this may signify is a matter for debate; if the Pyramid was designed to emit energy upwards from the earth, having transmuted it within the inner structures, then a finely tipped peak may have been too small to be optimal. As such the broader apex, as shown below left, may possibly have been designed into the pyramid prior to construction. Research into the properties of pyramids in regard to emitting energy fields from their apexes has been done in many countries in the 20th century, including Czechoslovakia, Russia and Ukraine.

(left) A benben stone; both as the capstone of obelisks, and on pyramids the apex was given symbolic significance by representations called benben stones, often with depictions of gods inside them – possibly as images of the ‘divine mountain’ or ‘e-kur’, the ‘mountain house of the gods’ as called in Sumerian mythology.

The Pyramid ‘Pavement’ and bedrock;

Petrie notes that the pyramid is built upon a thin bed of limestone, with a ground-level ‘pavement’ being bedded into it, with a trench running around all four sides (p.14). The pavement is made from basalt, a hard, durable rock type, which together with the bedrock of limestone it is set upon has indeed protected the integrity of the pyramid against subsidence or earthquakes for over 5000 years..!
The ‘pavement’ the pyramid is built upon is limestone at some points, and basalt in other areas; at an average thickness of pavement of 21″. Petrie says of the basalt (a hard and durable type of rock); “The basalt pavement is a magnificent work, which covered more than a third of an acre. The blocks of basalt are all sawn and fitted together; they are laid upon a bed of limestone of…(similar) fine quality” (p.15).

The edges of the limestone pavement have been plundered for their blocks over the centuries, providing high quality well-cut blocks for other palaces and mosques in Cairo, etc.

It is, as noted, c.480 feet high, with sides of 755.78 feet. Not only are these oriented to the points of the compass by less than 1/20th of a degree, but the 4 sides are each equal to this length from shortest to longest by a difference of no more than 1.8″ (inches), showing again the precision with which it was built. This despite a mound of earth and rock at the centre of the base extending over 30 feet upwards. While this would have complicated any measurements and lines from corner to cross-corner enabling accuracy, it will also have served to anchor the pyramid over the millennia. And considering the even aspect of the underlying sheet of limestone upon which Giza is based, which is geologically fortuitous, may even have been left in place intentionally.
The four corners are defined each by a stone socket rising 2 or 3 feet above the pavement. The outer casing blocks of limestone which sheathed the inner construction were anchored as they sloped upwards upon these sockets. As mentioned, over time the smooth and attractive white marble-stone casing blocks have been taken from the pyramid and used in lesser buildings… To give some idea of their size, one of the largest remaining casing stones measures nearly 5 x 8 feet, and weighs 15 tons! There were over 100,000 casing stones originally according to Salvo in ‘The Great Pyramid Source Book’ , and these were cut to a tolerance of .010 inches, then placed together with a gap of no more than .020 inches. In 440Bce Herodotus visited the pyramids, writing that it was covered with the highly polished limestone, and that the joints between the stones were so fine they could hardly be seen. Writing later circa 20Bce the Greek philosopher and historian Strabo stated “It seemed like a building let down from heaven, untouched by human hands”…
Christopher Dunn has written in ‘The Giza Power Plant’ that the outer casing blocks were flat with a mean variation of 1/100th of an inch across 35 square feet, and were fitted together to a precision of around 1/50th of an inch, with a cement that was as strong as the limestone of the stones themselves; fitted in other words to “a standard of precision that can be found today in machine shops, but certainly not on building sites”…

Petrie also notes that “it is noticeable that the core masonry has a twist in the same direction on each side, showing that the orientation of the pyramid was slightly altered between fixing the sockets and the core”…
ie the azimuth (orientation to North) of the casing and sockets was on average 3″ (minutes) off of true North, and those of the core-masonry around 4″. Each of the four faces is also slightly concave, being ‘sunken in’ to a distance of around 37-40 inches overall.
We have already seen concerning the Pythagorean Comma that small ‘inexactitudes’ in the architecture of edifices such as this, or the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan, or Chartres Cathedral, can have a subtle effect on the resultant lines-of-force of the energies which resonate through the stone-work and spaces of these buildings… so whether this was intentional, or accidental (the result of revisions or inaccuracies mid-build, or subsidence with time), is unknown at present.

From the base of the casing stones on each of the 4 sides of the structure to the summit Petrie gained various measurements of the angle of the pyramid; the 4 faces have a mean angle of 51°52’±2’ which equals 51.866° decimal. (op.cit, p.13) (51°51″ being equal to 51.85°).

(right) The few remaining Casing-Stones at the base, looking east along the north face of the Pyramid / Edgar brothers,1909.

The precision of the lengths of the sides (and of the joins) of all the blocks of the pyramid is an incredible achievement; especially considering the average weight of the circa 2,400,000 stone blocks being over two tonnes each, (the blocks weighing over 6,000,000 tons in total; 5.5 million tonnes of limestone, and 8000 tonnes of granite, etc), and the difficulties of working them. The largest blocks weigh over 80 tonnes! More than virtually any military tank at present on earth, (such as the US Abrams M1 tank, one of the largest in usage today, which weighs a mere 62 tonnes!)
There are several instances of the blocks building up in size with each course until a significant feature, such as the entrance is reached where a course near double in size is used; after which the process repeats…just another example of many of the strange details present in the pyramid’s design and construction. (see illustration p.25 of the courses’ variations in size, from the works of Sir Flinders Petrie).
Related buildings dotted around the complex share the incredible megalithic character of the Pyramid; the two temples joined by the causeway between the Sphinx and the Second Pyramid were both built with similar sized blocks. Both were built with a core of limestone blocks weighing up to 100 tonnes being cased over by “massive blocks of granite or alabaster”. (Petrie p.43-4).
The temple at the lower end of the causeway is called sometimes the Granite Temple, or the Temple of the Sphinx.

(left) The Temple of the Sphinx, or Granite Temple. G.Todd, wikimedia/ flikr. PD.

Despite their size, and the separate difficulties of cutting, raising, placing and joining them to an exact standard over 4500 years ago, there are no visible gaps between the blocks of the Great Pyramid; Sir Flinders Petrie noted in 1885 that it was difficult to wedge the blade of a penknife between them so precisely are they cut and placed. He gauges the casing stones still left as having mean thickness of the joints as 0.020 inches; this making the mean variation from a straight line over 75inches equal to 0.01″ – an amount of accuracy “equal to most modern opticians straight-edges of such a length”.(p.13). Furthermore, the joints, with an area of some 35 square feet each, were worked to similar degrees of accuracy, as well as being cemented between them; “the stones were brought as close as 1/500”, or into contact”, while cemented too. All this with the average weight of these stones being 16 tons.

The Entrance-way;

The pyramid is entered by a small doorway cut into the stone on the 19th Course, on the north face, by one of the earliest ‘explorations’ of it, by the Caliph Al-Mamun in Ad820 or so; the ‘robbers entranceway/ passage’ as it is called. The genuine lintelled entrance lays only a few courses above it, occupying around 17 courses itself, and yet was not accessed by these explorations.

(left) The (lintelled) entrance to the pyramid, with block C being the roofing stone for the Descending passageway. (photo from Egypt Archive / Jon Bodsworth).

Perhaps the size deterred them from attempting to enter there; Al-Mamun’s men bypassed the true entranceway, breaking through the stonework at a lower level, managing to tunnel through the masonry for around 90 feet, finding nothing; about to give up the legend maintains, they heard some falling stones to the east of the tunnel, and changing direction they turned to find the Ascending passage. Conjecture exists concerning al-Mamun’s expedition, in that the incursion tunnelled from the north face where the entrance passageway is located, at a lower level than the original passageway, thus accessing the existing inner structures exactly where the entrance passage descending downwards branches up into the Ascending passage. It is easy to speculate that this was either blind luck, or they had inside information on the pathways, perhaps from a religious order responsible for preserving historic knowledge from earlier periods; in general the history and knowledge of such orders was passed from generation to generation as a mark of acceptance and initiation, and zealously guarded from the outside world. The stones around the entrance are massive, among the largest used in the entire edifice, as mentioned as part of a sequential pattern of the courses.

As can be seen from the diagram of the inner structures of the pyramid, the passage-way from the entrance slopes downwards; around the point where it is at ground-level it branches upwards to the Ascending Passage, and continues its straight trajectory downwards to the ‘basement’.

This junction of the Ascending and Descending passageways may be conjectured to be a point of some importance in metaphoric terms. Where the Ascending Passage is extended in its line to the floor of the passages is point ‘l’, which measures a distance of 1110.64 inches from the pyramid’s entranceway – likewise a number with clear cosmic# significance.

⇦ From C.Piazzi-Smyth’s survey of the Pyramid, 1864.

From here the passage descends downwards a further 236 feet through the bedrock, before levelling up into the horizontal passage.
The walls and ceiling of this passage measure a slanted height of 3.9 feet, and a width of 3.4 feet; in Egyptian cubits this measures 2.27 and 2 cubits respectively…

(left) The Descending passageway

The Descending passage is thus over 350 feet in length, nevertheless it is cut with incredibly high levels of precision, in terms of the straightness of the walls and roof… Petrie (p.31) states that the South end of the North Subterranean passage is 4754″ from the North base, ie.381.2 feet.

He also measured the straightness of the walls, in the built part of the passage, and found a deviation over 150 feet of 1/50 of an inch ! Over the course of 350 feet, across built and rock-cut sections, the passageway alters from a straight line by only 1/4″ in the sides, and 3/10″ in the roof.

(left) Descending passage looking upwards, from where the slope becomes horizontal, with the well-shaft entrance on the left.

Just before the bottom horizontal level is reached in the basement, a shaft connects upwards to the beginning point of the horizontal passage way to the Queen’s Chamber. This has been called a ‘well-shaft’ as it is very narrow for a person to fit through; running through several changes in angle it measures around 160 feet in length, and has 7 or so discernible sections in its course.

The shape is thus rather akin to a bow, something we shall see later may well be based on the geometries of the Vesica, and Orion, as well as fulfilling whatever other purpose it might have been cut for. Possibilities include for ventilation reasons during construction, or possibly as an escape route for the builders who may have had to slide the blocking stones into place at the bottom of the Ascending Passage. There is a space within the well-shaft which is called ‘the Grotto’, possibly as a relief point for any efforts climbing or moving materials up or down through it. . .
For some reason, a stone block with holes drilled in it lies within the Grotto which is believed to have been one of the stones from the ‘portcullis’ between the Ante Chamber and the King’s Chamber – there are 3 or 4 such dressed stones scattered around the pyramid; one within a recess halfway down the Descending passage, one on a ledge in the ‘Pit’, inside the Subterranean Chamber, and one outside the entranceway of the pyramid.

Following the Descending passageway down, it reaches a point where it levels to the horizontal… from this point on the walls are cut from the rock, rather than built with dressed stone.

(left); Petrie’s drawing of inner structures, amended by Keith Hamilton to show the portion of the Descending Passage excavated from the bedrock (in yellow). The green line is Mamun’s ‘robber’s entrance’ way, the red line the E/W axis from base to apex; yellow is the section cut from the bedrock. Blue is the well-shaft, with Grotto featured.

Quite how this passage (the green and yellow sections shown) only deviates over around 350 feet (including circa 250 feet of cut rock) by only 1/4” in the sides, and 3/10” in the roof from a straight line (as measured by Petrie) is something which staggers belief.

The Subterranean Chamber.

This runs for the length of 29′ feet, at a width of 2.97 feet, and height of 2.99-3.12 feet before opening up into the Subterranean Chamber, a large, cavernous space of irregular proportions. In one section of the floor is a further vertical pit, or ‘well-shaft’.
The large chamber and the side chamber are shaped quite unevenly, and of unfinished rock – perhaps, if it might be said the entire pyramid was built with possible applications to the different levels of the human being, this could be symbolic of the most material ‘natural’ aspects of the physiological self, ie the ‘instinctive’ centre which absorbs the primal energies of life for usage. The walls, the roof and the floor are all irregular according to Petrie, while the “best worked floor surface is just around the square shaft”.
The square is set not parallel to the orientation of the chamber, but diagonally; “like the shaft of the tomb chamber at Ti at Saqqara…an unusual plan” (p.20).

As a footnote, the pit is said to have been extended c.35 feet further down by Col.Vyse the English explorer etc, in 1830, in search of further discoveries, until the water-table of the nearby River Nile was reached. See photographs and diagrams below.
There are not any proven theories as to what purpose this downward ‘well-shaft’ or ‘pit’ served; theories have included the fact that it has been used extensively by different peoples including restorers as a convenient place to deposit debris and loose building materials. Yet if the photograph is studied, it can be seen that it was originally cut from sheer bedrock; a by-no-means easy task…19th century explorers such as Caviglia and Salt, and Col.Vyse had removed accumulated masonry pieces and dug down around fifty feet looking for hidden chambers. Perring and his workers dug a further forty or so feet through the bedrock before reaching the water table of the River Nile, thus providing a possible rationale for the shaft – as we see in the Bible section, water especially subterranean-water features play an important role at many of the most significant religious sites in the world. From Jacob’s Ladder being sited at the ‘Well of Seven’ (indicating the octave) to the Temple Mount/ Solomon’s Temple. Likewise the book ‘Hamlet’s Mill’ mentions myths that the sacred Islamic site of the Kaaba (‘the Cube’) was sited over a well-shaft originally, from which early pilgrims were given refreshment… Chartres Cathedral too (as noted), has an underground grotto, with a stream running through it; a Black Madonna (or ‘Vierges Noir’), a carved cedarwood holy relic of Mary, was sited there for many centuries.

Glastonbury Chapel likewise has the famous well…and so on. This is linked to their being ‘navel-points’ within the earth’s energy-grid where higher-dimensional energies flow through into the lower material dimension. A seemingly minor feature and yet over the years and centuries the difference made to a site cumulatively will be extensive; this is akin to the ‘irrational’ or ‘transcendent’ square roots of 2, 3 and 5, and Pi and Phi values, which likewise ‘flow’ in their never-ending development, rather than being ‘simple fractions’ of finite definition.
Considering the nature of such sites mentioned as being axial ladders or ‘world-trees’ between heaven and earth, it is highly likely that the Great Pyramid, and Giza are situated there precisely for these higher dimensional reasons.

(left) the Subterranean chamber, (from W-E) from the Edgar brothers survey, 1909. /
Perring’s diagram of the Subterranean chamber from his 1839 survey (looking from N-S).

In fact an unofficial name for the pit is ‘the bottomless pit’, indicating in this way its connection to the ‘abyss’. Yet as we have seen in our sections on both Sumer and Hebrew mythology, the original concept of the abyss was less negative than it has subsequently become. So the ‘abyss’, which stemmed from the word ‘Ab-zu’, or ‘Ap-su’ referred originally to the underground source of water, ie aquifers from which the ‘waters’ arise on the surface of the earth.

Yet this concept of the ‘waters’ extended even then to a more abstract perspective of the energies of life as they permeate the Earth. The Temple Mount in Jerusalem was likewise believed to sit over the ‘waters of the abyss’. The ‘foundation stone’ (the Eben Shettiyah) in the basement of the temple was said to keep the waters in abeyance, and enable the energies to flow into the world at this navel-point of the world.
This is supportive of the site of the Temple at the geometric centre of Jerusalem, itself referred to as ‘the navel of the world’; in other words a conduit for the cosmic energies which transit the Earth through telluric pathways in the ground. Additionally the cosmic interpretation of the Abzu (the depths of space) inherent within these cultures was a similar one, of the primal energies of the universe and space from which the energies of life are drawn and refined. The role of Enki/ Ea as the Lord of the Deep, or Abzu was a reflection of this symbolism of heaven and earth, as well as the complex relationship between ‘chaos’, and ‘order’. And as with the finding of the Plant of Eternal Youth/Life at the ‘bottom’ of the Ab-zu in the last Tablet of Gilgamesh, the common thread between all these conceptions is the dependence of the land upon these energies for its fertility. At least three millennia before the (similar) Grail quest works of the European poetic cycles from the 12th century onwards raised the same themes and narratives in their symbolism.

Whether the well-shaft/ or ‘bottomless pit’ as it is called was originally a source of water (unlikely considering the depth), or was placed there to symbolize the water/ omphalos aspect, is not clear…potentially even to provide a conduit for telluric energies to flow into the structure, functioning as such as a ‘canula’, (a term which derives from ‘channel’), the linguistic connections of which we study in the Etymology section. In this interpretation the shape of every aspect of a building tends to channel energies coming from the earth below in keeping with its shape, the materials it is made from, and so on. Spaces such as well-shafts, chambers and passages will therefore with time be expected to channel energies along their conduits. The characteristics of caves in particular may be viewed from this perspective. So Mohammed for example, the prophet and messenger of Islam was said to have received the entire body of the Qur’an from an angel whilst sitting in a cave, in a state of trance or altered consciousness. Indeed some researchers have linked the great step forward in human consciousness around 33,000 years ago to the Ice Age of the time meaning that the humans of the time occupied caves for protection from the cold – the caves are proposed to have magnified or isolated some sidereal high-energy particles, from certain constellations especially. Something which may have then physiologically affected the cave-dweller’s brains and accelerated the development of human consciousness. (see The Cygnus Mystery, by Andrew Collins for more on this). That solar, planetary and sidereal energies affect the energy-fields and surface of the Earth (as well as human beings) is a scientific fact, while reflecting some of the key perspectives or myths of antiquity, the Egyptians especially, whose entire civilization was largely built upon understanding mankind’s relationships with the stars …

With regard to the star-shafts of the Pyramid, this may be why they reach to the outer stone layers of the walls, but do not have openings to the outside; if sidereal and solar influences (or energetic emissions from the pyramid) were a reason for their design, then openings to the shafts would not therefore be necessary, but rather would let dust and water into the fabric of the building.
Some support of this point concerning the location of the Subterranean Pit, in terms of the energies received from the earth beneath, comes from the position of the pit close to the central axis of the pyramid from top to bottom (in fact the central axis running 40″ (inches) inside the rock of the N.side wall of the subterranean chamber).

This centre-line vertical axis, from top to bottom, is a crucial aspect of the pyramid’s geometries and functions, and great care was given at every level throughout the building process to ‘orient’ each feature very precisely in relation to it, as we shall see.

Beyond the Subterranean Chamber the passage-way runs for another 54 feet southwards, before ending in a rock wall. The width and height are both around 2.5 feet in this section.

The angle of the descending passage is 26°26′, ie half the angle of the pyramid. As such reflecting the inner fractal triangles of the Vesica Piscis, as noted.

Retracing one’s steps from the basement back towards the entrance-way, the visitor finds the Ascending passage-way cuts the floor of the entrance passageway at the distance of 1110.64″ ± .1 from the opening. (Petrie, p.18), a measure which one could assume shows symbolic intention on the part of the builders, considering the repeated significance of the value of 111.1/ 111.8 (2.236/ 2).
As can be seen from the diagrams below, the structure of the angles of the Ascending and Descending passages, as well as the rest of the inner design, can be seen to mirror almost exactly the inner geometries of the ‘double triangle’ template of the Vesica Piscis;


The Ascending Passage;

The walls and ceiling of this passage measure a slanted height of 3.9 feet, and a width of 3.4 feet. The Ascending passage is 128.9 feet long, and the same width and height as the descending passage. The angle of the passage is broadly equal to that of the Descending passage, being 26°6′, giving the inner passageways both a symmetry to the horizontal axis of the earth, and also an overall angle close in number to the angle of the Pyramid (which is 51.74°). When this section examines the inner geometries of the Vesica later on, it will be seen that a recurring (fractal) series of ‘double triangles’ can be formed from the triangles above and below the horizontal axis of the Vesica, if a line is drawn from corner to the middle of the opposite side.

The results obtained indicate the geometries of the Vesica were part of the Great Pyramid’s design, as well as other examples of architecture such as the Ad Triangulum system used in many of the Gothic cathedrals, churches and monasteries between the 12th and 15th centuries in Europe; thus showing both the coherency of the canon, over the millennia, and the (hidden) influence of the Egyptian (and Greek) architects and geometers… It is also possible to connect the geometries of the Vesica inner double-triangles to the Tree of Life stela which is one of the most important stone carved images of the Sumerian civilization. How this is done we shall see later also. But in uniting the Tree of Life in Sumerian mythology and art to the Way of Life of the Milky Way, as well as the geometries of the Great Pyramid and the Vesica, it appears to be a symbol which unites many of the most significant (and amazing) architectural creations of mankind in antiquity…

An interesting mark of ‘graffiti’ has been noted in the Descending Passage at the point where the well-shaft is, near the horizontal subterranean passageway – the provenance and the meaning of this mark are uncertain, and yet its similarities to the underlying geometries of the pyramid certainly make it of interest, regarding the centre area of the Vesica, especially the lines running beyond the rhombus/ double triangle, which will be examined shortly (see photograph and diagrams below and left).

At the start of the Ascending passageway is what was once a presumably deterrent obstruction; three large blocks of granite were installed to ‘block’ the course of the passageway upwards to deter any early intruders. These measure 5.2, 5.5, and 3.3 feet respectively, being broken in parts. To gain entrance to the Ascending passageway in the Middle Ages, Al-Mamoun’s men tunnelled through the walls for a short distance to by-pass the ‘Plugs’ as they are called. They are made of red granite, a hard wearing stone which presumably was easier to go around than through. The lowest one is kept from sliding downwards by the walls of the passageway narrowing at this point in its breadth but not its height.

⇦ The Ascending Passage, with the three girdle-stones highlighted.

Additionally, a little further up the passageway are three lintels built completely into the stonework (rather than being added). These lintels are called the Girdle Stones, and built presumably to reinforce the passageway at its mid-point. The masonry of this section of passage, employed to anchor these girdle stones in the Ascending Passage, forming as they do complete girdles around the walls, floor and ceiling, has been noted by virtually every observer to be of a complicated and highly skilled design being horizontally and vertically oriented in some places, and diagonally angled at others. Added to which, the joints between the various stone blocks are particularly finely joined, making it hard to read them, in the past, certainly; (K.Hamilton, citing C.Piazzi-Smyth, in The Great Pyramid; A Layman’s Guide);

My examination of that passage in 1865 was confined to little more than its angle of slope and its floor length, joint by joint, on the floor alone. This was partly on account of the bewildering varieties of the wall jointings, as they appeared to my non-engineering eyes on a cursory examination.
But Mr Waynman Dixon, in 1872, applying himself long and steadily to this special task, and mapping down everything measurable, presently perceived a most admirable order pervading the apparent disorder, and tending also to most hyper-excellent Masonic construction. For the chief discovery was, that at stated intervals the smaller blocks forming elsewhere separately portions of the walls, floor, and ceiling of the passage, were replaced by great plates of transverse stone with the whole of the passage’s hollow, or square-bore cut clean through them; wherefore, at those places the said plates formed walls, floor and ceiling, all in one piece.

According to the Edgar brothers (John and Morton) in their 1910 study, the first three girdle-stones from the south end are formed of two stones, one comprising the floor and lower wall sections, and the upper stone comprising the ceiling, etc. One surprising point here is that the stones are not set vertically upon each other, but at an angle…
How the plug blocks themselves were brought into the passage remains unknown, as the passage walls are narrower than the blocks – enabling them to be manoeuvred into place where gravity would ensure their effectiveness. A difficult procedure however achieved, in the confined and crowded spaces of the passage during construction, even before a roof had been added.

Curiously, if the floor to apex plan is viewed as a metaphorical structure of the human body, and physiology – the four levels of the pyramid from basement to ground to Queen’s to King’s levels, being accordingly the instinctive: moving: emotional: intellectual centres, then the ‘girdle stones’ do indeed occupy a position just around the level of the waist and the stomach below the solar plexus(!), leading upwards to the chest level of the emotional centre where the Queen’s Chamber resides. (The Grand Gallery represents therefore the upper parts of the spine, connecting it to the brain-stem and head, (the Ante Chamber and King’s Chamber), and the initial Ascending Passage represents the lower regions of the spine, at around stomach level…and the Descending passage the lower aspects of the trunk or ‘stomach’ concerned with instinctive functions, and so on).

At the top of the Ascending passage-way, the floor levels leading into the Queen’s Chamber. At the start of this level passageway is the other end of the ‘Well-shaft’ built from the basement…

The shaft running a distance of around 160 feet vertically, can be divided into up to seven discrete sections; apart from sections C and G the sides of the shaft are cut, and smooth-walled, indicating that it was built as the pyramid was being constructed, not as an afterthought or reaction. Towards the lower parts of this shaft is a space known as ‘the Grotto’, which is a small space in the natural limestone of the bedrock of the edifice.

The point at which the Ascending Passage levels to lead to the Queen’s Chamber is midway along the entire length of the passage, ie at the point where it becomes the Grand Gallery. The construction of this area is highly skilled, and sophisticated, with the steps leading to the Grand Gallery running either side of the passage to the chamber, as the photograph (left) shows; (looking from N-S).
The Horizontal passage has an opening shortly after the step from the ascending passage which is the upper entrance to the ‘well-shaft’.

⇦ the Queen’s Chamber, with Niche and gabled roof.

The Queen’s Chamber.

After this the horizontal passage leads to the Queen’s Chamber – a broadly rectangular chamber with corbelled roof features, and a stepped ‘niche’ beyond. This chamber is exactly midway between the north and south faces of the pyramid; Petrie measured the mid-plane of the roof ridge of the Queen’s Chamber as being 0.3′ (ft) off the N-S axis line (ie. around 4 inches). In other words, it is situated on the central axis of the edifice. The King’s Chamber, 15 courses above it is slightly off-set from the centreline; the axis line passes through a point beside the Great Step at the top-end of the Great Gallery; a key point of the entire pyramid, as we shall see.
The chamber is rectangular, with a sloped roof and a curious stepped vertical niche built into the eastern wall. The measurements of the chamber are in the table below. Through the niche and on the other side of the chamber run two ‘star-shafts’ upwards to the north and south faces.

In keeping with the female characteristics of this chamber, the roof is located at ~1080 inches above the pavement. This value is connected to the Moon (lunar/ female energies), as the Moon’s radius = 1080 miles, (and thus 2160m in diameter). Jon Michell states in many places that the numeric value of the Moon is 1080, while that of the Sun, representing male, solar energies is 666, connecting the symbolism of the ‘serpent’ to the solar energies which vitalize the earth, and the Ouroboros or ‘dragon lines’ which circle the planet.
So the King’s and Queen’s Chambers may be said to be chambers of the Sun and Moon, potentially. Also the four levels of basement, ground, Queens and Kings may be considered to represent the human body’s division into stomach, chest and head; or instinctive/ moving centres within the stomach, plus the emotional and intellectual centres. The Niche, like the Milky Way and the Vesica Piscis, may be said to resemble the broad outline of the female reproductive organs, the female yoni ; and the King’s Chamber plus relieving chambers the male lingam.

Corner of chamber834.4” over pavement69.5 ft21.18 metres11.28 RC
Roof of Chamber1078.7”   (ditto)89.9 ft27.40 m14.59 RC
Width  QC205.85”17.15ft 5.228m9.98  RC  N-S
Length QC226.47”18.87ft 5.752m      10.98 RC  W-E
Height  QC245.10”20.42ft     6.225m      11.89 RC  Roof ridge E/W
Height of N/S walls184.44”15.37ft 4.685m        8.95  RC  N / S walls
Height of niche       184.68”15.39ft 4.687m        8.96  RC  Niche N/S walls.
Diagonal length of floor         303.36”25.28 ft 7.77 m14.82 RC
Diagonal roof: floor/356.64”29.72 ft 9.06   m17.32 RC

As the floor diagonal squared is added to the height squared the hypotenuse squared is obtained.
Thus 14.82² + 8.95² = hypotenuse²
220 + 80 = 300
= hypotenuse = 17.32 RC

  • thus confirming the importance of the square root of 3 (1.732) in the geometries of the pyramid proportions, in this central measure.

There is a fascinating connection here to the Square and the Circle; in that chapter, we saw how the proportions of 7 and 11 are built in to the Pyramid’s ratios and chief features, very likely as subdivisions of 7 and 22. The values of 2.75, 5.5, 11, 22, 44 etc are thus highly significant within the Pyramid, as are 7, 14, 28 and so on.
As we saw in that section, the values obtained from a circle of 7 units if a circle of 7 units is the Inner circle of a Square measuring 7 units also;

                                            an Inner circle = 7 cubits
    (x √φ   ie,    1.273)    has an Equal circle   = 8.9 cubits
    (x √1.2345 ie,1.111)        an Outer circle  = 9.9 cubits

And if this outer circle is multiplied by 1.111 again, this = 11 Cubits !
1 : 1.273 : 1.4141 : 1.570795 (3.14159/ 2). (ie. 1: √φ: √2 : π/2)
Thus indicating the significance of these geometric relationships to the inner structures and proportions of the pyramid.

Alternatively, an Inner circle = 7.77 cubits
(x √φ) has an Equal circle = 9.9 cubits
(x √1.2345) an Outer circle = 11 cubits

And while it is certainly not good practice to mix cubits, inches, and metres, some fascinating figures come from just examining
the metres measures, in regard of the width: length: diagonal ratios of the Queen’s Chambers.

The width 5.228² = 27.33
The length 5.7523² = 33.0889
=> diagonal² = 60.4209

Thus making the diagonal 7.77metres ! Matching a key value in the Queen’s chamber with the 7/11 motif we have just shown is ever-present in the geometries of the pyramid and the Squared Circle. And to the numbers associated with the Sun, and to some of the most significant values of cosmic # ; for example, 864 / 1.111 = 7.777.

Further to this, regarding these measures, is the square of the width being 27.33 metres; in the chapter regarding the harmonic relationships between the Sun: Earth: Moon, it is noted to be the following proportion;
Moon orbit of Earth = 27.32 sidereal days in 1 lunar orbit of the earth.
Sun/ Earth diameter = 109.2 = 4 x 27.30
Earth/Moon diameter = 3.66 (x 100 = days in the sidereal year) which is a ratio of 27.32 % !

And lastly to illustrate the close connections between many of the central values of cosmic number;
(Sun/ Earth diameter (109.21) / √φ (1.272 360!) = 27.32…

So there are some very interesting relationships within these figures, such as how Pi and Phi interact within the Squared Circle.
As Alan Butler and Chris Knight mention in ‘Who Built the Moon’, there is absolutely no apparent reason within celestial mechanics why these values of the moon’s orbit of the earth in days plus the ratio of the size of the earth to the moon should show such synchronicity. Let alone for the shown relationship between the sun and earth’s diameters, pi and the square root of phi. . .

There are further encoded relationships between 864 and the angle of the Pyramid;

In decimal terms the pyramid slope angle = 51.84°. In degrees minutes and seconds this angle = 51’50.40”
Now if you examine the length of 24 hours, this equals 86,400 seconds.
If you multiply 1 hour by 0.864, this = 51mins 50.40 seconds.
And if you divide Phi by Pi, φ / π = 1.6180 / 3.14159 = 0.515040 !

We have already seen how the angle of the pyramid at between 51.74 – 84° is very close to the cosmic# value of 51.84, the square of 72 at 5184, and related to 432, 864, 1728, 3456, 5184 is one-fifth exactly of the 25,920 years of the sun’s cycle of Precession, 1/36 of the Speed of Light (or 186,282/ 3600 = 51.74 5), and so on. The difference between 1.728 (0.432 x 4 etc) and 1.732 (√3) is effectively the same as the significant gap between 86.4 from sun-related values and 86.6% (√3/2) from the proportions of the Vesica – this mid-ground is shown in the actual size of the sun, its diameter being close to 865,000 miles across. Likewise, 51.84 / 1.732 = 29.93, 51.84 /1.728 = 30 , and 51.84 / 1.729 195 (mid-way between the two) = 29. 9 792, the latitude of the Great Pyramid at Giza being 29.9 792°N, and the value of the Speed of Light being 299,792 km/second . . .
So there are some complex (cos#) relationships and encodings which seem to crop up naturally from the chosen values of the Great Pyramids proportions and location etcetera. Coincidentally – or not – the Cubit of Nippur, originating in the sacred religious centre of Sumer, measured 51.85cm (+/-1mm). Another example of the earliest sacred measures of the Sumerian and Egyptians being geometrically significant in many ways.

Additionally, with regard to the floor diagonal and roof: floor hypotenuse it is noteworthy that the Egyptians made the floor diagonal square = 220 RC. This is precisely half of the length of each side of the Pyramid, at 440 RC. Having noted the 7/11 ratios within the Pyramid (and their affinities with the 22/7 value of Pi) and therefore the harmonics of 5.5, 11, 22, 44 etc the figures of 220 and 440 fit very neatly into these series. Bearing in mind the significance of (cosmic) resonances within architecture and equally importantly within music, it is of some relevance therefore that of the notes of the piano as it is today, the Standard Tuning Reference note is the A⁴ five notes above Middle C⁴. As this note has a frequency of 440 Hz, this means that every note on the piano is likewise tuned to the 440 (Hz) harmonic. Thus the A series of notes start at 27.5, 55, 110, 220, 440 Hz and so on, in basic alignment with the ‘key-note’.

Why this might be significant is something we look at later.

There is numerical symbolism within the King/ Queen (alchemical) marriage of Solomon (the Sun) and the Queen of Sheba (the Moon) as
Sheba means ‘seven’, thus indicating the octave as the basis of the transformation of energies.
As half of 440, 220 is the most appropriate figure for symbolizing the necessity of the ‘marriage’ of male and female energies for complete unity; and this symbolism of number is something we see in the Bible section on Simon Peter, among other examples.
(Indeed the biblical narrative of Simon Peter has many metaphor-based numbers ‘encoded’ into his story in the Bible, such as the 153 fishes he catches when Jesus fishes Lake Galilee with the disciples; Jon Michell spends several pages in The Heavenly City showing the Hebrew and Greek numerology and symbolism obtainable from the details of the ‘153’ narrative – and the numbers involved seem to appear in the Pyramid measures, to a point which appears intentional, as we shall see shortly. Likewise 153 x 4 = 612, relatable to the 6120 miles found within the Earth & Moon symbol examined in the Sun Earth and Moon section; equalling thus a point from the earth’s centre to its circumference (3960m radius) + the diameter of the moon (2160m).

The Queen’s chamber floor and walls are notably irregularly made; the floor is “hopelessly irregular”, being made of a rough core-masonry, upon which an equally roughly made chamber floor was added. This has led to at least 8 sections of floor where there are edges of sunken space around it…while apart from that, “all around the chamber, and the lower part of the passage…is a footing of fine stone…which projects 1 to 4 inches from the wall”.(p.23)
Bearing in mind the inability to know the intentions of the builders – and also the possibility that the original floor work has been torn up by treasure seekers throughout history – it is worth noting the irregularity of the Queen’s Chamber stonework, in comparison with the much more (predominantly) straight-lined surfaces of the King’s Chamber…this difference being potentially a symbolic representation of the difference between the ‘mental’ and ’emotional’ centres, or between creative and receptive characteristics of ‘male’/ yang and ‘female’ / yin features of architecture.*

It certainly was not beyond the purposes of the builders to leave certain aspects of the pyramid roughly surfaced, in contrast to the usual precision; an occasional feature often explained as being the result of ‘builder’s sloppiness’, or ‘Monday morning rush’, which may be possible, certainly. This may or may not be the case, bearing in mind the incredible levels of care, attention and precision which went into virtually every facet of the building work, as well as the innumerable building tasks that had to be completed before it was eventually sealed shut …the Ante Chamber, likewise a core part of the Pyramid’s function, is similarly ‘unfinished’ in its surfaces, though perfectly constructed otherwise…
*So for instance, on any walls or floors the rough surface would increase surface area, and ‘receptivity’, strengthening the ‘feminine’ characteristics in any such instances.

(left) the Queen’s Chamber, photograph plus axonometric diagram (from an opposite perspective).

As mentioned, within or behind the north and south walls are two shafts discovered in the 19/20th centuries; the shafts run horizontally a short distance before turning upwards, a few feet in. Both are around 8 inches by 8 inches in dimension.
There is a horizontal section at the start of each of the 4 shafts, of about 76 and 80 inches before they turn upwards.
The shafts in both chambers enter (or exit) the structure similarly; opposite each other on in the chamber, above the first level of masonry on the north and south walls.

The Queen’s shafts were covered over at both ends, and the lower end was discovered by British engineer Waynman Dixon in 1872, who was tapping the walls, and finding a hollow area, broke through. One points northwards, one south; the Northern shaft leads to the 50th Course, with fluctuations in its angle of ascent, plus it turns at one point 45° to avoid the King’s Chamber, before ending on this level; the southern shaft is at the same angle as the pyramid, 51.87°. The mean angles measured between the horizontal roof and the ascending slope of the shafts are (N.shaft) 37.48°, and (S.shaft) 38.48°; this recalls the Squared Circle studied earlier, in that the points of intersection are 51.80°, and 38.2°, closely related to Phi of 61.8, and 38.19, but within the 90° of each quarter circle.
This may again be viewed as the encoding of certain geometric relationships into the building’s significant measures.

Petrie assesses that if these channels were continued to the outer face of the pyramid their floors would end at (N.face) 2641.3′
above the pavement (220 feet!), and 2460.8′ from the centre of the pyramid (205 feet), and (S.face) 2679.1′ above the pavement, (223.2 feet) and 2431.2′ from the centre (202 feet).
The South face point is an interesting 223.25 feet above ground; we have seen already numerous times the use of √5 (2.236) and its harmonics/ multiple values; while the North face height has already been noted as a harmonic of the 440-value linked to music frequencies etcetera.

It is difficult to know what the shafts were for; whatever the original purpose, they were closed off at the top ends, and at the bottom ends in the Queen’s Chamber with stone blocks. Not to say they weren’t closed at a certain time after usage, which could explain the brass door located at the top of one of the Queen’s shafts. Behind the door is a small space, and the stonework of the outer pyramid. The star-shaft theory appears promising in theory, yet is made less sure because the shafts are not straight lines, displaying several changes in direction along their lengths.
The Queen chambers shafts were explored in 1993 by the German robotics engineer Rudolph Gantenbrink. Using laser measurers he discovered that the shafts sides are of extremely even width, varying less than 0.005m from start to finish; and equally curiously, the start and finish of the shafts are on the same incline, in contrast to the middle of the tunnel.

The Niche N.side is 6.1″ (inches) from the centreline of the pyramid, and the Chamber, E.apex is 0.3″ from the centre-line! Petrie asserts that the ridge of the roof is “exactly in the mid-plane of the Pyramid, equidistant from the N and S sides; it only varies from this plane by a less amount than the probable error of the determination”… (p.23) showing amazing construction skills were being applied five millennia ago.

The Grand Gallery.

Retracing our steps back to the point where the Ascending passage meets this level, facing upwards is the beginning
point of the Grand Gallery, a central, mysterious and fascinating part of the inner structure of the pyramid. As can be seen from the Queen’s Chamber section, there is a considerable ‘step’ to climb up to ingress the Grand Gallery, a height of around 3 feet or so; from the ‘internal symbolism’ of the design in terms of the spiritual aspirant, this step indicates the need at a certain point for a conscious effort before ‘the way’ can be stepped onto; in Gurdjieff’s terms, he and Ouspensky did indeed use the metaphor of a small ladder or stair-case reaching between ‘normal life’ and its activities, and the ‘way of the seeker’ which the individual must climb entirely by their own effort. (In Search of the Miraculous, etc). This symbolism connects to the Octave, and the two points within it at which without a conscious ‘effort’ the flow of energies will not be able to continue its increase; between mi and fa, and si and do.
We shall see shortly that these key ‘bridges’, or ‘gaps’ within the Octave are encoded in stone within the Grand Gallery in a clear and mathematical way…

The Grand Gallery continues the trajectory of the Ascending passage, starting from this level, from the 23rd to the 50th Course,
rising circa 70 feet in the process.

The height = 28′ (ft)
length = 153.1′
width = 6.9′ at base, 3.4’ at ceiling.

An intriguing aspect of the Gallery is one of the central features of the Pyramid; at a height of 7 feet the walls are built with blocks of stone which narrow inwards 2.5-4 inches each time, thus overhanging the floor. The thin width of the Gallery is emphasized by each side of the steps consisting of a raised shelf of stonework, which has square or alternately rectangular grooves cut into the sloping surface like the holes in the edge of a film.
There are seven layers of corbelled stonework on the walls, giving the Gallery an overall shape and appearance similar to the Niche in the Queen’s Chamber. At roof level the width of the Gallery has halved from 4 cubits (6.9′) at base to 2 cubits (3.4′) wide. ie. each wall lap measures 1 cubit across the seven layers of stone, symbolizing the complete octave formed by seven notes.

In addition to these precisely built and distinctive, (if not unique) over-lapping wall panels, and to the narrow steps bordered by ramps with regularly-spaced sockets, the roof itself is stepped, so that from below it gives the confusing appearance of a flight of stairs seen from ‘above’..! This apparently helps prevent the occurrence of cumulative pressure on the lower blocks of the ceiling (Kingsland,1932)

As noted, the stairs are 2 cubits wide also, with a shelf occupying ½ cubit on either side of the stairs.
These ‘rampways’ are constructed from stone, and have inbuilt sockets (resembling a photograph or film negative as such); which alternate in their length and their depth.

(left) position of the Grand Galley within the structure. The central N-S axis line runs from the Subterranean Chamber upwards through the apex of the Queen’s Chamber roof, and through the top level 61.7 inches in from the Great Step at the top of the steps of the Grand Gallery. As we shall see, the axis measured from between the Great Step and ground level = 153.2 ft; as does the Grand Gallery in length; therefore a line from the ‘pavement’ level point of the axis to the beginning of the Grand Gallery should in theory form an equilateral triangle of sides 153 feet. That the Great Step to the Subterranean Chamber forms a representation of the Great Pyramid has already been noted, as the angles of the Descending and Ascending passageways form an angle of 51-84° or thereabouts.

As can be seen from the drawings left/ below, there are 28 slots on each wall, in alternate square and rectangular shape, making 56 in total; numbers of note to the geometries of Stonehenge, where there are 56 Aubrey holes (of 3.3ft/1metre width) arranged in a circle around the outside of the larger trilithons. The Aubrey holes may have housed a bluestone circle used for astronomy purposes. Doubtless other Neolithic sites have 28/56 number values built into their designs, as the number contains symbolic connections, particularly to lunar aspects of astronomic and calendrical calculation.

Some theorists propose these sockets held wooden poles which then held the lintel-stones used at the bottom end of the Ascending passage to deter entrance to the heart of the pyramid; which is possible, but this may be doubtful considering their limited depth, plus why 28 sockets on each side – or the symbolic associations of 28 and 56. So the reason for them remains unexplained.

Colin Wilson proposed in his writings on Giza that they may have held lights (rush-torches or such) although no smoke marks have ever been found on the walls besides the sockets; and/or crystals, to add different coloured lights and obtain an energetic impetus or focus, at certain times. A plausible theory considering the sensitivity of crystals to fields of vibrational energy.

So for example, the Bible likewise lists the twelve types of crystals or gemstones present in the City of Heaven, in the Revelations of St John. (21.19)*
These may thus be related to each ‘note’ of the Octave including semi-tones, so that each may be said to have an associated crystal, which is representative of the vibrational forces/ frequencies of that level. For those dismissive of this connection between crystal forms of rocks and resonant frequencies, it may help to recall that the computer itself was/is(?) made possible by the crystalline structure of quartz silicon, for processing and storing information… natural crystals are believed to hold the same properties. Quartz for instance, is formed within granite rock; utilized within the Pyramid in the Ascending passage plugs, and in the upper level, the Ante Chamber is almost entirely granite in its various features, likewise the most significant feature of the King’s Chamber, namely the King’s Coffer.

Many of the special sites and regions included in the world are found to be located within geological belts of quartz-bearing granite rock, which may increase energetic sensitivity and (piezo-electric) activity in such areas; very often this may be associated with mountain regions, for some (geologic) reason, which is perhaps a reason why mountains were so often associated with God or ‘the gods’ in antiquity, as the appearances of YHVH on mount Sinai and others in the Old Testament shows. The pyramid itself has been called ‘the stone mountain’ in various works throughout time, as were the E-kur, or Sacred Mountain House in Sumer etc; this term was used in many myths and works and for many temples such as that of Naram-Sin at Nippur – and was the ‘home of the Anuna in the ‘garden of the gods’, (Dilmun, or Eden).

As well as listing the twelve crystals of ’the city of heaven’ in Rev21.19, the energy-matter link fulfilled by crystals is then described in the next chapter, 22:

¹And he shewed me a river of the water of life, clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of the Lamb.
²In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river was the Tree of Life, bearing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding
its fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of nations.

This may be said to be to an extent ‘analogous’ to the Gallery in its central stairs representing the ‘street’ or ‘Way’ or Tree of Life, with the side ramps and sockets likewise ‘bearing fruit’ to either side; while obviously Rev.22.1-2 is also a description of an abstract/ mystical experience of higher consciousness. Alternatively perhaps, the Gallery and the street /Tree of Life may both correspond with the axial symmetry of the human body, and all of the examples of heaven-earth ‘axis mundi’ (with intertwining lines of symmetry to either side) we have seen in this study.

(We see similar celestial imagery in Revelations4.2-6;

²…and behold, a throne was set in heaven and one sat on the throne. …there was a rainbow around the throne, in sight like unto an emerald. And roundabout the throne were four and twenty seats, and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold. …and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which were the seven spirits of God. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal).

But exactly what this passage refers to seems impossible to even estimate, however…
To return to less abstract matters; the central stairway is 1 cubit wide, the same width as the Ascending passage; thus symbolizing the continuance of the original passageway even.
The Gallery (and Ascending Passageway) connect the ground, and subterranean areas, with the levels of the Queens and Kings Chambers; so as such, in the symbolism of the pyramid in terms of the human ‘temple’, this Gallery is the ‘backbone’ of the edifice, connecting the instinctive, moving, emotional and intellectual centres… and as such may be said to be concomitant with the world tree axis, or heaven-earth axis points.

So the Gallery is a key part of the entire pyramid, as shown by its incredible design and stonework, as well as the Octave symbolism of the seven layers of the walls; so too its alignment with the central axis of the pyramid 61.7 inches from the top step; a value so close to Phi as to be identical, and in all likelihood, intentionally so.

Likewise the (maximum) height of the Gallery – in inches (Petrie) = 345.6- 346.1″, again is almost certainly an intentional encoding of the cos# value in what can be said to be one of the pyramid’s key measurements. The cosmic# value of 3.456, or 345.6 etc, has countless expressions throughout much of antiquity, as well as measures of the world, and solar system etc even today. Often the value of 346 is found, either being a close match of 345.6, or possibly a significant value in its own right.

The roof of the Gallery is built sloping downwards on each side so as to avoid placing resting pressure on just the stones beneath it.

The seven layers of the corbelled walls are one of the most significant features of the entire pyramid, and as such are fittingly impressive in their design and construction.
To understand the meaning held within the symbolism, it is necessary to revisit the Law of Seven, in the unfolding process as a note doubles (or halves) in vibrational frequency across the space of the octave.

As introduced into modern esoteric thought by P.D.Ouspensky’s exposition of his experiences of G.I.Gurdjieff’s system of self-development in Moscow, Paris and London in the first half of the 20th century, the Law of Seven can be used to understand virtually any phenomenon which unfolds within material reality across time.

Thanks to the close observations and accuracy of Petrie and numerous other expeditions, we have exact measurements for all the levels of the precisely built walls, which overlap progressively to narrow the Gallery’s width as its height increases.

(below) diagram of measurements of the Gallery wall, with do being considered to be the level marked 89.9” (inches). The total height of the Gallery is 345.6 to 346”, or 28.8 feet; both significant cos# values, as seen in the Geometry section. The ‘groove’ between 166.2” and 177.56” at the start of the fourth lap is the mi-fa division point within the Octave, with fa continuing up to 211.7”, with the next four notes; sol – la -si – do reaching the ceiling where the width of the floor at 4 cubits has halved exactly to 2 cubits; confirming the symbolism of the Octave in which frequencies halve or double between notes an octave apart.

Taking the initial ground floor width of 4 Royal Cubits as the initial (base) note of the Octave – Do – it can be seen that the width changes are largely uniform in size; but between the 3rd and 4th levels is an additional distance.
This corresponds to the Octave’s Mi-Fa gap, which is the predominant interval for changes to be introduced into the process of the octave’s evolution, (alongside Do-si). This susceptibility is the result of the non-uniform increase of vibrations between the 12 notes of the octave, when using fractions to describe each note’s ratio between the values of 1 and 2 (rather than Equal Temperament Tuning); the two places where there is no semi-tone, between B/C and E/F, there is a decrease in the rate of the octave’s development. Without additional attention or effort at these points, the possibility of ‘deflections’ increases, particularly between Mi-Fa according to Ouspensky and Gurdjieff.

As can be seen in the alternative diagram of the Great Gallery (left, from a 1912 survey), the Mi-Fa step in the seven levels of the wall is encoded into the measurements/ architecture by a slightly larger size of wall area/ groove. The mi – fa interval is the only measure which differs from the others significantly.

As mentioned, at the planetary level organic life occupies a central bridging role between mi and fa, one akin to the ‘organs of perception’, according to Ouspensky and Gurdjieff; effectively a ‘sensitized’ intermediate level, between the higher energies of the planets and the material/ energetic dimensions of the earth.
A good example might be that of fungi, and their underground networks of mycelium, nerve-like ‘ganglia’* which form dense and complex networks, which occupy an essential intermediate role between plants and the soil they grow in; the mushrooms and fungi we see on the surface are just the ‘fruit’ part of the plant, for the purpose of spreading their spores throughout their environment. Biologists estimate that in their role of breaking down decaying wood and all organic matter, as well as connecting trees and plants in nutritional symbiotic relationships, these mycorrhizal networks are necessary to life for around 90% of all plants…
*these filaments resemble both the ganglia of the brain, as well as ‘filaments’ of galaxies within the vast superclusters of galaxies in space. This ubiquity of this pattern in these examples indicates the high organisational and information-bearing capacity of such structures…
The largest of these complex filament networks can be up to five miles wide, making them the biggest ‘single’ organism on the planet, apart from sea-grass possibly; and only 10-15% of all the species of fungi are thought to be known at present! The propensity of mushrooms to be able to synthesize allotropic ‘hallucinogens’ such as psilocybin has been noted as a feature of the incredible and mysterious nature of these organisms, and even linked to the evolution of human consciousness in eras of approximately 30-40,000 years ago…likewise the creation of LSD from such psycho-active chemicals within the ergot fungus etc by Albert Hoffman in Switzerland in the late 1940’s has been linked to two other phenomenon of that time; the creation of the atom/ hydrogen bomb, and the appearance of (alleged) UFO’s in places such as Roswell, all occurring circa 1948, just after world war two.

These synchronous events would appear to put mushrooms/ fungi in the class of plants stated by Gurdjieff to have active ingredients from all three levels of the cosmos (as the Ray of Creation may be sub-divided); the material (Moon /Earth), the astral (planets/ Sun), and the spiritual (the Milky Way /All Galaxies/ Absolute), akin in the human to stomach – chest – head. Gurdjieff lists several other plants with similar two or three levels of ‘evolved’ ingredients, essential/ attractive to mankind, such as the crops which through domestication enabled the growth of civilization in the Fertile Crescent (predominantly), as well as the opium poppy, and others. As we see in the Bible section, ‘Bread’ is used throughout Old and New Testaments as a metaphor for the ‘wisdom of God’ which can be absorbed by mankind. When Adam is exiled from Eden he is told “by the sweat of thy brow shalt thou earn thy bread” (Genesis 3.19) ie. must thereafter bridge the mi-fa gap by conscious effort; and shortly after at Gen 4.12 Cain is likewise punished by YHVH; “When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth”; ie will only yield a fraction of the vivifying effects of the complete octave of possibilities.

The scientific understanding now of fungi is that these ‘key-workers’ of the soil may be able to be developed to break down waste from building materials, even plastics, and other industrial pollutants…as well as aiding the non-chemical regeneration of depleted agricultural soils… a key concern of this century.
(There is a curious link to the etymology of mycorrhizae with that of words stemming from the Latin ‘correre’, (and PIE ‘kers’, both meaning ‘to run’ in a line), from which arose the words cord/ chord/ chordata, corridor, course, cause, correct, corn, kernel, courier, and so on).

What the mi-fa/ Law of Seven meanings of the wall of the Grand Gallery signify can only be theorized about; but that this design is concerned with these conceptual matters is clear. And considering the mi-fa bridge in conjoining different levels of matter and energy, between Earth and the planets, it is worth recalling the position of Giza on the map of the Nile, at the same point between the body (the Nile) and the head (the Delta), ie between matter and energy. Similarly the importance of the Occipital Gate in the neck-region of the spine and head. Whether the Occipital Gate in the spine is equal to the mi-fa interval is far from certain; but it can be said that both concepts approach similar areas of interest.
So it is fair to consider that this aspect of the wall of the Grand Gallery is a central ‘intellectual’ point concerning the role of Giza, and the Great Pyramid within the energy fields of the planet and the solar system; a conclusion completely in keeping with the highest levels of consciousness believed to be designed into every aspect of the Pyramid, and the wider complex…
And indeed, the significance of this inches-thin line in the pyramid’s ‘physiology’ is reflected in its position as the Gallery reaches the level of the ‘mind’, the King’s Chamber; for at the top of the stairway of the Grand Gallery, the ‘Great Step’ as sometimes called is only 0.4 inches away from the central N-S axis of the pyramid. Not only that, but the North facing ‘star-shaft’ from the King’s Chamber crosses the centre-line at the height of the Mi-Fa line, or thereabouts … and in this way the mi-fa line and the northern ‘star-shaft’ along with the centre-line of the Pyramid recreate the axis with two inter-crossing lines /sine-waves that has been shown to be significant many times throughout antiquity; within the cube, for instance, and indeed, Giza within the land-masses of the world.

In confirmation of the octave interpretation of the wall, the width of the Gallery at the ceiling is exactly half of the width at the floor; thus symbolizing that while the energies have doubled in their upward evolution, the material has halved. Or vice-versa, as the higher energies descend into matter, the material dimensions double, and energetic rates halve…
Near the ceiling toward the top is a small passage that leads through to the ‘relieving chambers’ above the King’s Chamber.

At the top of the stairs the Great Step levels to the floor of the passageway leading to a small rectangular chamber, called the Antechamber, then the King’s Chamber.
Archaeologists consider this small space as possibly having been the ‘last defence’ against tomb-robbers, having been filled with further plugs/ stone barriers according to some accounts. The top end of the Gallery, the Step, and the floors of Ante Chamber, and King’s Chamber are all at the level of the 50th Course.

Concerning the ‘great step’ (but a few inches high) Petrie has this to say;

It may, therefore, be taken as intended that the face of this step, and the transition from sloping to horizontal surfaces, signalizes (sic) the transit from the Northern half to the Southern half of the Pyramid” (p.25). In retrospect, this must likely be symbolic of some celestial and astronomic point of significance.

(So one possible conclusion to draw from this is as follows; considering the near exactness of the distance to Phi, (61.8), this distance represents the significance of this universal value. Bearing in mind the geometric and geodesic knowledge of the builders, this North-South axis line may be symbolic also of the Celestial Equator with which astronomers divide the heavens. This line extends outwards from the Earth’s equator in all directions.

Petrie noted the floor of the Gallery intersects the south wall at 1689″ above the pavement, at 61.7″ S of the pyramid centre-line.
ie. “the face of the great step at the head of the gallery (which descends behind both stairs and ramps) is 61.7 – 61.3″ = 0.4″ S.of the pyramid centre”. (Petrie.p25) ie the step is located 61.3″ within the gallery before its southern wall, (which is 61.7″ south of the centre-line).
The accuracy of the great step, as well as the centre-line of the Queen’s Chamber, at 0.4″ or so each, in relation to the N-S axis of the pyramid is difficult to comprehend, even today, let alone five millennia ago …


From the great step the horizontal passage leads to the King’s Chamber. Before that is reached though, is a curious small chamber with no apparent purpose; the Ante-Chamber (from the Latin ‘ante’, meaning ‘before’). The diagram (below) comes from Smyth’s survey of 1877.

The heights above the pavement (ie. ground level) are;

the face of the great step ; 1693.7-1694.6″ (141.2 feet ave).
The North end of the Ante Chamber (the step end) is 1692.6″ above pavement,
– while the S.end; 1691.9″, (both around 141 feet.) The dimensions of the AC are;
114 – 117″ length (9.5-9.75ft)
64.48- 65.48″ width (5.37-38 ft)
149.01- 149.65” height (12.41-47ft)

Including minor variations, and so on, (Petrie, p.24). He also says the roughness of the walls here are among the worst in the entire pyramid; something which is virtually certainly not just workman inefficiency, considering the key ‘symbolic’ role this small chamber occupies in the whole edifice; akin within the symbolism of personal physiology (relevant to almost every structure within this and other examples of sacred architecture in Egypt) to a crucial point between the body and brain; possibly even the pineal gland, which is seated just outside the brain, at a mid-point between the hemispheres and without the boundaries of the blood-brain barrier, even though sited within the cranium.

The N. (gallery) end of the Ante chamber = 113.7” (9.4 ft) from N-S axis (which is .4″ from the great step).
The S. (King’s Chamber) end of the A/C = 229.8″ (19.15 ft) from the N-S centre-line.
Thus making the chamber 116″ (9.6 ft) in length, as noted above. The distance between the great step and the King’s Chamber = 27.5 ft, another example of the 27.5, 55, 110, 220, 440 ‘harmonics’ derived from the formative values of Pi as 22/7. Why this might be significant is examined in a while.

There is a joint built into the wall of the Ascending Chamber where the granite begins, within which grooves are cut into the wall, potentially for the granite blocks conjectured to have been used as a block similar to the Plugs in the Ascending passage.

Theories exist that the Ante Chamber was a last barrier of defence before the King’s chamber, and as such housed a portcullis system, which may have raised the large granite ‘sheets’ using ropes and pulleys; Petrie describes the clearing of large chunks of broken granite and limestone with his workmen from the entrance passage, and mentions a larger block which ‘stopped Professor Smyth when he was trying to clear the passage”. This was of granite, and worked surfaces; Petrie assessed this block as having to have come from the 50th Course, as granite is mostly present in the Pyramid in the Ante chamber and King’s Chamber, and the plug blocks in the Ascending passage…

Jon Bodsworth (whose extensive online public domain photographic archive makes illustrating the Great Pyramid possible), assesses that the grooves were most probably for the ropes supporting the final of the three portcullis stones.

Maillet mentions having seen a large block of c.6′ by 4′, with a 4″ hole drilled through its 20.6″ thickness, as well as the grooves in the walls of the Ante Chamber. If this was from the Ante Chamber, it is theorized that some form of mechanism existed which has never been discovered in the pyramid, such a portcullis or similar.

There are 3 grooves/slots in the walls of the chamber, which supports the idea of 3 slabs of granite protecting the King’s Chamber, and apparently there have been 3 or 4 instances of 20″ wide granite blocks being found in broken states dotted around the entire pyramid; one piece near the Pit in the Subterranean Chamber; one piece in the niche by the west wall of the Descending passage; and one piece inside the Grotto down in the middle of the ‘well-shaft’! A fourth rests besides the front entranceway.
Apparently, all with drilled holes, all of thickness c.20″, close to 1 cubit wide. (20.64”) (see left for block besides entrance-way).

This would seem quite supportive; though who moved them to these places is unknown.

The curious fact is raised by – that considering the size of the blocks, and of the chamber, it would have taken more men to lift each block than could have fitted in the chamber…another perplexing facet of the pyramid’s design and construction. Another incongruity lies in the detail of the surfaces of the walls at this (critical) point of the inner structure / metabolism (of the inter-related ‘organs’).

Petrie states “In the details of the walls, the rough and course workmanship is astonishing, in comparison with the exquisite masonry of the casing and entrance of the Pyramid; and the great variation in the foregoing measures shows how badly the pyramid masons could work”…(p.26) All things considered, it seems more likely that the surfaces of the stones, and slabs of cut rock within the myriad uses they are put to may have been used to continue the ‘language of symbolism” present in so many aspects of the details of this pyramid, and most of the temples of Egypt.
Perhaps what is being characterized is the ineffable nature of the barrier between matter and energy, (or body and brain), a point symbolized in the Qaballah by the ‘invisible’ sephiroth (energy centre), Da’ath.

The un-numbered Sephiroth called Da’ath also represents a gulf across which human consciousness is unable to pass, so immense and incomprehensible are the creative forces of the cosmos which occupy the first 3 sephira, Kether Chokmah and Binah…
In physiological terms the symbolism of the impenetrable barrier-point may be of the ‘isolation’ of the brain from the sensations and processes of the body; the blood: brain barrier, the brain-pan and encephalitic waters surrounding the brain all help to protect the nerve-free but immensely sensitive tissues within…

This potential symbolic nature of the Ante Chamber becomes apparent in this respect; again using the human being as the ‘plan of the Temple’, the metaphor describes the human body and spirit; this small space symbolizes the key point between body and brain (or between matter and energy) – the Occiput, (or as the TCMA calls the part of the body at the base of the cranium, the Occipital Gate), echoing the final ‘barrier’ hypothesis before the ‘sanctuary’ of the King’s Chamber is entered…

Having seen the symbolism of the Law of Seven built into the ‘spinal column’ of the Grand Gallery, it is worth examining the point of the mi-fa line in relation to the Ante Chamber, and the closely spaced shaft from the King’s Chamber, which points northwards, passing alongside the Ante Chamber and top of the Grand Gallery.
In fact, it may be possible that this shaft crosses the central axis at the height at the exact point where the mi-fa line reaches the centre-line at the top end of the Grand Gallery.

Furthermore, the pyramid point exactly 153 feet above the pavement, is located here within the Gallery, Ante Chamber, and King’s Chamber, at 1836 inches;
floor value = average. of 1692” – (141 ft) inches above the pavement,
then – 153 feet (1836”) is 144 inches(12 ft) above this.

In other words the ceiling of the Ante Chamber occupies the point 153 feet above the pavement, or perhaps 153.3 ft (ie +4inches)

     ie 1691"+ 149"= 1840" =153.3 ft

in fact Petrie says that “the whole chamber is from 149.01 to 149.65″ high, the ceiling being from 152.6 to 153” above the virtual end of the Gallery floor”…(presumably including the 4 inch step) -confirmation of the theory positing a connection between the length of the Gallery in feet, the height of the Ante Chamber ceiling, and the height of 153 feet above the pavement running through the horizontal passage and chambers towards the ceiling…

(This 153 ft mark also is to be found at a point between the floor and (seven feet beneath) the ceiling of the King’s Chamber…)
There is much cosmic# symbolism in the Bible, as we have see, in both Old and New Testaments; but one of the clearest uses of number symbolism to convey geometric and esoteric understanding is in the passage where Jesus helps Simon Peter and the other apostles catch 153 fish (exactly!).
The English geometer and antiquarian John Michell, author of “The Heavenly City” and other books, studies all the Greek numerical meanings of 153, as well as the associated geometric symbolism the parable contains. For now we will just note the fact that this value appears to have been meaningful to the designers of the Pyramid, and was encoded into the pyramid in various ways, at some of the key points…

In connection with why this value appears to be important here, it may be because if the height of the pyramid is divided by Pi,
the result equals;
481.3 / π = 153.20

In other words, within 2.4 inches to 153 feet.

So, the Ante Chamber ~ 153″ high
at 153′ above the pavement
at top-end of 153′ in length Gallery
and pyramid height/π = 153.21′

(This should mean in effect that a line drawn from the centre-line at 1836″ at the great step/start of KC level, to the centre-line point at ground-level, to the point where the Gallery begins, beside the Horizontal passage/Well-shaft on the QC level, should also measure 153′, thus creating an inner Isoceles triangle of equal sides and angles of 60°…


The King’s Chamber is the counterpart of the Queen’s Chamber situated below it. It is broadly rectangular in shape, and has suffered some damaged as a result of earthquakes over the millennia; there are fractures in the joins between the first and second courses (layers of blocks) of around .2 to .4inches, and more seriously the stone beams roofing the chamber have cracked also. Petrie states that every roofbeam on the South side has been fractured; “…since when the whole of the granite ceiling (weighing some 400 tons) is upheld solely by sticking and thrusting” !(p.27)

Note the usage of granite for the ceiling of this chamber, representative of the higher energies/ mental functions as a whole; as we have seen, granite is the source from which much quartz is obtained, thus the level of the pyramid connected with the ‘brain’ is constructed with the crystal energies present in quartz ( – unfortunately damaged though the roof is…)
Above the chamber are 5 small spaces like ‘lofts’ which are peaked by a slanted roof similar to the Queen’s Chamber. These are called the ‘Relieving chambers’. These were discovered by Col.Howard Vyse and his engineer Perring in 1832, with the incautious aid of gunpowder, as the process of breaking through the hard rock was too laborious. It was in these narrow spaces that Vyse ‘found’ the
hieroglyphic builder’s marks that are said to prove the pharaoh Khufu/ Cheops built the Great Pyramid. But the investigations of writers such as Sitchin, and others, indicate that it is equally likely these marks were painted overnight by Vyse and his men, for reasons of furthering reputation as much as scholarly pursuit.

(left; axonometric view of the King’s Chamber and Relieving Chambers, plus ‘star-shafts’. Note the point where the near (N) star-shaft turns upwards is almost exactly on the central axis of the pyramid at the Great Step, and the line of the mi-fa groove of the Grand Gallery’s right-hand wall as it crosses the axis line also).

Later the same year Vyse discovered the name of the builder of the third pyramid – Menkaure – through a similar process of ‘finding’ some scraps of detritus within the areas searched bearing the name of Menkaure/ Mycerinus.
The roof-beams of these chambers have separated from the walls also; “in every one of the spaces above it, the massive roof-beams either cracked across or torn out of the wall, more or less at the South side; and the great Eastern and Western walls of limestone, between which and independent of which, the whole of these construction chambers are built, have sunk bodily. Though…small – only a matter of an inch or two – these motions are but enough to wreck the theoretical strength and stability of these chambers, and to make their downfall a mere question of time and earthquakes. (Petrie,p.27).
The cracks in the walls and roof do in some instances bear plaster, or cement, applied by finger, indicating that this damage occurred before the pyramid was completed – unless early explorations attempted repairs?

The King’s Chamber is located some distance off the centre-line N-S axis of the pyramid; this point being .4″ from the top of the Step at the start of the horizontal passage which leads to the chamber, and the King’s Chamber wall/end of the passageway are both, according to Petrie, a distance of 330.6″ from the centre of the Pyramid.
This is a significant measure. Not only is 330 found in the bible (330,000 men in the army of Israel who defeat king Nahash), and in terms of the ratio of the (gravitational) mass of the Sun and the Earth (330,000:1), but this measures exactly 27.5 feet; a value we will see has great significance to the inner harmonics of the pyramid, alongside 5.5/11/22/44 (x 10), and so on.

Within the chamber lays the King’s Coffer, a hollow, large granite rectangular coffer said to have been built for placing the (mummified) body of the Pharaoh who built the pyramid, yet as no mummified remains have been discovered in the Great Pyramid, this question must be presently unanswerable. Alternative theories concerning the Coffer propose various functions – it may be noteworthy that the Coffer is a receptacle of granite constructed so that it may play a role in focussing energies within a central point of the chamber, and pyramid. As such possibly like the centre of the cubic-dimensioned Holy of Holies described in the Temple of Solomon; (this was the geometric point where the cloud of the ‘glory of god’ filled the chamber on its inaugural day when the 288 musicians and singers performed their music, creating essential resonances with the higher dimensions). If the Coffer does fulfil such a function then both the upward pointing Relieving chambers, plus the star-shafts may be routes the energies created follow in their onwards journey.

King’s Chamber dimensions are –

              length : 412.4" (34.30ft)  20  RC  ratio of length: width   =    2:1
              width  : 206.3" (17.16ft)  10  RC               height: width  =   1.11 :1
              height : 229.0" (19.08ft)  11.1 RC             length: height  =  1.80 :1

King’s Coffer – length : 89.62″ 4.339 RC
width : 38.50″ 1.864 RC
height : 41.31″ 2.000 RC

and the walls of the Coffer are just abouts 6″ (15cm) thick. Incidentally the high levels of craftsmanship which created this immense stone artefact must be noted. Petrie believed that the central inner area was created by drilling circular ‘plugs’ from the rectangle, and then finishing the edges neatly. He also points to there being several places where the workmen sawed through the stone too far, leaving traces still visible. To have cut through the stone of such thickness he estimates the builders must have used saws which were 9 feet long, and diamond tipped!

Several points of interest occur in consideration of the Royal Cubit dimensions of the chamber and coffer; firstly, Petrie based his measurement of the Royal Cubit on the dimensions of this chamber due to its primacy, as well as measuring the length of the chamber at top and bottom. The mean length of 20.632 ” is thus the length of the royal cubit, being one-twentieth the length, and one-tenth the width of the chamber.
Second, in using Royal Cubits, the chamber is proportioned in significant measures, of 20, 10, and 11.1 cubits. This is one of the Pyramid’s central’ proportions, so it is indicative of some of the designer’s intentions.

King’s Chamber – floor diagonal / floor-ceiling diagonal

So – the floor diagonal² = length² + width²
” = 400 + 100
=> the floor diagonal = √500 = 22.36 RC (ie.√5 = 2.236)

And also, the floor-ceiling diagonal² = floor diagonal² + height²
” = 22.36² + 11.1²
” = √623.21 = 24.96
” = 25 RC

Further to the occurrence of the square root of 5 of 2.236 (x 10) for the floor diagonal, plus the height of the King’s Chamber calculating to precisely 11.1 royal cubits, the proportion of the two diagonals (A/B) = 25/ 22.36 = 1.11 81. So it safe to say that this was the intention of the builders because of its characteristics. Equally the √123.456789 of 11.111(r) may have been intended; this also is a constant feature in cosmic#, due to its numerous relationships with pi, phi, alpha, the irrational roots, the squared circle and so on. (See – Notes & Numbers section for more of the many complex ways in which these values interact, within geometries and within the relationships existing between light, and gravity).

The length to height ratio likewise shows the importance of the ratio 1.8, which divides into 1 as .555… Likewise, if 100 is divided by 1.8181 the result = 5.5, the value present in so many aspects of the pyramid, and this website’s cos# study.
We have already seen the relation between 7,11,14,22 etc; and thus, 5.5, 2.75, and so on, as related ‘harmonically’ to the values of Pi as 22/7, and likewise therefore to the Squared Circle of diameter 7 units.

The diagram (left) shows the ubiquity of 7/11 proportions within the design of the Great Pyramid.

As mentioned, the floor of the chamber is quite separate to the walls, being blocks placed upon the core-masonry at a distance from the walls, and as such is a small amount higher than the lowest course of the chamber. As such it stands about 40.65 – 42.94″ below the level of the first course of the walls.

Petrie states that the floor is between the core-masonry floor of 1688.5″ over pavement, and 1692.8″ of the raised floor stones, several large gaps exiting between wall and floor stones, revealing the core-masonry upon which the floor stones are laid, beneath. In fact the floor is 5″ below the level of the floor-stones around the edges; except at the entrance way of the north side of the chamber, adjoining the passage way and Ante chamber, where the floor is level and smoothly worked. The height above pavement here is 1692″, so we shall take this as the best representative measurement for the floor of the chamber.

In royal cubits 230″ / 20.65 = 11.14, the average height of the chamber.

Further to this are some interesting geometric relationships;
481.3 / π = 153.2
153.21 / α = 1.11 8 !

The Coffer in the centre of the King’s Chamber is “of the usual form of the earliest Egyptian sarcophagi, an approximately flat-sided box of red Aswan granite” (p.29); the granite used in the various parts of the pyramid (for a total of c.8,000 tonnes of granite in the pyramid) here, the Ante Chamber, and the Ascending Passage ‘plugs’, was imported from Aswan quarry, a journey of over 560 miles (900km!) The blocks used here in the roofs of the King’s Chamber/ Relieving chambers are among the largest in the entire edifice, weighing from 25 tons upward to around 80 tons each!
(For comparison, as noted already, the average size of a battle tank at present is between 50- 65 tons. The heaviest tank in the world, the USA’s Abrams M-1, can weigh from between 65 – 81 tons).
How blocks of these size were brought hundreds of mile from Aswan to Giza (even by using boats along the Nile), then worked (to incredible standards of craftsmanship and accuracy), lifted to this height, and moved around and placed precisely is unknown – another of the many puzzles which surround the pyramid and ancient Egypt. Whether 300-400 men could manoeuvre such heavy stone blocks, even today – especially in the precise ways required while in such a difficult and cramped construction environment – is by no means clear, especially as it is thought the crane had not been invented at the time of construction, only rather ropes and pulleys, etcetera…

The Coffer is cut with 3 sides of the edges being cut with a groove to accommodate the lid; the fourth side is cut away as low as the groove to facilitate the sliding into place of the lid. There is no sign or remnant of a lid in the Pyramid though.
The coffer sides are rough-surfaced, and on the outer sides the lines made by saws can be seen; “showing that the masons did not hesitate at cutting a slice of granite 90″ long (7.5 feet), and that the jewelled bronze saw must have been probably about 9 feet long” (Petrie, p.29)…
On the W.side/ N.end is a mark where the saw was run too deep, and backed out again, having cut 1/10 of an inch too deep.
On the E. inside there is a portion of a drill-hole remaining. Traces of horizontal grinding lines remain on the inside of the west face, as well as some other signs of construction. It isn’t clear but apparently the Coffer was constructed from one single piece of granite rock, a quite amazing feat of construction for 2600 Bc,or thereabouts.

Considering the damage caused by earthquakes* (most probably) to the walls, and the roof-beams of the ceiling and the Relieving chambers, it is tempting to view the separateness of the floor here as some form of in-built ‘looseness’, or flexibility with which the structure would absorb the forces.

  • an earthquake in Cairo in 908Ad is said to have resulted in the deaths of 30,000 people, so obviously a zone where major earthquakes occur regularly.

This flexibility of the chamber may be somewhat akin to the protection afforded to the brain by the encephalitic waters within which it is ensconced. But perhaps the earliest explorers lifted the floor stones in search of hidden compartments;

The King’s Chamber is 330.6′ from the N-S centre-line of the Pyramid, the end of the passage floor also 330.7′ Certainly showing some significance or relation to the value of 330 found in the Bible signposting solar and cosmic energy, symbolism.

  • the floor is from 141 feet above pavement, and the ceiling is 160 feet above.

The work of David Furlong states that the Seked – or ‘gradient’ of a pyramid was achieved by calculating the ratio of palms horizontally to each cubit vertically, where 7 palms = 1 cubit (and 4 digits = 1 palm) the base of the Great Pyramid to its Height, along with several other pyramids,(Maidum, Khufu, Menkaure/b) has a seked of 5.5.

So for the Great Pyramid, the base R/A triangle (ie. half of the base length) = 440 / 2 = 220.
220 x 7 = 1540 / 280 = 5.5

This translates to the angle of the pyramid being equal to 51.87°, which Sir Flinders Petrie calculated during his work at Giza.

There is equally interesting data contained within the 5.5/ 7 Squared Circle diagram; if a triangle is drawn by extending a line from the centre along the horizontal axis the length of 5.5, and 90° up to the 7 units circle line, a RA triangle is formed of which; if the H = 7, and base line = 5.5, then 7² = 5.5² + x² = 49 = 30.25 + x²
=> x² = 18.75
=> x = 4.33 !

Ie; AC = 5.5 (radius of square), AB (hypotenuse/ radius of circle equal to square) = 7, then BC = 4.33 units.
This is one of the main reasons why the proportions of 7 and 11 are designed into the Great Pyramid, linking as they do the fractions of Pi (22/7) and various harmonics, as well as the phi proportions contained within the squared circle. The figure of 4.33 relates this to the harmonics of the Sun (864/432), as well as that of the Vesica and the hexagon; see the Geometry section for more on these matters, as well as the diagrams concerning the vertical axis of the Vesica, and the ‘double-triangle’ shown earlier this section with regard to the pyramid..

So, for example – 186 282 / 1.37035999206 / π = 43,270.
ie. C / α / π = 43,270

The 432 harmonic is expressed in the Great Pyramid by the ratio of the pyramid’s height to the radius of the world (ie. half of the earth’s 180° diameter; (or Circumference/ 2π = r, as 2πr = Circumference).
481.3′ x 43,250 = 3,942.46 (miles) as there are 5280 feet in a mile (and => 1/11 of a mile = 480′, ie. the height of the Pyramid)

The height is multiplied by 43,250 rather than 43,200 because recent research has shown the diameter of the Sun is actually closer to 865,000 miles than 864,000 – so the radius is close to 432,500 m.

And this proportionality of the Pyramid to these measures of the Sun and the Earth results from the fact that due to the size of the Earth, it is not a perfect sphere; it bulges at the Equator somewhat, and flattens at the Poles, (as an ‘oblate spheroid’).

Now the Equatorial radius of the world
EQ circumference = 40 075km /24 901.46m = radius 3963.2 m /6378.1km
POLAR “ = 40 008km /24 859.73m = ” 3949.9 m /6356.8km

So the Great Pyramid at 3942.46 miles is just 7 miles off Earth’s Polar meridional radius = 0.14% difference.
ie. 1/7 of 1%, or to within an accuracy of 99.85 % ..! Or alternatively, the Polar Radius of the earth in feet divided
by the height of the Great Pyramid = 43,331.5, thus placing the pyramid in a ratio close to the radius of the Vesica Piscis
axis (43.3%), as well as close to the Sun’s radius of 432,700 miles.

This ‘affinity’ to the Polar radius of Earth rather than the Equatorial radius may be one reason why the Pyramid is oriented to North (‘faces’ north, with all four base sides facing the points of the compass) to an accuracy of just 3’minutes divergence (ie to
within 1/20 th of a degree to absolute North) – or perhaps an indication of what the designers of the site considered to be a salient consideration, or signpost.

The two shafts leading from the walls of the King’s Chamber up towards a high point on the North, and South faces of the pyramid run horizontal to the floor for a distance beyond the walls of the chamber before turning upwards. The angle of the South shaft is 45°, and the North shaft is 32.36°.

They are located bilaterally about 8 feet from the Eastern wall of the chamber, at a height of 3 feet or so, and have a width of 7.1 and 8.3 inches, and a height of 5.5 inches.
The theory the shafts were oriented to the constellations of Orion and Sirius respectively, at the time of construction in the 3rd millennium Bce, or possibly to Leo in the time when the Sphinx was designed and built, is uncertain now – not necessarily proven or disproven – due to the fact the shafts are not straight lines; the northern one in particular undergoes some twists and turns, which make line-of-sight at least very problematic. The average angle is calculated at 32.36°.
And it is the Northern shaft that holds interest here. Rather than turn upwards directly as it exits the walls of the King’s Chamber, as the diagram shows, it runs horizontally for a distance alongside the passage between the King’s Chamber and the Ante Chamber, then alongside the Ante Chamber itself, before turning upwards. In all for quite a distance; the North end of the Ante Chamber floor is 113.7″ from the centre-line of the pyramid, and the N.wall of the Kings Chamber to the same point is 330″. The top of the ”Great step’ is .4″ from centre.

So the star-shaft travels 216.3″ from the wall of the chamber it exits, to the S.side of the Ante Chamber. This equals 18.05 feet. The star-shaft appears to turn upwards at a point just under half the length of the Ante Chamber, which equals 40% of 114-117″ of AC length = 46.2″.
In other words 69.3″ before the 113.7″ mark where the AC begins; ie, 173.0″ from the step/centre-line; of the 330″ from KC to step, the star shaft travels therefore 157″ to the upturn point. (a nice equivalence to Pi/2 which equals 157.0796), giving the proportion of angled to horizontal shaft as 173.0/157.08 = 1.10 19.
But why take the shaft a distance of (approximately) 157″ (13.1ft) before turning it upwards? And make the passage ‘veer’ out of line around the Ante Chamber, as the axonometric diagram from Wikipedia shows…
To ensure the correct angle of the shaft to the exact point it reaches the North face? Or the designers could have changed either value and turned the shaft up almost as soon as it left the chamber, as the other 3 shafts do… so there appears to be a special reason encoded, or designed, into this question. And some question of what this angle at this height ‘pointed to’ in the night-skies.
The fact that it crosses the centre-line, and a key part of the Grand Gallery, the ‘backbone’ of the entire pyramid, would also seem to be of relevance

(left); as can be seen from the diagram at lower left hand corner, the northern star-shaft turns upwards at a short distance after passing the Ante-Chamber, near to the Great Step at the top of the Grand Gallery, at a point close to the crossover point of the central axis of the Pyramid, and the mi-fa line of the Grand Gallery; thus forming a symbol equivalent to the three lines of the Cube shown earlier.

The distance between the centre line of the Pyramid, and the wall of the King’s chamber is measured at 330.6″ which is 27.5 feet.

As mentioned, the angle of the N. shaft is 32.36°; which divides as follows; 360 / 32.36 = 11.12 48. (see 111.2, etc). (As we saw in the section on the Ley-lines of England, where the centre of England is located at Didcot, longitude 51.61°N, and latitude 32.36°N east of the Giza Prime Meridian).

The value has further cos# associations
2 x φ (1.618) = 3.236
360/ φ (1.618) = 222.4
360/2φ (3.236) = 111.2

               ie   360 / 161.8 = 2.22 4
                     360 / 32.36 = 11.1 2 (5x 2.22 4) etc.

Like φ, this value is related to the √5, namely 2.236. Phi because if √5 + 1 is halved, the result = 1.118 + 0.5 = 1.618 (φ).
In the same way, φ² (2.618) doubles to 5.236 – (ie. √5 + 3). – the Egyptian royal cubit is based upon this value, measuring 52.36 cm, or 0.5236 metres.
That the angle of the ‘key’ star-shaft which crosses the centre-line and Grand Gallery octave-line simultaneously is 32.36º gives some indication of the value the designers attached to these (cosmic) numbers. If it could be determined that a particular constellation was being focussed on by this angle, it would be a surprising conjunction of ‘theory’ and material reality… ie.a star system located at a geometric point of significance in the sphere of the heavens. Only further research may shed light on the possible reasons for the angle chosen.

An intriguing circumstance occurs at the point at which the North shaft turns upwards and crosses the centre-line of the pyramid. (This being the ‘great step’ where North and South are in balance – at the point where the Grand Gallery reaches the level of the King’s Chamber).
We have already seen the centrality of the 7 levels of the wall of the Grand Gallery, representing the 7 notes of the Octave.
In particular the Mi-Fa point; as noted, the Mi-Fa levels are shown to have a difference in measure, the only such distinction in the 7 levels; and in addition marked by a groove, or raised line running along the lower side of the Fa level – the point where Mi and Fa (the Earth and the planets) meet. This is a clear indication of the understanding of the inner dynamics of the Octave on the part of the designers.

This highlights the gaps between B-C, and E-F in the octave/ piano. In fact this may be why the piano octave is begun at (Middle)C; thus between B and C is Si-Do, and between E and F is the Mi-Fa interval.

As such, the Earth-Planets ‘step’, where this Mi-Fa ‘obstacle’ is situated, (in the Ray of Creation which describes our planet’s place in the solar system and the cosmos), created the need for organic life to arise; this to bridge the ‘energetic gap’ between higher and lower energies (or energy and matter) embodied by this shortcoming.
The body too requires (automatic) reactions within to ensure the correct production of daily energies, for our continued physical, emotional, and mental growth and functioning. (See Ouspensky – In Search of the Miraculous) In the body plan which divides it into stomach / physical centre(s) (Do-re-mi), chest / emotional centre (Fa-Sol), and head / intellectual centre (La-Si-Do), it can be seen that Mi-Fa bridges the gap between the lower sections of the Ray, or octave, of Creation, and the higher centres beginning with the emotional centre. As such it is a critical junction between the different physical and energetic dimensions in the processes of growth. Psychic efforts require conscious efforts at the correct point, at the correct time, if inner aims are to be achieved (see Gurdjieff, and Ouspensky, Nicholl etc, for much more complicated expositions of this).

So it is this centrality which led to the intricate design of this part of the pyramid; for if viewed in cross-section, it can be seen that the star-shaft crosses the Mi-Fa line at the exact centre-line of the Pyramid, at not dissimilar angles…(32.36° for the N.shaft, 25.9° for the Gallery).

And the siting of Giza at the ‘neck-point’ on the Nile where the Nile expands into the Delta, is likewise an image of the Pyramid’s location at the mid-point between body and brain, or matter and energy…within the centre of the world’s continents too as seen already.
So it seems likely this crossing over of the line of the star shaft and Mi-Fa line at the exact centre-line of the pyramid is a fact of high significance.

This cross-over point cannot actually be ‘seen’ from within the pyramid, only surmised in the abstract – so why was it designed in?

    *                         *

Conversely, these shafts may enable increased sensitivity to incoming (stellar/ solar) energies, hence their being pointed at the night-skies. This may have a corollary in modern day science. Physicists studying the bombardment of Earth by cosmic particles such as neutrinos (produced in the core of the Sun) have devised a way of isolating them for study; these minute energy particles are so powerful and small that they are able to pass through rock! Accordingly scientists reasoned that in a subterranean setting, only these particles would be getting through from the surface; as such a means of ‘isolating’ a stream of them was enabled, by building (basically water-tanks) the measuring apparatus in disused mines/ etc, at a depth of hundreds of metres beneath ground level. (See – the Sanford Underground Research Facility, located in what used to be a gold-mine. As well as neutrinos, scientists there hope to eventually be able to discern the particles which constitute ‘dark matter’, the ‘invisible’ force which physicists believe holds galaxies and space together).

It is conceivable that in similar manner the star shafts offer a different medium to the aggregate around them, and thus over time encourage a discrete energy flow of some sort down the ‘star-shafts’… it may be possible they isolate certain preferred high-energy particles, blocking out sunlight/ background radiation, but enabling a flow of cosmic particles from sidereal space to flow into the Queen’s, and King’s Chambers; from there to the heart of the energy processes necessary for the pyramid’s functioning within the world energy-grid. The coffer as a receptacle makes some sense in this theory, especially considering the high quartz content of granite, from which it is made…so when struck the coffer is said to emit a deep resonant tone.

In this sense the kinks in the channels may begin to make sense; if the Chinese art of feng shui is studied, it is a well-known practice to lessen the in-flow of negative Qi by putting a bend in the path, or corridor coming into the property. This disperses the more excessive inflows of Qi as it dissipates into the obstacle; just as with a curve on a river, a riverbank may absorb a proportion of its energies. This limiting, or channelling of incoming energies is used often where straight lines such as roads, or bridges or paths run ‘unchecked’ directly into spaces of habitation or work.

Of course this is all speculation – but supporting information from concurrent civilizations and philosophies of proven worth, such as Taoism and Feng Shui offer, are certainly worth bearing in mind.

The human body, especially (sites located within) the brain/ mind in particular, are similarly receptive to the highest sidereal energies which are part of the complex process of energy production; energies from deep space which create a backdrop, or ‘net’, of interstellar waves ‘breaking upon’ upon earth, some of which can be anything up to 5 miles in wavelength as they pass through and around our planet…
Energies in other words from every level of the Ray of Creation are received into the ‘food octave’ of the human body.* The centres within the brain, and the body which absorb these galactic and sidereal energies are more or less active, depending on the individual’s level of functioning and sensitivity. But every normal human being contains the template which is open to the different levels of the cosmos contained within material reality.

There is more information connected with this siting of the ‘star-shafts’ of the King’s Chamber in geometric conjunction with the Grand Gallery, the centre-line of the pyramid, and the overall structure of the edifice. This perspective stems from the Vesica Piscis symbol, which we have already studied in some detail. The geometry of the Vesica Piscis inner-triangles is actually quite precisely replicated by the inner structures of the Great Pyramid, so the two passages from the entranceway, the Ascending and Descending Passages are both at angles one half of the slope of the pyramid; thus making the angle between the two the same as the pyramid’s angle, on a smaller scale; much how the inner divisions of the Vesica work, in a fractal sense.

This shows how the sides of the triangle, equalling the radius of each circle, if measuring 100 units, give the triangle a height of √3/2‚ = 1.732/2‚‚ = 86.6(%).
If the circle is given diameter 100 units, the triangle sides = 50 units, and the height = 43.3 units.

The triangle sub-divides into sections of 3 smaller equal triangles of 14.4 3 units each, thus creating the Ad Triangulum matrix.

It was from this we saw, that many of the finest Gothic cathedrals and monasteries were developed; with the centre-point of the symbol being sited at the ‘navel-point’ of the building site, from which the plan flows outwards (with support columns/key aspects of the building being placed on the ‘matrix’ of the geometric plan… and of course the altar being located over the navel-point of the church, and the earth).

Now, if the basic Vesica diagram has its lines extended (as ‘harmonics’), then a different shape structure is obtained.

This is very harmonious too, in appearance. But another way of drawing them exists , which is to extend each inner triangle’s lines up to the lines of the triangle within which it is located. As can be seen, this creates 3 ‘six pointed stars’ within each other, still showing the ‘lines-of-force’ of the Vesica’s geometries.
And now some daylight can be seen; for if we take a plan of the Pyramid, and superimpose it upon the Vesica, it is clear the two are linked.

There are approximately 16 points of similarity here;

 1. the Descending Passage, from the entrance to where it levels.
 2. the horizontal part of the Descending passage. 
 3. the 'well-shaft'/ 'bottomless pit'.
 4. from the subterranean chamber to end of the passage.
 5. the Ascending Passage to the Queen's Chamber level.
 6. the Horizontal Passage to the Queen’s Chamber.
 7. the Queen's Chamber. Gabled roof on the centre-line pointing upwards.
 8. the Ascending Passage continued - the Grand Gallery.

 9.  the Ante Chamber/ King's Chamber level.
10. the centre-line triangle pointing upwards from the King’s/ Relieving Chamber level.
11. the star-shaft to the North face from the King’s Chamber level.
12. the star-shaft to the South face from the King’s Chamber level.
13. the Queen's Chamber shaft to North face. (internal axis of largest hexagon/ triangle)
14. the Queen's Chamber shaft to South face. ( as above).
15. the Well-shaft curving up to ground-level from point on horizontal basement passage.
16. the Well-shaft curving up to Queens Chamber passage level.

There are some differences in detail, such as the entranceway being some distance above ground-level… and the King’s Chamber is not clearly discernible in the symbol – yet obviously is off-set from the central axis by circa 330”/ 27.5 feet, for reasons unknown – and the star shafts of that level point upwards to near the mid-point of the side, in a close match to the symbol. Also the Relieving Chambers form an upwards pointing triangle as does the symbol.

So excepting the inevitable small differences, overall the evidence looks good that the design of the Pyramid was based (for reasons yet to be understood) on an understanding of the inner harmonics of the Vesica, a symbol which may connect many opposing forces, or aspects of reality. As noted earlier, a graffiti in the Descending Passage does indeed indicate an awareness of this fact dating from antiquity. (p.26).
There are some strong connections, therefore, between the Great Pyramid/ Giza site, Orion (called Sah, or Sahu, the ‘far strider’ in Egypt), and the Vesica Piscis…as well as potentially several other links such as to Sirius (Isis in Egyptian depictions), and to Leo (encapsulated by the Sphinx). But Orion seems to be the main celestial link;

  • firstly, the shape of the central region of Orion, the three stars of Orion’s Belt (Alnitak, Alnitam, and Mintaka) is conjectured to have been the inspiration for the diagonal orientation of the three main pyramids of the Giza complex.
  • secondly, there was in the religious texts a close connection between Orion/ Osiris, and Sirius/ Isis (Alpha Canis Major)
  • thirdly, the star-shafts/ Giza design/ Osiris references all point to Orion (as well as the significant constellations of Sirius, and Leo). However, this relationship is not just geometric or artistic/ mythologic; in fact the constellation of Orion (or its position in the night-sky) bears a close similarity to the central points of the Vesica in appearance too.
    So, with the top star of Betelgeuse, and the bottom star of Rigel representing the top and bottom points on the vertical centre-line of the Vesica, and the three stars of Orion’s belt – Alnitak, Alnitam and Mintaka – representing the three horizontal axis centre-line points, from the centre-points of the two spheres (with Alnitam being the centre-point therefore of both the vertical and horizontal axes of the Vesica) – it can be seen to form the double triangle of the geometric symbol, quite recognisably, if at a more elongated proportion.

There are several points about Orion which are noteworthy –
Though elongated the star at each ‘tip’ of Orion can form a (double) triangle with the three stars of Orion’s Belt… thus matching the Vesica diagram of the source of the Ad Triangulum system of architecture; as such the three stars on the Belt are equivalent to the two side points of the horizontal axis, and mid-point at the centre of the two axes of the symbol, ie at the geometric centre-point of the Vesica. This can be compared to the double triangle design of the Great Pyramid in terms of the above/ below ground ‘mirror-image’ of its design, based around the symmetry of the Descending and Ascending passageways. Angles which when combined form an inner pyramid within the structure which also has a angle of 51.74°, or thereabouts… so this is fractal like the Vesica design, indicating some form of similar purpose to the designers of the Pyramid.

The Vesica diagrams are fractal in their being repeated by using the shorter horizontal line as the vertical line of the next size down (so each triangle from mid-line to hypotenuse of smaller triangle changes from height √3/2 : 0.5, ie, 86.6 : 50 units), and so on.
The next triangle thus goes from height 0.5 (50 units) to exactly 1/3 of 86.6 = 28.8 6 = 1.732:1 each time.

The Vesica Piscis chapter details the remarkable resemblance between the table of these changes to the Tree of Life in the Babylonian stela of the same name, (with Shamash or an ‘apkallu’ touching a ‘pinecone’ / pyramidal-shaped tetractys to the crucial neck region of a man alongside it.)

These cultural connections are all likewise remarkable; and in theory, Orion may have been seen as a celestial counterpart to this complex geometry, and set of symbols. Indeed, the Well-shaft, curving up from the basement through the Grotto to the level of the Queen’s Chamber horizontal passage, may be compared to one of the nebulae present within the constellation of Orion, considering its significance to the designers of the Pyramid, and to the entire Giza complex.

Particularly as in the map of the night skies, Orion is situated very close to the celestial Equator; in comparing Orion’s central stars to the Vesica patterns, which sit at the exact centre-lines in both axes. So both Vesica and Orion may be said to be representative of the harmonic ‘balance’ to be found in both instances. Additionally, the celestial equator is closely aligned to the Milky Way (DIAGRAM), ie. the central ‘disc’-shaped region of our galaxy which crosses the night-sky in an arch; Orion, in being so close to these lines, may have be viewed as being the representative point in the skies of celestial balance and harmony, and as such a gateway to the ‘Tree of Life’ towards the centre of the galaxy.

  • and in the Bible, there is some potential connection to Orion as follows; when God banished Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, for consuming the fruit of the Tree of Life, he sent them “east of Eden”, and to protect the ‘gate of the Garden of Eden’, saying he had placed a ‘flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life’ (Gen 3.24).(Incidentally, 360/ 32.4 = 11.1111… and as we see in the Bible section, the Hebrew word Aleph, from which comes Alpha, the first letter of Hebrew (and many alphabets) is composed of three letters itself, which add up as (aleph) 1 + (lamed) 30 + (peh) 80, making 111 – a sign of the triune nature of the godhead).
    If the progress of Orion is traced through the hours of the night, it turns clockwise (in the Northern night-skies) from being almost horizontal between Betelgeuse and Rigel at first, in a circular rotation to being almost vertical (with the Belt horizontal). This could be interpreted visually and otherwise as the stars of Orion being the “flaming sword which turns at the gates of Eden” – ie. in the direction of the stellar gateway/ tree of life of the heavens. Additionally, when Yahweh blesses Noah and mankind, on Mt Ararat, he says;

Genesis 9.13-16;
9.13 I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a token of a covenant between me and the earth.
9.16 And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature.

Potentially referring not only to rainbows as experienced on earth, but to the nebulae (clouds) present within the Bow of Orion, the biggest nebula visible in the night-sky; a region of the heavens where there are ‘star-nurseries’, ie stars are formed by the action of gravity ‘gathering’ the vast gas-clouds composed of elements such as hydrogen and numerous other elements (often produced by stars in the late stages of their stellar evolution, such as supernova explosions of massive collapsed stars) into compact spheres. When the inward pressure of these immense gas-clouds reaches a certain stage, the result is the beginning of a star, fuelled by the processes of nuclear fusion; much how the sun started around 4.5 billion years ago, while the rest of the solar system formed from the same material cloud; (and in that time the sun has burnt several hundred million tons of hydrogen every second – showing the vast sizes of the gas-clouds which form stars and planets, such as the Sun, Jupiter, Saturn and Earth).

The Book of Enoch – and potential connections to the Great Pyramid of Giza, and the Seraphim.

Having seen the existence of relationships between the Egyptian religion/ the designers of the Pyramid and Orion/ Osiris – and noting also the inner structures of the Great Pyramid were based on the geometries of the central area of the Vesica Piscis, there is in fact some support to these complex themes and connections raised in this section, from what is one of the most important non-canonical works of antiquity; the Book of Enoch.

The first broad ‘western’ or European awareness of this text which had survived from antiquity was when it was discovered and brought to Europe-wide attention by the Scottish traveller and antiquarian James Bruce, in the late 18th century. Bruce, the Earl of Kinnaird in Scotland, and a freemason since 1853, went on a voyage of exploration and adventure across the Levant and Near East in the years between 1768-74, after an initial posting as a diplomat in 1765 to the Bey of Algiers, (the foremost pirate-state or city in the Mediterranean). Over the course of several years between 1768 to 1771 he visited Alexandria, Cairo, Thebes, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, before recrossing the Red Sea and tracing the Nile towards its source, up in the high-lands of Ethiopia!
Whilst in Ethiopia (called Abyssinia at that time) seeking to find the location of the source of the Nile, he discovered the Orthodox Christianity churches there had copies of the original Book of Enoch, a text extant from the biblical era, dating from at the very least c.2-300Bce – as such there are numerous uses of language within the Bible which indicate a familiarity and respect for the Book of Enoch at the time of writing!
When Bruce brought the copies of the Ethiopic text of Enoch back to Britain in 1774, of the three copies he brought with him, one was given to the Bodleian Library in Oxford*, one to the royal library of France, and one to the Bruce family, which later also went to the Bodleian.

*(a point of interest is that the latitude of the Bodleian in Oxford at 51.75°N is identical to the angle of the Great Pyramid – and at 1.25°W of Greenwich, is therefore 32.38° W. of Giza / Prime Meridian. Having just noted the depiction of a ‘flaming sword which turns every way to keep the way of the Tree of Life‘ at Genesis 3.24, it is noteworthy that the degrees of the earth’s circumference 360/ 32.38 = 11.11 8 ! (or alternatively, 360/ 3.24 = 111.111) making it therefore a fitting location for the first (Hebrew) book to describe the activities of angels with measuring cords, (from the 1882 G.H.Schodde translation of 1Enoch);

Chapter 61. – And I saw in those days that long cords were given to those angels, and they took to themselves wings, and flew, and went towards the north. And I asked the angel, saying, ‘Why have these taken the long cords, and gone away?’ And he said to me; ‘They went out to measure…these bring the measures of the just, and the ropes of the just…And these measures will reveal all the secrets of the depths of the earth…and (of those martyred) none will be destroyed before the Lord of the spirit. And then received a command all who dwell in the heights of heaven, and one power, and one voice, and one light, like the fire, was given to them”.

This ability to measure the ‘secrets’ contained within the measures of the world is one shared by the angels of virtually all the major civilizations of antiquity; in Sumer the gods were often depicted with a ‘rod and ring’ type of measuring cord; likewise those of Egypt, with the ‘Shen ring’, an identical device, which gradually became the slightly different symbol of (earthly) sovereignty, the royal cartouche. And in Hebrew the angels thus described in 1Enoch, plus those in Revelations 11.1; ‘And there was given me a reed like a rod; and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that worship there.’

Others parallels of the original Book of Enoch existed through the Middle Ages, if not longer, such as the Slavonic Orthodox Church version. The first English/ German translations which used multiple copies to create a ‘verifiable’ version came out during the 1850-1890’s, with the Rev. R.H.Charles 1893 publication of 1Enoch being widely accepted as the standard reference-work.
There are references to the original book/ text in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, indeed in the New Testament too, (Jude1.14-15) indicating the historicity of the original version, and the probable relation of those versions which made their way through the centuries to modernity.
This book was not given canonical status in either the Hebrew or Christian faiths though, possibly because of the extensive sections concerning the Watchers, or the Nephilim, detailing, as such, intercourse between the ‘sons of the gods’ and women – but nevertheless was well-known and widely referenced across antiquity, in Hebrew, Syriac, Greek and Latin texts…

So who was Enoch? The Bible tells us in Genesis that Enoch was the Hebrew Patriarch who was ‘seventh from Adam’ in the lineage from Adam and Eve to Noah; the line progressed from Enoch to – Methuselah – Lamech – Noah..(showing the frequent predilection for encoding cosmic# into the details of characters’ lives, in Genesis we see that Enoch lived 365 years on earth, (before leaving earth for the heavens!) – and his grandson, Noah’s father, Lamech lived for 777 years according to the Bible).

(This next section quotes extensively from Zecharia Sitchin’s description of the Book of Enoch, in “The Stairway to Heaven”, p30-35)

As in the Old Testament, in the eponymous book Enoch is visited by angels, divine beings, who then ‘take him up into the heavens’. His journey takes in the ten (levels of) heavens, the final three of which are usually inaccessible to humans. Towards the highest levels, he sees a mountain in the distance “resembling the seat of a throne; and fragrant trees encircled the throne.

“ And amongst them was a tree such as I had never smelt…and its fruit resembles the date of a palm”

(The palm tree – linked with Palmyra – and the date tree in the Near East, were accorded a special sanctity in that time, so that the palm-tree symbol was a symbol for divinity – possibly because of its etymological links with ‘darkness’ , so as such meaning that which is ‘incomprehensible’/ unfathomable… Sitchin writes in ‘The Stairway to Heaven’ that ‘the Sumerian Gateway to Heaven was marked by the date-palm’. As can be found in the Egyptian descriptions too of the Celestial Paradise.
This is related potentially linguistically to ‘Da’ath’ – the “unknowable (11th) Sephiroth” of the Qabalah, the ‘unbridgeable gap’ which exists ‘invisibly’ between the highest 3 levels of the Sephira, and the remaining 7). Also, the mentioned fruit of the Tree, the date, is closely similar in shape to the central region of the Vesica, a point rarely noted, but one which links the ‘fruit of the Tree of Life’ with the geometries of the Vesica.

To continue, the angel with Enoch explains of the Tree;

“As for this fragrant tree, no mortal is permitted to touch it till the Great Judgement..
Its fruit shall be food for the elect…Its fragrance shall be in their bones.”

This tree must surely be taken to be an abstract metaphor – and one concurrent with the Tree of Life of the Sumerian / Babylonian representations (from which therefore, in terms of both words and images the Hebrew concept must in all likelihood have developed); and one which in effect is a mathematical/ geometric description of the proportions of the centre of the Vesica (double-triangles) as they progress between heavens and earth/ energy and matter.
The axial nature of the Tree of Life, like the axis of the Vesica, is indicated by the reference to ‘bones’, these sharing the similar function of providing a framework for the growth of higher energies, and actually sharing the etymological root of Oss/ oak/ ox/ axis/ axon/ octave -from Sumer/etc to Hebrew to Greek and Latin; a subject given some attention in the Etymology section)… *

  • from Hebrew, for example, come the words; osem (might/ skeleton) osma (strength) esma (bone) aseh (backbone)… In addition to the axial nature of the Vesica shown by the Tree of Life, the ring we have mentioned was also depicted in the hand of the deities besides it. So in the central Sumerian stela the Tree of Life, (containing geometric meanings) and its many reproductions through the millennia of the Sumerian related cultures, in the hand of the ‘bird-deity’ (?) on the left,jpg.00049 there is a representation of this cord, symbol of celestial and earthly protection and authority, as well as possibly the angelic ‘cord of measuring’…And likewise in the Tree of Life stela the deity Shamash/ apkallu on the right, placing with his right hand a pine-cone (tetractys/ Phi representation/ pineal gland) in the Occipital ‘gate’ of the human, holds the same symbol in his left hand. In some symbolism of antiquity such as in early South American artwork this was given the slightly different form of a shield, formed by a circle of cord, but again fulfilling a cosmic role of protection…
    Depictions of the ‘rod and ring’ symbol possibly developed over time, as always, becoming ‘more than a cord’, even as awareness of the cord’s symbolic meanings faded, perhaps. If that is, the small containers held by the Anuna did develop from the original ring symbol; some academics may differ in their opinions, but what is clear is that the ‘small containers/ buckets’ ( as some people call them !) fulfil a symbolic role only, being so small. However, the true intent of the creators of the symbols remains obviously open to differing interpretations.

Enoch is then taken to another mountain range;

“The angels took me to a place in which those who were there were like flaming fire, and when they wished, they appeared as men (reflecting Biblical descriptions). And they brought me to a place of darkness, and to a mountain the point of whose summit reached to heaven”.

This is strongly indicative of the Seraphim (the flying fiery serpents/ class of angels described mainly in Genesis and Isaiah)- or the Nagas – the (positive) gene-stream of the serpent/ higher dimensional beings of antiquity. (see the Bible section for more on this).
Also the imagery connects them with the ‘holy mountain’ which as well as pointing to the sacred nature of several mountains (such as Sinai, Zion, Carmel, Ararat, Mashu in Gilgamesh, etc) is one of the epithets of antiquity for the Great Pyramid, (resembling as it did a snow-covered mountain at first, with its original white limestone marble outer covering layer). Similarly the ‘E-kur’, the (various examples of) ‘Mountain-House’ of the gods in Sumerian myths and poems, which bears similarities to the stepped ziggurat pyramids of the Sumerian civilization. (left; depiction of Temple of Etemenanki, c1200-335Bce Babylon, by Carus Paul,1887)

The proportionality of the Pyramid to the North Pole to Equator radius of the Earth bears relevance too; sited at 30°N the pyramid is oriented precisely to within 1/20 of a degree to the (true)? North point of the compass; thus to the North Pole, and beyond that, to the celestial North, marked at present by the Pole Star, Polaris. (Though which star is the Pole Star is subject to the nuances of the Cycle of Precession which ensures that the Earth’s Celestial Pole changes with the Pole’s circular motion through the heavens across the 25,920 years cycle).

“And I saw the chambers of the luminaries, and the treasuries of the stars, and of the thunder, in the great depths, where were a fiery bow and arrows, and their quiver, and a fiery sword and all their lightnings”…

This dramatic imagery is a close stellar match to the description of Orion the Hunter, the only asterism/ constellation depicted with both bow and sword.
The description may likewise be interpreted as relating to the Great Pyramid in the design similarities between it and Orion, giving additional meaning to the reference to chambers of the luminaries etcetera.

And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire; and it began to afright me.
And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals; and the walls of the house were like a tessellated floor of crystals, and its groundwork was of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were fiery Cherubim, and their heaven was as water.

The language here may be applied to the features of the pyramid as we have seen; a wall, crystals, ‘tongues of fire’ (conduits of energy, and in fact pyramid the word has some links to ‘pyre’ as in ‘energy-flow’), entrance to a large edifice, crystals (whether polished limestone of the original outer casing, sculpted quartz in the Grand Gallery, or those within granite); walls of geometric design, tessellated as in an Ad Triangulum/ isometric ‘diamond’ pattern; a ceiling pointing to or with connections to the paths of the stars (the star-shafts), orders of angels, as well as geometric designs based upon values derived from celestial energy, and so on. (shown left is the ceiling of Peterborough Cathedral in Cambridgeshire, England, built in 1118-1127Ad, acknowledged widely to be one of the finest medieval church ceiling designs anywhere in Europe). The many existing relations between such sites of higher-dimensional energies and water are touched upon in virtually every section of this website.
So this passage has echoes to various aspects of the Great Pyramid, without necessarily referring to it in particular; the imagery does seem to indicate a non-material level or abstract of reality, as well as deeply abstract metaphorical meanings…
There is a similar passage in the Sumerian/ ABA (Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian cultures) tale of Etana (Ethan in the Bible, meaning one who is ‘Mighty’). Etana was the 13th king of Sumer in the King Lists, and when his wife failed to provide an heir, he implored the gods for help; the sun-deity Shamash recommended he travel to a ‘great pit’, where an ‘imprisoned’ eagle would fly him to the Gates of Heaven, from where he could petition the Lord in person.
There are versions of this epic, according to Sitchin (Divine Encounters,p.111-119) on cylinder seals dating back to the 24th century Bce. The allegorical nature appears to Sitchin as describing a space journey, something not impossible given the events and myths of the time-period. But what is relevant here is the directions (p.117) Shamash (the Sun deity) gives to Etana;

Go along the road, cross the mountain
Find a pit and look carefully at what is inside it.
An eagle is abandoned down there.
He will obtain for you the Plant of Birth.

Potentially interpretable as referring to the Great Pyramid – we have seen how the site at Giza sits at the ‘centre of the world’s roads’ as such, being at the (geometric/ geographic) mid-point of all the earth’s continents; also how the Sphinx sits on the 30th Parallel gazing East, along one of the planet’s main ‘meridians’ linking the East and West… and in Delphi the legend was that Zeus released two eagles, who flew around the world in opposite directions; the point where they met was Delphi, and was considered to be an omphalos (umbilical/ navel) point from this. In both Egyptian, and Greek religious artworks omphalos marker stones were depicted with a pair of birds sitting on them, perhaps to emphasize the relatedness of sacred sites within the entirety of the earth as a single system…
Also notable are the references to ‘the Holy Mountain’ throughout antiquity in reference to the Great Pyramid. Moreover it may be recalled that due to the importance of the siting of many key temples throughout history over the ‘navel-points’ of the Earth which are ‘higher-dimensional gateways’, it may be inferred that the telluric energies of the planet, (comprised of not just Earth’s energies, but those of the Solar System, the Galaxy, and the stars), flow up from the Earth at these points. These energies are symbolised by the (solar/ celestial) symbol of the Eagle, plus the Plant of Birth, or Life.
Hence the importance of the ‘Great Pit’ or whatever it is called, in the basement of the Great Pyramid representing the ‘abyss’ which ‘pools’ beneath it, source of the ‘waters’ which sustain life on earth. Fittingly the Epic of Etana states that this subterranean eagle will help him obtain the Plant of Birth… much like the Plant of Immortality provided life-force/ energy in the Epic of Gilgamesh. This was obtained many leagues beneath the surface of the earth, in the ‘subterranean reservoirs’ or ‘waters of the abyss’ – the Apsu, or Abzu – it may be recalled. And was stolen from Gilgamesh as he bathed in a pool, by a serpent; symbol of the energies of the Sun and the pathways they take through the Earth’s surface, in ‘dragon-lines’, which are ‘sinuous’ and sinusoidal in nature ie coil and turn in spirals along an axial ‘straight’ line. From which comes the term ‘sinew’ meaning the same ‘tie that binds together’; one possible source of the sacred name ‘Zion’, or ‘Sion’ as early forms of the word sinew such as ‘sionu’ were found from the earliest periods of Indian and European languages. Also one possible (!) reason (considering the key world-line from the Sphinx along the 30th Parallel North to China and Japan etc), why the nation of China is referred to by the word ‘Sino-‘ (as in ‘Sino-Soviet’ for example), and the (sinuous) dragon has been representative of China since antiquity.

So a reading of this short passage in the Epic of Etana may be productively interpreted in light of these symbolic considerations. And while links between the civilizations of antiquity are difficult to ascertain accurately, the deities and the accomplishments of the civilizations of Sumer and of Egypt (and even China in some ways) indicate some deep connections between the two – most likely meaning they were both established by the Anunnaki, possibly…

In the epic of Etana, upon finding the Pit and the eagle Etana rescues it – this with the help of a six-runged ladder, linking the metaphor to the hexagonal geometries at the heart of the Vesica and Cube, as well possibly to the connotations related to genetics.
He then sets to healing the eagle’s broken wing, which he repairs with copper, (symbol of the Nehash/ Nagas…) They search the mountains for the Plant but it is not there. As they spend their time looking, at night they have dreams to guide them, similarly to those Gilgamesh and Enkidu experience while travelling across the mountains towards the Cedar Forest of the Gods. Etana’s dream is ambiguous (as well as partly illegible on the tablet), whereas the eagle (!) has the following dream:

I saw a house with a window without a seal. I pushed it open and went inside.
Sitting in there was a young woman amidst the brilliance, adorned with a crown, fair of countenance.
A throne was set for her; around it the ground was made firm. At the base of the throne lions were crouching. As I went forward the lions gave obeisance. Then I woke up with a start.

We have seen how the Queen’s Chamber was built with two ‘star-shafts’, which were explored by Rudolf Gantenbrink and his German Archaeological Institute team in 1992/3 and by the multi-national DJEDI Project in 2014; these robotic explorers discovered at the top-end of the southern shaft a small metal door with two small handles on it, just inside the stonework of the sloping walls of the Pyramid at the 50th Course. It is conjectured that this small doorway (8 by 8 inches) was left open at times to allow air to circulate the Queen’s Chamber- or for some other possible reason, as mentioned already. Additionally this small cast metal door may be more a symbolic sign from the builders of the significant possible energetic function of the shaft.
So this may be equated as the ‘entrance through the ‘unsealed’ window (opened ‘door’) through which the eagle in its dream enters the ‘house’ of the Queen rather than via a normal entrance/ door. In other words a non-physical entrance-way.
Further to this, it mentions the young woman (the Queen) sat among the brilliance (of the polished stonework; or of the solar and sidereal energies which are focussed and refined within the structures of the Pyramid), adorned with a crown (the gabled roof of the Queen’s Chamber). A throne was set for her, and the ground around it was ‘set’ firm (paved with dressed stonework). This might also be referring to the site being located over an ‘anchor’ point of the Earth’s surface. The lions crouching may refer to the crouching Sphinx, at the edge of the complex, sometimes termed the ‘lion of the ground’ as is the serpent in Gilgamesh – and in facing East along the 30th Parallel, the Sphinx is arguably ‘paying obeisance’ to the brilliance of the Sun, which rises on the horizon each day in the East…or equally it may refer to the energies of the sun which fill the Queen’s Chamber as they circuit the entire edifice.

Following on from this they begin to fly to the Heavens –

‘See how the land appears!
Peer at the sea at the sides of the Mountain House
The land has become a mere hill,
The wide sea is just a tub’.

The site at Giza is not next to the sea; but is within sight of the Nile, which almost immediately spreads out into the delta region of the Nile, of marshes and channels in the last stages of the river’s journey to the sea. And secondly, the poem refers to not a mountain, or a house, but to the Mountain House, the E-Kur as mentioned; identifying it closely with an edifice resembling a mountain; either a step-pyramid, or equally possibly, the Great Pyramid… so the basic image of rising up from the earth above the buildings of the civilization may be applied to that of Giza as much as any of the sites of Sumer, or of the Near East where the gods were said to have a ‘landing place’. Places such as Baalbek, the Cedar Forest and mount ‘Mashu’ in Lebanon, or Jerusalem in Israel. Of great interest with regard to this aspect of the works of antiquity is a point raised by Sitchin.

Namely that all three of the sites mentioned are based upon wide areas of levelled rock, and/ or bases of massive building blocks, providing a long-term level of stability far greater than would otherwise be the case. None of the three have any records of when or how the earliest levels of the sites were laid, or shaped, although Hebrew myths extend to the idea of the Temple Mount / Mount Moriah area having been completed/ extended with millions of tonnes of stones and soil (held in by walls and terraces) before the main walls of Jerusalem could be built. The Bible does not specify how much of Jerusalem had been built when Abraham received the blessing of the ‘first priest of Jerusalem’, Melchizedek (approximately 1000 years before David became the city’s first king of a united Israel in the 11th century Bce). (Genesis 14.18)
Also embedded several feet over the lowest ‘pavement level’ of the Western Wall of Jerusalem are several immense blocks of stone estimated to weigh over 600, 570, and 355 tonnes, and measure 42ft, 40ft and 25ft respectively. (see Sitchin, The Cosmic Code, p216-231). No historical record remains, or has ever been referred to in other works detailing how these ‘key-stones’ were put in place – events surely of the highest significance, both here and at Baalbek…
The strength of the kilometre wide layer of limestone bedrock beneath the entire Giza complex, at a depth of 4-6 feet deep has likewise obviously ensured the long-term security and stability of the pyramids, against subsidence or worse in an area with a regular occurrence of earthquakes. (The tetrahedral shape of the pyramid is also the most efficient geometric form a building can be given in terms of structural strength, thus helping make the Great Pyramid the largest building of its size still surviving from antiquity, although as many observers have noted, from Petrie onwards, the structural weaknesses of the stones of the Great Pyramid are a matter for long-term worry).
The conscious siting of Giza at the exact spot it inhabits means that the bedrock layer as it is was either extremely fortuitous, or was created in some way – possibly at the same time the Sphinx was made from digging down through 30 feet of bedrock – a long time before the pyramids of Giza if rain-erosion patterns on the Sphinx are to be trusted. Baalbeck too has the Trilithon, for which no convincing explanation as to how three blocks of between 750-800 tonnes each were placed 6-8 feet above the ground level, being brought also from the quarry around a kilometre away (while Giza imported stone blocks of 2-200 tonnes weight apiece a distance of over 500 miles from the quarry in Aswan, southern Egypt, and they are found within the Kings Chamber at a height of over 150 feet above pavement). The supporting layer beneath the Trilithon too consists of many stones of up to 350 tonnes, and 30 feet length… if the aims of the ‘gods’ in antiquity was to provide a stable basis for their works and temples, to function for millennia as energetic centres, and for humanity on earth to benefit and learn from as ‘centres of energetic transformation’, then the provision of such ‘perfect’ sub-layers would be not only functional, but an ‘indirect’ sign of the ‘gods’ presence and practices from a time before records began. The Chinese martial arts of Tai Chi (‘Supreme Heaven-Earth Bond’, identical in meaning to the Sumerian ‘dur-an-ki’) has a saying regarding the development of personal health and strength; ‘A temple is built from the foundations upwards’…

There is a possible connection too in the Bible’s description of the presence of Yahweh on the holy Mount Sinai, when giving the Tablets of the Covenant (the 10 Commandments) to Moses (Exodus 24.9);
The Seraphim are connected to this (‘divine’) fire, something rarely noted except for its destructive capabilities, and often present in the lives of both Moses* and other prophets and patriarchs, (and materializing angels cf. Gideon, Samson’s parents, etc) of the Old Testament. In fact the word Seraphim derives largely from the Hebrew root ‘sarap’ meaning ‘to burn’, or ‘sharab’ to scorch or parch…

  • such as the Ark of the Covenant, the wheeled, gold-plated wooden container of the Tablets of the Covenant, topped by two golden angels with their wing-tips touching….also possibly they are the angels who destroy the unrighteous of Sodom and Gomorrah with the ‘powers of the sun’ while saving the family of the nephew of Abraham; Lot, and his wife and daughters). Enoch is taken aloft from the throne and river of ‘fire’, to a height where he could see –

“the mouths of all the rivers of Earth…and the cornerstones of Earth and the winds on Earth carrying the clouds…”
“…where the winds stretch the vaults of Heaven and have their station between Heaven and Earth. I saw the winds of Heaven which turn and bring the circumference of the Sun, and all the stars”

Following the paths of the angels he could see to ‘the ends of the Earth’, where there were “seven mountains of magnificent stones”, “three were towards the East, where there was the “region of heavenly fire”; there he saw “three rising and falling columns of fire”.

This sounds potentially comparable to the Pillars of Creation (in the M16 (Eagle) nebula, in the Serpens constellation) as well as one of the inner nebulae within the central regions of Orion; as pictures from the Spitzer and Hubble telescopes of NASA show, there are actual ‘star-nurseries’ where stars are created, in the Orion and the Horsehead Nebulae especially – regions of cosmic gas-clouds, where nascent stars are slowly drawn together by gravity, and eventually ignite into life in a process of nuclear fusion – making Orion indeed a ‘region of heavenly fire’, in addition to all its other ascribed meanings throughout history.

While noting the potential links between the Seraphim and Orion, mythology has over time also connected them with Sirius, the Pleiades, Cygnus, Ursa major and minor, and other regions of the night-sky…

Returning to Earth after his ‘timeless journey’ Enoch prepared the record of his experiences and wisdom received from the angels; he was the great-grandfather of Noah, and was warned, like Utnapishtim in the Sumerian tales, of the forthcoming Deluge. Accordingly Enoch wrote down the celestial knowledge he had received, so that it not be lost to mankind in the destruction of the Flood.


The King’s Chamber has a level ceiling, composed of, as mentioned, some of the heaviest weighing blocks in the entire pyramid; each block weighs between 40 and 80 tonnes. Above these are situated 5 rectangular chambers. The lowest chamber was discovered by a British engineer called Nathaniel Davison, searching in 1763.
The remaining four by the expedition led by Col. Vyse in 1823; hence the (outlandish) names of Davison’s, Wellington’s, Nelson’s, Lady Arbuthnot’s, and Campbell’s chambers*, although nowadays they are just called ‘relieving chambers’ – this because of the theory that their size and shape help divert downward pressures of the pyramid above away from the King’s Chamber. This theory has been questioned though, for the chambers may not actually perform such an architectural stress-bearing role.
A passage leads from the top of the South wall in the Grand Gallery straight through to Davison’s chamber.

  • apart from the lowest chamber which was discovered through its connecting passage to the upper wall of the Grand Gallery, the other 4 were ‘broached’ by the use of metal rods, and the use of gunpowder to blow a hole through the stone… an incredible approach which could quite easily have had unwarranted repercussions, considering the already existing cracks and fractures in the King’s Chamber floors, walls and ceiling beams… as well as the free-standing’ nature of 2 of the 4 walls in all the relieving chambers. No doubt it was considered an economical and time-saving method, when performed with the correct calculations. As mentioned, the chambers are stacked one upon another, for 5 chambers, which are then peaked by a gable roof of limestone. All the chambers are floored with horizontal beams of granite, rough but even-surfaced on the underside, and wholly unwrought on the ‘floor’ side, meaning they all have flat ceilings but wholly irregular floors (as can be seen in Smyth’s 1877 drawings). The successive floors are blocked apart on the N and S sides by blocks of granite in the lower, and limestone in the upper floors, the blocks being 2 or 3 feet high, and forming the N. and S. walls of the chambers.
    The E. and W. walls are “two immense limestone blocks wholly outside of, and independent of, all the granite floors and supporting blocks. Between these great walls all the chambers stand, unbonded and capable of yielding freely to settlement” (p.31), supporting the theory of loose-jointed walls and floors in places of ‘high stress’ regarding movement of the pyramid.

Petrie notes this free-standing design is used at several other pyramids, such as Saqqara, where “the end walls of East and West of the sepulchral chamber are wholly clear of the sides, and also clear of the sloping roof beams”. (p.31)

We have seen how sound/ vibrational frequencies are at the heart of reality, in terms of how matter resonates with the energies which create it, and characterize it. Also how these processes can be understood in terms of the proportions of notes in the Octave.
Even architecture, so important in its ramifications in the world, has been called ‘music set in stone’, for these very reasons. The concepts of harmonic consonance between various notes of the octave inter-connect through the related fields of architecture, physics, the human body, medicine, society, and the planets and stars of the Universe.
The first words of the Bible are a definition of this, that the different levels of reality all resonate at their own frequencies, and emanate from the highest dimensions of pure energy as waves… which then take many different forms of expression as it evolves downwards to material reality.
And these forms of shape and frequency are mathematically related to many of the main values of cosmic # – the roots of 2 3 and 5, the numbers 432 and 864, pi, phi, alpha, and many more. And many times the same noticeable values and proportions are designed into the structures of the Great Pyramid.

The diagram by Graham Hancock (left) shows the key 7 and 11 proportions in the design of the Great Pyramid.

SQUARE of – diam of 11 units /5.5 radius / cmf 44 units (11 x 4)
CIRCLE Equal cmf. has a diam of 14 units / 7 radius / cmf 44 units (14 x π).

  • if 2 more circles are drawn; CIRCLE inside SQ (circle A) diam of 11 units /5.5radius/ cmf 34.56 (equal sq.= 8.64 x 4 or 11 x π)
    ” outside SQ (circle C) diam. of 15.5 units / 7.77 radius / cmf 48.85 (22 x 2 x 1.111; and diameter = 11 x √2) A = 5.5 radius/ 11 diameter
    B = 7 radius/ 14 diameter
    C = 7.77 radius/ 15.54 diameter

And the square has a ‘radius’ of 5.5 units, so a side length/ diameter of 11 units… this gives it a perimeter of 44, equal to the circumference of circle B (14 x π = 44). While a square inside circle B, is equal to the circumference of circle A; as c.A = 11 diameter/ 34.56 circumference, then the inner square will have a base length of 8.64, and a ‘radius ‘ of 4.32; pointing to some of the connections and relationships between various cosmic numbers within the apparently simple symbol of the squared circle, as well as with the proportions of 7:11 incorporated significantly into the inner structures of the Great Pyramid.

The circles are in ratio to each other of A:B of 1:1.272 (√φ), B:C of 1: 1.11 (√1.23456789) and A:C of 1: 1.414 (√2), and similarly a series of squares inside, equal and outside a circle will be in ratio to each other of 1:111, 1:1.272, and 1; 1.414 in that order. So all these values point to how the square roots involved are related to that of Phi, and to the transcendent value Pi.

In fact 11/7 (ie 22/7 /2) = 1.571428571, which x 2 = 3.1428571 ; not exactly Pi (3.14159), and yet if squared, = 9.877551020 (very close to 9.87654321, which = 8 x 1.23456789), while 7/11 = 0.636, or 1/272/2 (ie √φ /2).
The designers of the Pyramid would surely have known these values all came out of the 7:11 proportions, and it seems highly likely this was their intention, to activate the various harmonics incorporated into the 7/11 ratios.

And among the harmonics related to 7 and 11 is one in particular which appears to hold considerable significance; 440. It may be remembered that the base of the pyramid measures 440 royal cubits, and the height 280 royal cubits. Embodying as such the 5.5/ 7/ 11/ 14/ 22/ 28/ 44 ratios under consideration. This relates to the Octave and its ratios in several ways, all related to the frequencies, or vibrational rates of sound; something considered to be at the heart of the universe and the creation by both the Hebrews in the Old Testament, and the Egyptians in their cosmologies.
Firstly it is worth looking at the modern piano keyboard. It has 7 octaves from A° to A⁷, of 84 notes (plus 4 others making 88 in total) from bottom to top. The bottom note is A° (A of the lowest octave); the highest A note is A⁷, and the top note of the piano is C⁸. Middle C⁴ defines the centre of the keyboard, and the note C is ‘do’ of every new octave. Incidentally, Middle C4 has a frequency of 261.65Hz, a value very close to φ² (2.618).

Five notes above Middle C4 is A4 – the note on the piano which is the Standard Tuning Reference note for the piano, from which all the other notes are derived. Now, the frequency of this note, A⁴, (ie the number of cycles of sound-waves it vibrates in one second), is 440 Hertz (Hz). Thus A³ = 220 Hz, A² = 110 Hz, A¹ = 55 Hz and A° = 27.5 Hz.
These values all appear very familiar…

And there may be a very good reason why these values are the most appropriate notes for this ‘family’ of the A notes; one of which originates in the nature of the human ear.

2.75 is the exact number of spirals within the cochlea situated within the inner ear, determining human frequency sensitivities!

How can this be important in any way? Well, if it is considered how we receive information from the external world (and thus perceive material reality) it is mainly through the senses, particularly those of sight and hearing; it is a basic fact that sensory stimuli arising in the outside world excite the atoms of the air around us, as light or sound etc – these energy waves are received by the sense organs, and turned into electrical signals, which the brain decodes, and turns into ‘perceptions’ of reality around us.

The process of hearing can be characterized as follows, therefore; sound waves – of various frequencies – are received through the structures of the outer ear, which corral and channel them via the (spiral) shape of the cochlea down into the middle/ inner ear, where they are converted via receptor groups of hairs within the eardrum’s liquid into ‘electrical’ signals. These are sent via neurotransmitters (electro-chemical impulses) along the nervous system, through the brainstem to the brain – whereupon they are further processed and ‘converted’ into the ‘sounds’ we hear/ perceive. The ear – like any sense organ has evolved over millions of years according to the physics of the dimensions we live in; meaning that the numbers and harmonics related to Pi’s components are a meaningful part of the geometry of reality – as Pi will no doubt likewise be an essential part of the physics of light and how life receives its energies.

The Labyrinth on the floor of the centre of the nave at Chartres cathedral; not a phi spiral, yet broadly resembling an Archimedean spiral…thus it is placed at the crossing of the vertical and horizontal axes, at what G.Strachan calls ‘the sacred centre, the seat of the Life-force’ of the edifice… (p.83, ‘Chartres; Sacred Geometry’).

The first point of note concerning the ear is that the cochlea is designed/ has evolved in a spiral structure along which sound-waves travel, in what is argued by some to be a Phi spiral – although not perfectly so.

Again this natural and harmonious form is found to be present at another key point in one of the processes of life, the same shape in the ear as spiral galaxies (such as ours) of 100,000 light years across.
And crucially, the number of spirals affects directly the frequency-range of sounds we can hear… The lowest part of the spiral is tuned to higher frequency sounds, and the top of the spiral the lowest sounds. So a dog, or cat, or bat have ears with approximately 4, or 5 (etc) spirals are able to hear much higher frequency sounds; hence a dog-whistle, or the echo-location of bats… while the human ear turns precisely 2.75 spirals (around its axis). We therefore have less sensitive hearing than most mammals etc. Yet as man is made ‘in the image of God’ or the cosmos, the human ear can be perhaps viewed as perfect in some way. That this value doubles up to 5.5, 11, 22, 44 etc is perhaps where the number of spirals becomes particularly meaningful. In fact this circumstance may provide some measure of understanding potentially as to the equivalence of these values in this chapter; especially attuned with the octave frequencies from A° (27.5Hz) the lowest note on the piano, up through to A⁷. The ‘synchronicity’ concerned thus runs from the ‘architecture’ of the human ear, to the inner proportions and measures of Giza and the Great Pyramid, to the frequencies of human music throughout the world. This is defined by the tuning of the piano since the 18th century to the same concordant and harmonic series of values around A⁴ at 440 Hz, this note being the key-note from which all others are derived. This is not the same as sound in its cosmic sense, ie as Pythagoras defined the vibrations at the heart of reality as the Music of the Spheres; and yet Pythagoras developed all his theories and mathematical understanding from his stringed instrument, on which he studied octaves especially; (this image of him is located on the stonework above the right bay of the royal portal entrance-way to Chartres cathedral). So there is much interesting synchronicity around the values of 2.75 and so on – and these coincidences often occur where there is an underlying reason for such circumstances to arise.

Now, this all said (!), there is modern debate around the tuning of the A above Middle C⁴; (incidentally, as can be seen, this note vibrates at 261.68Hz, (0.12% from = φ²), C⁵= 523.36 (~ERC .5236), and so on.
The debate is that some students of cosmic# subjects, having discovered the centrality of the 432 harmonic within the sun and sunlight, propose therefore that the A⁴ above mid-C⁴ (the Standard Tuning reference note of the piano at 440 Hz) should likewise be tuned to 432 Hz/sec, in order to align it, and the sounds/ wavelengths/ frequencies of the entire piano (and thus much of the music in the world) with the 432 harmonic and all the ways that it resonates through reality – from the Sun in particular.
Some claim they can tell the difference between pianos tuned to 432 from 440Hz, saying it is a more ‘resonant’ or ‘natural’ sound.
It is clearly a good idea to consider; but the ratios considered in this chapter give pause, in showing how 440 and related values may resonate with the 864/ 432 harmonic, as well as with Pi, Phi and so on. And the creators of the Great Pyramid, knowing the significance of 432, (making the perimeter length of the 4 sides almost exactly 1/43,200 the length of the Pole-Equator radius of the earth), almost certainly still preferred to choose 440 for some of the most important measures of the pyramid, such as the base length of each of the four sides of 440 cubits. Probably to ensure the integrity of the 11:7 ratios, seen to be a central feature of the pyramid’s measures.

Some degree of confirmation of the significance of the 440 harmonic comes from John Michell in ‘City of Revelation’, as well as Richard Heath (brother of Robin) in his book “Sacred Number and the Origins of Civilization”, who both examine the roots of metrology in antiquity; the curious fact discovered by Michell is as follows; the mean earth radius at the equator = 12⁶ x 7 feet (ie the distance from the centre of the Earth to the surface).
Also, as the earth is a little flattened at the poles, the polar radius is slightly less than the equatorial radius. In fact, if the polar radius is divided by 440, then multiplied by 441, the equatorial radius is gained. Notably, 441 = 21², while 440 = 22 x 20. So as Heath notes, the ratio between 21 (3 x 7) and 22 (2 x 11) is closely related to 22/7 or Pi; the transcendent value present at all levels of reality.
Heath and Michell assess that the English foot was at the heart of systems of metrology in Egypt in antiquity (or rather came down to England without adumbration from antiquity Egypt); Heath suggests that this system, and the relationship between the Egyptian cubit and the English foot, was of interest to Sir Isaac Newton in providing a framework to measure the polar radius of the planet, and thereafter the weight of Earth, in order to then be able to test mathematically his theories of gravitational pull with regard to the Moon. He makes note that the English foot of all the measures of the historical world appeared to unlock some of the secrets of the builders of the Pyramids; for instance the series of measurements such as the 12⁶ x 7 feet of Earth’s mean earth radius at the equator (giving 3,958.7 miles to 3,960 miles official). John Greaves appears to have known the significance of this too when he visited Giza in 1645-6; he inscribed on the walls of the King’s Chamber the English foot’s length, with the words “To be observed by all nations” (Heath, p64)!

Heath goes on; “In this ancient model the mean Earth (equatorial) radius divides by 7, leaving a unit of 12⁶ feet. Remembering that 22/7 is the simplest accurate approximation of Pi, and noting that a radius is half the diameter, then the circumference of the earth is 12⁶ x 44 feet round. This is the same as the perimeter of a square with side 11 x 12⁶ feet long.
The mean earth was considered symbolically as being the essence of Earth, and as such it is also portrayed as the four-gated square city. Square mandalas, the City of Zion, Jerusalem and other structures represent the round earth as a square material building. Circular representations relate instead to eternity for ideas about eternity emerge from the nature of planetary cycles of orbit and rotation, which repeat endlessly
”. (op cit, p.45-6)

Another mathematical relationship indicative of why the values of 27.5, 55, 110 etc are so significant comes from the simple equation 8.64 / π = 2.75… relating the various harmonics to the basic cos# value representative of the Sun, (as well as time in the number of seconds in a day). So as can be inferred from this, the 440 harmonic in its uniting of some of the key ratios at its heart is an intrinsic expression of the geometric nature of Earth’s measures as related to Pi within material reality, in particular with regard to light, and the solar system. . . this begins to point to why the Egyptians encoded within Giza and the Great Pyramid the ratios of 7:11, the geometries of the squared circle, and the value of 440, as the measure of the base of the Great Pyramid in royal cubits (ie 756 feet) is 1/7th of a mile, while the height of 280 cubits, which ~480 feet, is thus 1/11 of a mile.

Incidentally, spirals play a central part in so many aspects of both reality, and the processes of organic life. The word itself holds deep connections within language – the stem of the word ‘spiral’ has the following words or concepts attached to it;

The number of words which have their roots in the concept of the spiral, can be seen to be a broad swathe within English, Romance and Germanic languages reaching back to Latin, and before that Greek and possibly all the way back to Proto-Indo-European in the 3rd millennium Bce.
So in relation to the self, a person lives every moment of his or her life with the body performing respiration ; breathing, something which in its rhythms unites all living beings, indeed eastern philosophy asserts that ‘life is breath’, (a statement which goes far beyond the obvious), so that all levels of organic life, indeed of the Ray of Creation have their own rhythm of ‘breathing’ within time which defines their essence. The body lives within the diurnal pattern of day and night which virtually all organic life is adjusted to, working in the day, and resting at night to process the energies drawn from the world, plus those created by the body’s exertions of the preceding day; the more the body is in the habit of doing (in the head, heart or stomach centres or any combinations thereof), the higher the levels of like energies which it will be accustomed to preparing for the following day (with room for changes and extra efforts also, obviously). So work is an integral part of the human experience, something told to Adam when he and Eve were exiled from Eden; “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread” (Genesis4.19). Which makes perspiration a central part of life too, as one of the many chemical and energetic processes concerned with regulating and balancing the body’s various systems as it utilises the energies available for life – creating in this way future energies also, to prove that we are essentially dynamos in energetic terms. Another central aspect of the self is how life and reality affect and shape our growth as individuals by showing us the limitations of what we are at present; openness to new experiences and information, showing the self new perspectives and possibilities not seen before, can be referred to as inspiration. And can be the result of one’s own actions, inner-processes etc, or can result from external, often ‘higher’ sources. . . how often – or rarely – this kind of event happen in an individual’s life depend on many circumstances – but it is a positive factor in life, almost by definition.
In studying this question of the self’s receptivity to influxes of ‘life’ or awareness of new possibilities we experience positive emotions too – something which can transform a seemingly unalterable situation or even entire life as it is lived. This is what Gurdjieff calls ‘hope’, resulting from both the actions of others who have kind intentions, or from the self through progress or determination, (or even from ‘the heavens’ according to religious figures throughout history); the French have the word ‘espere’ for hope, bringing further positive meanings to the ‘spiral’ related cognates.
In wider terms the planet we live on, and all planets and suns, although circular in shape are flattened at the poles, making them oblate spheroids, and orbit around each other in circular paths (actually oval in nature, in what are called ellipsical spheroids). Pythagoras and his school, rooted in both Greek and Babylonian streams of thought, developed theories of the ‘musical’ nature of reality in the universe, and within the atom, relating everything that exists within what he called the ‘music of the spheres’. . .the ‘notes’ or ‘tones’ given out by celestial bodies resulting from the vibrational rate of their energies and matter, and reflecting their place within the whole. Sphere as a word comes from the Anglo-French espiere, Latin spera, and Greek sphaira, meaning globe, or ball, ie circle.
Spirals are of course circles which progress forwards, or ‘upwards’ etc ie are three-dimensional circles. . .the likelihood that the two words are connected is high therefore, even while stating that circle stems fro the Latin circus and Greek kirkos, and PIE *kikro, itself from the root sker, meaning to turn or bend; here we have the likely conjunction of circle and sphere and spiral; for spiral does indeed stem from Latin spiralis, (a fixed centre, coiling), Greek speira (a winding, coil, twist), from the PIE sper-ya, or sper, to turn or twist (around a centre or axis). . . it is worth keeping in mind that expressions of higher consciousness in antiquity were most often interested in geometric and harmonic relations within the cosmos and the Earth, and were much at the heart of the relevant civilizations’ buildings, and religions and sciences.
The word for the apex of churches, the spire, is similarly related, although many etymologists prefer to look at the cognates of ‘spear’ for the original source-word for the spire. . . but in terms of the ‘flow of energies’ the spire does stand in the same wisdom tradition that examines the interplay of the forces of the earth, humanity, and the skies, or heavens. So as in Traditional Chinese Martial Arts, which equates many energies of life as flowing upwards through organic matter in spirals (in ivy for instance, a staple of traditional works of art in the East), and likewise up through the legs and trunk of the human also. For energy is considered to spiral through the leg from the soles of the feet upwards into the body, where it enters the spiral, or circular flow of energies called the Microcosmic Orbit.

As if in confirmation that the cosmos is indeed highly prone to expressing its energies and matter within circles and spirals – or to perhaps just show the ubiquity of such simple but mathematically and energetically effective patterns within reality – the Milky Way itself, the galaxy we live within, as wide as 100,000 light-years across (ie 100,000 x 6,000 billion miles!) is shaped like a broad disc, with four or five spiral arms extending from the centre as its gravitational energies have turned the disc in rotational circles. So the solar system is situated approximately 26,000 light years from the centre of the galaxy (fortunately) on what is called the Orion Arm. Incidentally, as we note in the Sun:Earth:Moon section, our distance from the galactic centre is identical to the period it takes the Sun to orbit the background constellations of the zodiac when viewed from earth’s perspective – the Precession cycle, or ‘Great Year’ of 25,920 years, consisting of the twelve houses of the zodiac circled around the Earth. Each twelfth of the circle – 30° of 360° – is occupied by one house of the Zodiac, meaning that each twelfth of the 25,920 year cycle, ie 2160 years, constitutes a zodiacal Age; such as the age of Aquarius, which is replacing that of Pisces which came in with the birth of Jesus. So light from the centre of our galaxy takes exactly one Great Year – one turn of the Sun’s circle in the heavens – to reach us, a striking example of the interactions the (gear-) wheels of the various dimensions display within the Ray of Creation, (as proposed by Ouspensy and Gurdjieff, and many others).

Of the numerous examples of how Phi spirals are a central aspect of reality, in both material and energetic terms, are the patterns of weather systems; how water moves under the action of gravity; how hair grows outwards from the crown of the head; the spiral whorls present upon each finger’s print; the digestive systems of animals with high-volume food intakes; the ears of mammals, birds, and reptiles as mentioned; the diving patterns of hunting seals; the shells of sea-creatures such as Nautilus shells; the spirals of growth patterns in plants such as sunflower heads, pine-cones, pineapples, cacti, acorn-cups, etcetera; and as stated, the spiral galaxies such as our own. So in conclusion we may reflect that the following words have meanings associated with the spiral;

Hope – aspire – work (perspire) – breathe – worship – the heavens – spirit.

Our last post-script in this section comes from the fields of England, in particular those of rural Wiltshire, home to thousands of Neolithic monuments built from the same epoch on as the pyramids of Giza, to what is believed by some to be a druidic programme of building that spanned the country, if not the continent of Europe and wider.
The various stone circles, lines, barrows, monoliths, and megalithic monuments such as Stonehenge, Avebury circle, Silbury Hill, and so on, served as religious centres of worship, of honouring past generations, and as complex centres designed to make long-term observations of the stars and planets, the Sun and the Moon, in their passage across the skies throughout the year. And moreover, in their aims of studying the night-skies mathematically, as well as ‘religiously’, they represented centres of cosmic consciousness, and connection with the universe, for mankind to find its place, collectively and individually, among the stars.

As such, while on a much smaller scale, they may be said to fulfil the same aims and functions as many of the pyramids and temples of antiquity. And like Giza, they were sited with close attention to the geographic and geometric importance of each site within the global network, or field, rather as acupuncture pins on a map of the body’s meridians. This has had the fortunate effect, in the respect for these sites throughout the ages, of ensuring that the great majority of the major nodes, or cross-over points on the global energetic field, have never been built over, by and large.
So it is a positive circumstance that sees a link between the message of the Neolithic sites from that era, and of certainly strange (and unexplained) events occurring today; for having noted already the similarities between the Great Pyramid, and Silbury Hill, in Wiltshire England, in July 2009 a crop-circle appeared overnight in a field located near to West Kennet Long-barrow, the Sanctuary, the Avenue 1.5 mile long double row of standing stones leading to Avebury circle, and to Silbury Hill; all within a ‘triangular’ area of around 1.5 miles each side. The crop circle dates to 27.6.2009 according to the (unreliable!) online data-bases, and represents a ‘masonic temple’ to some. . .

(There have been so many of these phenomenon within the county of Wiltshire, alongside neolithic sites and edifices as to give strong indication that this broad area of south-western England holds some great significance in energetic terms). So how can this ‘temple with a chequered floor’ as it has been labelled be related to the Great Pyramid?
Bearing in mind that the Pyramid is at 30°N and has an angle of slope of 51.84°, whereas Silbury Hill, the largest man-made Neolithic hill in Europe, shaped much like a pyramid, is at 51.41°N and has an angle of 30°, it would seem there are some significant connections between the two. A relationship which curiously unites the consciousness of the Neolithic/ Druid builders of the nation-wide network of sacred sites linked by lines of force through the landscape, (the ‘old straight tracks’ or ‘ley-lines’), with that of the designers of the Egyptian sites and pyramids – themselves placed at precise geometric points on the Earth’s surface, for example on the 30th parallel North… with both ‘eras’ of building beginning at around the same point in time, circa 3500 – 3000 Bce. Other points of similarity in structure exist; for example, as with the Great Pyramid, Silbury Hill has a flattened apex – and while the Great Pyramid’s apex resulted from degradation and depredations, the peak of the pyramid, the Capstone was differentiated by a different structure/ material, and was symbolised mythologically as the benben stone, as well as being referred to in myth by the loss of Osiris of his male organ (at the hands of Set). Both were closely concerned with observations and measurements of the heavens, to understand the cosmic cycles of the stars and the Sun and Moon and their effects upon the Earth. Astronomy, mathematics, geometry, architecture and geomancy were thus subjects which were at the heart of the builders of Egypt’s and neolithic Britain’s monuments.
There are other points of significance in terms of where on the planet’s surface the two are situated; especially as Silbury is located less than a mile from a key point of the 366 mile long Michael and Mary leyline, the longest possible straight line in England – one of three national lines which cross the nation in the hexagonal geometries of the cube, and equilateral triangle. (See the Ley-lines of England section for more on this. And when Giza is taken as the Prime Meridian of the world, at the centre of the land-masses of the continents, relationships to places in Britain such as Didcot and Harwell and Little Wittenham (in Oxford), located at the centre of England’s energy lines are broadly 32.4° west of Giza, ie 1/11.111 of the world’s circumference, indicating many of neolithic England’s foremost and central sites were oriented with consciousness of the energy fields of the Earth, as related to the central point at Giza). Oxford itself is at precisely 51.74-6°N, the angle of the Great Pyramid, and 1.26°W of Greenwich, which makes it 32.38° west of Giza; 360 / 32.38 = 11.11 8…!

It may also be considered that the crop circle is not meant to be a chequered floor, but instead, if rotated 90 degrees, a somewhat different picture. . . Now it may be interpreted as – the Grand Gallery, within the Great Pyramid, comprising the steps, the overhanging ‘stepped’ ceiling, and the layered wall on the right which represents the Law of Seven, or the Octave; a representation which like the Grand Gallery in its measures and its placing within the edifice points to some of the Pyramid’s foremost symbolic meanings. Additionally, with the picture turned this way, it may be interpreted as a pyramid with ‘internal’ steps made visible; much like the shape of the courses of the Great Pyramid which experts assess to be built as a ‘stepped-pyramid’ beneath the outer stone courses. Silbury hill too is believed by archeologists to have been probably built as a ‘stepped’ hill, level by level.
The capstone is flattened just a little in the crop-circle too, as at Giza and Silbury, possibly in both cases for the performance of astronomical observations throughout antiquity, or for more ‘esoteric’ reasons such as energy projection upwards. And lastly, the crop-circle notably manages to combine both the square and a circle, something we have shown to be central in sacred architecture throughout history, and particularly at Giza. As noted earlier, a square of radius 5.5/ diameter 11 units will fit exactly within a circle of radius 7.77 units, and be equal in perimeter (44 units) to a circle of 7 units radius/ 14 units diameter. A circle of 11 units diameter ie which fits within the square of equal radius/diameter, will have a circumference of 34.56 units…and so on, to highlight the significance of the squared circle.

To conclude this lengthy section in a brief summary, it is quite clear that the proportions – and measures, in royal cubits – of Giza, and the Great Pyramid, (via the square and circle), are all related to the key values of Pi and Phi, and the transcendental-roots, as well as being in ratios of 5.5, 7, (7.77), 11,14, 22, 28, 44, 88, 110, 220, 330, 440 – and so on.
These cos# values and principles are at the heart of the design of the complex, because they are inherently built into the sizes and relationships of the Sun and Earth and Moon and planets; as well as sunlight, and the sphere of the earth as divided by 360 degrees; and the natural inherent abilities of the organic world, especially the human body, to assimilate and grow with these energetic frequencies in particular…
So this may well be the purpose of the entire complex; not just to provide an ‘book in stone’ for humanity’s benefit, but to transform the life giving energies of the solar system in particular, at a key energy point on the earth’s surface. The task for the future must surely be to protect and care for it – and all these amazing monuments around the world from a different time – as well as to learn the lessons it has encapsulated within its stones for over five millennia.

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